# CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS

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1 CHAPTER THREE FLUID MECHANICS 3.1. Measurement of Pressure Drop for Flow through Different Geometries 3.. Determination of Operating Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump 3.3. Energy Losses in Pipes under Different Flow Conditions

2 3.1. MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE DROP FOR FLOW THROUGH DIFFERENT GEOMETRIES Keywords: Pressure loss, straight pipe, pipe bend, orifice meter, venturi meter. Before the experiment: Read the booklet carefully. Be aware of the safety precautions Aim To investigate the variations in fluid pressure for flow through straight pipes, pipe bends, orifice and venturi meters Theory In chemical engineering operations, fluids are conveyed through pipelines in which viscous actions lead to friction between the fluid and the pipe wall. When a fluid flows along a pipe, friction between the fluid and the pipe wall causes a loss of energy. This energy loss shows itself as a progressive fall in pressure along the pipe and varies with the rate of the flow. [1] When a fluid is moving in a closed channel such as a pipe two types of flow can be occurred such as laminar and turbulent flow. At low velocities, fluid is moving without lateral mixing and there is no sign of mixing such as eddies or swirl. This type of flow regime is called laminar flow. On the other hand, at higher velocities lateral mixing occurs with eddies and swirls. This type of flow regime is called turbulent flow. [] The regime of the flow can be predicted using the Reynolds number [3]. The equation that is used to calculate Reynolds number is shown below: where, Re: Reynolds number D: inside diameter, m u: mean velocity, m/s : density of fluid, kg/m 3 μ: viscosity of the fluid, kg/m s Re = Duρ μ (3.1.1)

3 3 Bernoulli equation can be applied to find the relation between the velocity difference and the pressure loss for pipes and fittings, [4] P ρ + g z + u + W + F = 0 (3.1.) where, P: pressure drop, Pa g: gravitational acceleration, m/s W: work done or to the system, J F: frictional dissipation, J z: elevation, m Pressure Drop in Straight Pipes The head loss due to friction in straight pipe can be calculated by the expression [5]: where P st = f Lu ρ D P st : pressure drop for straight pipe, Pa D: diameter of pipe, m f: friction factor L: length of pipe, m (3.1.3) Pressure Drop in Smooth and Sharp Bends The change of direction forced on a fluid when it negotiates a bend produces turbulence in the fluid and a consequent loss of energy. The net loss in pressure is greater than that for the same length of straight pipes. Abrupt changes of direction produce greater turbulence and larger energy losses than do smoothly contoured changes. The relationship between pressure drop and the velocity can be derived by using the energy balance and the following equation shows the relation in smooth bend and sharp bends with a constant, KL: [5] P bend = K Lρu (3.1.4)

4 4 where, P bend : pressure drop for sharp and smooth bends, Pa KL: dimensionless factor for sharp and smooth bends Pressure Drop through a Venturi Meter Venturi meter consists of a throttling section which leads to pressure drop due to the turbulence created at this section. Fluid velocity can be measured by using Bernoulli equation and equation of continuity in order to calculate the pressure loss through the pipe. A straight line relation exists between the flow rate and the square root of the pressure drop value, and this principle is utilized in the design of venturi meter [6]. Discharge coefficient of venturi meter (Cv) is inserted into the Bernoulli equation for u term, and turned into mean velocity to obtain the following relationship [5], where P venturi : pressure drop for venturi meter, Pa P venturi = ρu m (1 β 4 ) C v (3.1.5) β: dimensionless number relating the diameter of the throttling section of venturi and inside diameter of the pipe Pressure Drop through an Orifice Meter An orifice meter consists of a circular disk with a central hole which is bolted between the flanges on two sections of pipe. Bernoulli s equation is applied to the fluid as it flows through the orifice of a reduced area because it is found experimentally that a contracting stream is relatively stable, so that frictional dissipation can be ignored, especially over a short distances. As a result, as the velocity of the fluid increases, the pressure will decrease. Applying the mass balance and Bernoulli equation (energy balance), one can get a relation giving the pressure drop through the orifice meter as; [4] where P orifice : pressure drop for orifice meter, Pa P orifice = ρu m (1 β 4 ) C o (3.1.6) β: dimensionless number relating the diameter of the throttling section of orifice and inside diameter of the pipe. Co: discharge coefficient of orifice meter (which can be obtained from discharge coefficient for orifice plates [4])

5 5 Various pipe fittings can be implemented on straight pipes; such as venture meter, orifice meter as well as smooth and sharp bends. Fluid flow through pipes and fittings can be investigated with respect to changing liquid flow rate and the effect can be observed via pressure drop Experimental Setup The apparatus used in this experiment is shown in Figure It consists of 14 main parts Figure The fluid flow unit. 1. Pump. Flexible joint 3. Water pressure gauge 4. Liquid flowmeter 5. Vent valve 6. Cylindrical vessel (50 L) 7. Venturi-meter 8. Orifice-meter 9. Make-up joint 10. Straight pipe section 11. Various pipe fittings 1. Gate valve 13. Globe valve 14. Drain valve

6 Procedure 1. Be sure that all isolation valves are open.. Set the control valve to 440 gal/h. 3. Report the readings on all water manometers connected to the pressure tappings. 4. Select the pipe line on which the experiment will be performed by turning off the isolation valves for all other horizontal pipe runs. 5. Check that isolating valve on the selected pipe run is fully open. 6. Report the reading on the selected pipe line from the water manometer. 7. Open all isolation valves. Repeat Steps 4-6 for the remaining pipe lines. 8. Operate the control valve from gal/h and note manometer readings for each case. 9. With the same flow rates, repeat the experiment once more to avoid vague data. 10.Turn off the flow control valve Report Objectives 1. Show the variation of friction loss with respect to flow rate. Calculate theoretical and experimental losses.. For the smooth and sharp bends, update KL values depending on your experimental data. 3. Draw graphs for experimental and theoretical pressure drop values with respect to volumetric flow rate to show the effect of flow rate 4. Explain your conclusions. 5. Derive all equations in Appendix. Safety Issues: Before starting the experiment, be sure to open all the water valves. Wear goggles in order to prevent water splash from discharge at point 5 in the apparatus. Prevent closing all the valves at the same time during the experiment.

7 7 References 1. McCabe, W. L. and J. C. Smith, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, nd edition, McGraw- Hill International Book Company, Sinnott R. K., J. M. Coulson and J. F. Richardson, Chemical Engineering, An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Design, Pergamon Press, Vol. 6, Bennett, C. O. and J. E. Myers, Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer, 3 rd edition, McGraw-Hill International Book Company, Tokyo, Wilkes, J. O., Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Geankoplis, C. J., Transport Processes and Separation Processes Principles, 4 th edition, Prentice Hall, Munson, B. R., F. D. Young and T. H. Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 4 th edition, Wiley, New York, 00. Appendix Table A.1. List of Parameters Diameter of straight pipe (10-4 m) 54 Length of pipe (10 - m) 180 Diameter of venturi meter throat (10 - m) Diameter of orifice meter throat (10 - m) 53 Diameter of pipe with orifice and venturi meter (10 - m) 381 Area (straight pipe) (10-6 m ) 510 Area (venturi) (10-6 m ) 160 Area (orifice) (10-6 m ) 500 Density (kg/m 3 ) 998. Cv 1.37 β (venturi) (10-3 ) 380 β (orifice) (10-3 ) 664 KL (smooth bend) (10-3 ) 800 KL (sharp bend) (10 - ) 60 Area (smooth bend) (10-6 m ) 48 Area (sharp bend) (10-6 m ) 48

8 8 3.. DETERMINATION OF OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Keywords: Pump, NPSH, cavitation. Before the experiment: Read the booklet carefully. Be aware of the safety precautions Aim To determine the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) of a centrifugal pump theoretically and experimentally, and also to investigate the operating curve of the pump Theory The operating characteristics of a particular centrifugal pump are most conveniently given in the form of curves of discharge head developed against delivery for various running speeds and throughputs. The actual head developed is always less than the theoretical one for a number of reasons. The total discharge head of a pump, hd, is defined as the pressure at the outlet of the pump plus the velocity head at point of attachment of the gauge, and is given by [1]: h d = h dg + atm + u g (3..1) where hd : total discharge head, m of liquid hdg : gauge reading at discharge outlet of pump, m of liquid atm : barometric pressure, m of liquid u : velocity at outlet of pump, m/sec g : gravitational constant, m/sec hdg is measured from the pressure gauge on the outlet side of the pump. A height correction is necessary due to the position of the gauge above or below the impeller level. Net Positive Suction Head is defined as the amount by which the absolute pressure of the suction point of the pump exceeds the vapor pressure of the liquid being pumped, at the operating temperature. For all pumps, there is a minimum value for the NPSH. Below this value, the vapor pressure of the liquid begins to exceed the suction pressure causing bubbles of vapor to form in the body of the pump. This phenomenon is known as cavitation and is usually accompanied by a loss of

9 9 efficiency and an increase in noise. For this reason minimum values of NPSH are important and are usually specified by pump manufacturers. NPSH can be calculated using []: NPSH = P in P vap (3..) where Pin : Pressure at the pump inlet, N/m3 Pvap : Vapor pressure of the liquid, N/m3 The pressure at the pump inlet is made up of several pressures including the static head of liquid from pump inlet to the liquid surface, external pressure above liquid, velocity head i.e. the head developed, and head due to friction losses in the suction pipework []. Pressure at the pump inlet can be calculated theoretically from Bernoulli's equation [1], P g z u g P1 g z 1 u1 g F g (3..3) where P : pressure, N/m : density of the liquid, kg/m 3 u : velocity, m/sec z : height, m F : friction losses in pipe works g : gravitational constant, m/sec Subscripts 1 and refer to pump inlet and to surface of liquid reservoir, respectively. By applying the above equation and considering the fact that the height of the liquid (z) in the reservoir stays constant and the velocity at the liquid surface (u) is zero, [1] Then P1 g P g z z 1 u1 g F g (3..4) The head due to friction losses in the inlet pipework can be calculated from [1],

10 10 F = f F u L D (3..5) where ff : Fanning friction factor which has correlations with the Reynold's number u : velocity at the inlet of pump, m/sec g : gravitational constant, m/sec L : Length of pipe-corrected to include the effects of bends, elbows, valves, reducers etc., m D : diameter at the inlet and/or outlet, m For hydraulically smooth surfaces, in which the pipe wall roughness is not important, the fanning friction factor is calculated by using the Blasius equation, which provides a correlation for the experimental observations of turbulent flows with Reynolds numbers below 100,000 [1]. 1/ 4 f Re F (3..6) Piping installations mostly include a variety of auxiliary hardware such as valves and elbows. Additional turbulence and frictional dissipation is created by these fittings due to the course change from a straight line, which results in additional pressure drop comparable to that of the pipeline itself. The effect of the fittings is introduced in the calculation of the pressure drops simply recognizing that additional pressure drop caused by the fitting would be produced by a certain length of pipe. Therefore, the contribution of the fitting is also added into the length of pipe, based on the equivalent length (L/De) to the fitting [1]. The pressure at the inlet of the pump may be calculated through Bernoulli equation along with the considerations mentioned above. This allows theoretical NPSH calculation and its comparison with the experimental one. The operating curve and NPSH values enable to evaluate the working conditions for the centrifugal pump.

11 Experimental Setup The apparatus used in this experiment is shown in Figure Figure Pump test unit apparatus. 1. Manometer (open to atmosphere) 6. Valves. Pump 7. Elbow 3. Barometer (water pressure gauge) 8. Spherical buffer vessel 4. Bellows 9. Control valve 5. Flowmeter 10. Liquid feed or vacuum connection Procedure 1. Get the help of the person in charge to turn on the pump.. Open the flow meter control valve slowly to give a scale reading of approximately 1/5th full scale value. 3. Allow the unit to settle down for a few minutes. Record flow meter reading, inlet pressure, and outlet pressure. 4. Repeat the experiment for increments of 1/5th full scale value of the flow meter from to maximum throughput.

12 1 5. Measure the difference between the liquid level in spherical vessel and the center line of the pump. 6. Repeat the experiment. Safety Issues: Do not attempt to turn on the pump on your own, get the help of the person in charge. During the experiment, do not set the flow to the zero scale reading for any reason. At the end of the experiment, be sure that the pump is turned off Report Objectives 1. Calculate total discharge head for each flow rate, and draw discharge head vs. flow rate graph. (Note that the conversion of the flow rate scale reading is done as follows: W(lt/min)=3.317R(scale reading)+8.44.). Calculate NPSH experimentally. 3. Calculate NPSH theoretically. (Note that there is an open gate valve, 4:1 contraction, and a 90 o elbow between the reservoir and the pump inlet.) 4. Comment on the hd vs flow rate graph. 5. Discuss the effects of change in flow rate on these characteristics. References 1. Wilkes, J. O., Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, nd edition, Prentice Hall, Sinnott R. K., Chemical Engineering Design, 3 rd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.

13 ENERGY LOSSES IN PIPES UNDER DIFFERENT FLOW CONDITIONS Keywords: Head loss, flow in pipes, friction in pipes. Before the experiment: Read the booklet carefully. Be aware of the safety issues. See your TA Aim To investigate the head loss due to friction in the flow of water through a pipe and to determine the associated friction factor over a range of flow rates for both laminar and turbulent flows Theory For incompressible, Newtonian, isothermal fluids, the energy balance between two points in continuous flow can be described by the Generalized Bernoulli s Equation (Wilkes, 006): ( u m ) + g z + ( P ρ ) + w + F = 0 (3.3.1) Where, u m denotes mean velocity of fluid along the pipe, g is gravitational acceleration, z is elevation, P is pressure, ρ is density, w is work on the system and Fis frictional dissipation. Considering constant pipe diameter and no work term, the equation simplifies to: g z + ( P ρ ) + F = 0 (3.3.) In this case, the head loss and gain of a system is therefore dependent on elevation change and pressure difference between two points. Head loss is caused by frictional dissipation, defined as F g, and denoted as h: h = z + ( P ρg ) = F g ) (3.3.3) and the Fanning friction factor, f F, is related to the head-loss by the equation:

14 14 h = F g = f Fu m L gd (3.3.4) Where L denotes length of pipe between two measurement points and D denotes pipe diameter. The theoretical result for laminar flow is given as follows (Wilkes, 006): f F = 16 Re (3.3.5) where Re = Reynolds number and is given by: Re = ρ u md μ = u md ν (3.3.6) and ν is the kinematic viscosity, which is ratio of viscosity over density of fluid. For turbulent regime the roughness of pipe itself comes into play. Colebrook and White equation can be used to estimate fanning friction factor for turbulence. This correlation is available as a graph: Figure Fanning friction factor vs. Reynolds number [1].

15 15 In the experiment, investigation of pressure drop and head loss due to frictional losses will be made in both laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Table Kinematic viscosity of water at atmospheric pressure. Temperature ( ) Kinematic Viscosity (m /s 10-6 ) Temperature ( ) Kinematic Viscosity (m /s 10-6 ) Experimental Setup Figure The experimental apparatus.

16 16 Other than the main apparatus, a stopwatch to allow us to determine the flow rate of water, a thermometer to measure the temperature of the water and a measuring cylinder for measuring flow rates are all needed Procedure Setting-up for high flow rates The test rig outlet tube must be held by a clamp to ensure that the outflow point is firmly fixed. This should be above the bench collection tank and should allow enough space for insertion of the measuring cylinder. Join the test rig inlet pipe to the hydraulic bench flow connector with the pump turned off. Close the bench gate-valve, open the test rig flow control valve fully and start the pump. Now open the gate valve progressively and run the system until all air is purged. Open the Hoffman clamps and purge any air from the two bleed points at the top of the Hg manometer. Setting up for low flow rates (using the header tank) Attach a Hoffman clamp to each of the two manometer connecting tubes and close them off. With the system fully purged of air, close the bench valve, stop the pump, close the outflow valve and remove Hoffman clamps from the water manometer connections. Disconnect test section supply tube and hold high to keep it liquid filled. Connect bench supply tube to header tank inflow, run pump and open bench valve to allow flow. When outflow occurs from header tank snap connector, attach test section supply tube to it, ensuring no air entrapped. When outflow occurs from header tank overflow, fully open the outflow control valve. Slowly open air vents at top of water manometer and allow air to enter until manometer levels reach convenient height, then close air vent. If required, further control of levels can be achieved by use of hand-pump to raise manometer air pressure. Taking a Set of Results Running high flow rate tests Apply a Hoffman clamp to each of the water manometer connection tubes (essential to prevent a flow path parallel to the test section). Close the test rig flow control valve and take a zero flow reading from the Hg manometer, (may not be zero because of contamination of Hg and/or tube wall).

17 17 With the flow control valve fully open, measure the head loss h Hg shown by the manometer. Determine the flow rate by timed collection and measure the temperature of the collected fluid. The Kinematic Viscosity of Water at Atmospheric Pressure can then be determined from the table. Repeat this procedure using at least nine flow rates; the lowest to give h Hg = 30mm Hg, approximately. Running low flow rate tests Repeat procedure given above but using water manometer throughout. With the flow control valve fully open, measure the head loss h shown by the manometer. Determine the flow rate by timed collection and measure the temperature of the collected fluid. The Kinematic Viscosity of Water at Atmospheric Pressure can then be determined from the table provided in this help text. Obtain data for at least eight flow rates, the lowest to give h = 30mm, approximately. Safety Issues: No chemicals are required. Make sure to unplug the device after completing the experiment Report Objectives 1. Plot f versus Re from experimental data.. Plot ln(f) versus ln(re). 3. Plot ln( h) vs ln (u m ) 4. Identify the laminar and turbulent flow regimes, and determine the critical Reynolds Number. 5. Assuming a relationship of the form f = KRe n calculate these unknown values from the graphs you have plotted and compare these with the accepted values shown in the theory section. 6. What is the dependence of head loss upon flow rate in the laminar and turbulent regions of flow? References 1. Wilkes, J. O., Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, nd edition, Prentice Hall, 006.

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