# Transient Response of a Second-Order System

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1 Transient Response of a Second-Order System ECEN 830 Spring Introduction In connection with this experiment, you are selecting the gains in your feedback loop to obtain a well-behaved closed-loop response (from the reference voltage to the shaft speed). The transfer function of this response contains two poles, which can be real or complex. This document derives the step response of the general second-order step response in detail, using partial fraction expansion as necessary.. Transient response of the general second-order system Consider a circuit having the following second-order transfer function H(s): (s) v in (s) = H(s) = 1+ζ s ω 0 where, ζ, and ω 0 are constants that depend on the circuit element values K, R, C, etc. (For our experiment, v in is the speed reference voltage v ref, and is the wheel speed ω) In the case of a passive circuit containing real positive inductor, capacitor, and resistor values, the parameters ζ and ω 0 are positive real numbers. The constants, ζ, and ω 0 are found by comparing Eq. (1) with the actual transfer function of the circuit. It is common practice to measure the transient response of the circuit using a unit step function u(t) as an input test signal: v in (t) = (1 V) u(t) (1) ()

2 ECEN 830 The initial conditions in the circuit are set to zero, and the output voltage waveform is measured. This test approximates the conditions of transients often encountered in actual operation. It is usually desired that the output voltage waveform be an accurate reproduction of the input (i.e., also a step function). However, the observed output voltage waveform of the second order system deviates from a step function because it exhibits ringing, overshoot, and nonzero rise time. Hence, we might try to select the component values such that the ringing, overshoot, and rise time are minimized. The output voltage waveform (t) can be found using the Laplace transform. The transform of the input voltage is v in (s)= (3) The Laplace transform of the output voltage is equal to the input v in (s) multiplied by the transfer function H(s): (s) =H(s) v in (s)= 1+ζ s ω 0 The inverse transform is found via partial fraction expansion. The roots of the denominator of (s) occur at s = 0 and (by use of the quadratic formula) at s 1, s = ζω 0 ± ω 0 ζ 1 (5) Three cases occur: ζ > 1. The roots s 1 and s are real. This is called the overdamped case. ζ = 1. The roots s 1 and s are real and repeated: s 1 = s = ζω 0. This case is called critically damped. ζ < 1. The roots s 1 and s are complex, and can be written s 1, s = ζω 0 ± jω 0 1 ζ (6) This is called the underdamped case. (4)

3 ECEN 830 Figure illustrates how the positions of Im (s) the roots, or poles, vary with ζ. For ζ =, there are real poles at s = 0 and at s =. As ζ decreases from to 1, these real poles move towards each other j 0 j 0 1 until, at ζ = 1, they both occur at s = ω 0. Further decreasing ζ causes the poles to become complex conjugates as 0 0 Re (s) given by Eq. (6). Figure 3 illustrates how the poles then move around a circle of radius ω 0 until, at ζ = 0, the poles have zero real parts and lie on the j 0 j 0 1 Fig. 3. For 0 ζ < 1, the complex conjugate poles imaginary axis. Figure is called a root lie on a circle of radius ω 0. locus diagram, because it illustrates how the roots of the denominator polynomial of H(s) move in the complex plane as the parameter ζ is varied between 0 and. Several other cases can be defined that are normally not useful in practical engineering systems. When ζ = 0, the roots have zero real parts. This is called the undamped case, and the output voltage waveform is sinusoidal. The transient excited by the step input does not decay for large t. When ζ < 0, the roots have positive real parts and lie in the right half of the complex plane. The output voltage response in this case is unstable, because the expression for (t) contains exponentially growing terms that increase without bound for large t. Partial fraction expansion is used below to derive the output voltage waveforms for the cases Im (s) = j 0 that are have useful engineering applications, e.g. the overdamped, critically damped, and = = = Re (s) underdamped cases Overdamped case, ζ > 1 Partial fraction expansion of Eq. (4) leads to = j 0 LHP RHP Fig.. Location of the two poles of H(s) vs. ζ, as described by Eqs. (5) and (6). 3

4 ECEN 830 (s) = K 1 s + K s s 1 + K 3 s s (7) Here, s 1 and s are given by Eq. (5), and the residues K 1, K and K 3 are given by K 1 = s 1+ζ s ω 0 s =0 K = s s 1 1+ζ s ω 0 s = s 1 K 3 = s s 1+ζ s ω 0 s = s (8) Evaluation of these expressions leads to K 1 = K = s s 1 1 s s 1 1 s s = s s s 1 s = s 1 K 3 = s s 1 s s 1 1 s s = s 1 s 1 s The inverse transform is therefore s = s (9) (t)= u(t) 1 s s s 1 e s 1 t s 1 s 1 s e s t (10) In the overdamped case, the output voltage response contains decaying exponential terms, and the rise time depends on the magnitudes of the roots s 1 and s. The root having the smallest magnitude dominates Eq. (10): for s 1 << s, Eq. (10) is approximately equal to (t) u(t) 1 e s 1 t (11) This is indeed what happens when ζ >>1. Equation (11) can be expressed in terms of ω 0 and ζ as (t) u(t) 1 e ω 0 t ζ (1) 4

5 ECEN 830 When ζ >> 1, the time constant ζ/ω 0 is large and the response becomes quite slow... Critically damped case, ζ = 1 In this case, Eq. (4) reduces to (s) = s 1 The partial fraction expansion of this equation is of the form (13) with the residues given by (s) = K 1 s + K s + ω 0 + K 3 s + ω 0 (14) K 1 = K = s + ω 0 s 1 = ω 0 s = ω 0 K 3 = d ds s + ω 0 s 1 = The inverse transform is therefore s = ω 0 (15) (t)= u(t) 1 1+ω 0 t e ω 0 t (16) In the critically damped case, the time constant 1/ω 0 is smaller than the slower time constant ζ/ω 0 of the overdamped case. In consequence, the response is faster. This is the fastest response that contains no overshoot and ringing..3. Underdamped case, ζ < 1 The roots in this case are complex, as given by Eq. (6). The partial fraction expansion of Eq. (4) is of the form (s) = K * 1 s + K s + ζω 0 jω 0 1 ζ + K s + ζω 0 + jω 0 1 ζ (17) The residues are computed as follows: 5

6 ECEN 830 K 1 = K = s + ζω 0 jω 0 1 ζ ω 0 s s + ζω 0 jω 0 1 ζ s + ζω 0 + jω 0 1 ζ The expression for K can be simplified as follows: s = ζω 0 + jω 0 1 ζ (18) K = = = ω 0 ζω 0 + jω 0 1 ζ jω 0 1 ζ ζ + j 1 ζ j 1 ζ The magnitude of K is K = and the phase of K is 1 ζ + jζ 1 ζ (19) 1 ζ (0) K = tan 1 ζ 1 ζ 1 ζ The inverse transform is therefore = tan 1 ζ 1 ζ (1) (t)= u(t) ζ e ζω 0 t cos 1 ζ ω 0 t + tan 1 ζ 1 ζ In the underdamped case, the output voltage rises from zero to faster than in the critically-damped and overdamped cases. Unfortunately, the output voltage then overshoots this value, and may ring for many cycles before settling down to the final steady-state value. () 6

7 ECEN 830 In some applications, a moderate amount of ringing and overshoot may be acceptable. In other applications, overshoot and ringing is completely unacceptable, and may result in destruction of some elements in the system. The engineer must use his or her judgment in deciding on the best value of ζ. 3. Step response waveforms Equations (10), (16), and (19) were employed to plot the step response waveforms of Fig. 4. Underdamped, critically damped, and overdamped responses are shown. It can be deduced from Fig. 4 that the parameter ω 0 scales the horizontal (time) axis, while scales the vertical (output voltage) axis. The damping factor ζ determines the shape of the waveform. (t) 1.5 = 0.01 = 0.05 = 0.15 = = 0.5 = 0.67 = 1 = 1.67 =.5 = 5 0 = 10 = t, radians Fig. 4. Second-order system step response, for various values of damping factor ζ. Three figures-of-merit for judging the step response are the rise time, the percent overshoot, and the settling time. Percent overshoot is zero for the overdamped and critically damped cases. For the underdamped case, percent overshoot is defined as percent overshoot = peak ( ) ( ) 100% One can set the derivative of Eq. (19) to zero, to find the maximum value of (t). One can then plug the result into Eq. (0), to evaluate the percent overshoot. Note that the (0) 7

8 ECEN 830 final (steady- (t) state) value of the output ( ) is. The following overshoot equation for the percent overshoot results: 105% 95% 90% settling time final value v( ) percent overshoot = e πζ / 1 ζ 100% 10% of v( ) rise time Again, this t equation is valid Fig. 5. Salient features of step response, second order system. only in the underdamped case, i.e., for 0 < ζ < 1. It can be seen from Fig. 4 that decreasing the damping factor ζ results in increased overshoot. The overshoot is 0% for ζ = 1. In the limit of ζ = 0 (the undamped case), the overshoot approaches 100%. As illustrated in Fig. 5, the rise time is defined as the time required for the output voltage to rise from 10% to 90% of its final steady-state value. When the system is underdamped, the output waveform may pass through 90% of its final value several times; the first pass is used in computation of the rise time. It can be seen from Fig. 4 that the rise time increases monotonically with increasing ζ. The settling time is the time required by an underdamped system for its output voltage response to approach steady state and stay within some specified percentage (for example, 5%) of the final steady-state value. As can be seen from Fig. 4, systems having very small values of ζ have short rise times but long settling times. 4. Experimental measurement of step response. The difficulty in measuring a transient v in (t) response is that it happens only once 1 V if you blink, you will miss it! This problem can be alleviated by causing the step input to be periodic: apply a 0 V square wave (Fig. 6) to the circuit 0 T/ T t Fig. 6. Use of a square wave input, with sufficiently input. The duration T/ of the positive long period T, allows the output transient to be portion of the square wave is chosen observed on any oscilloscope. to be much longer than the settling time of the output response, so that the circuit is in steady-state just before each step of the input waveform occurs. In consequence, the (1) 8

9 ECEN 830 output voltage waveform is identical to the waveform observed when a single step input is applied, except that the output transient occurs repetitively. The output transient waveform can now be easily observed on an oscilloscope, and can be studied in detail. BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] BENJAMIN C. KUO, Automatic Control Systems, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. [] J. D AZZO and C. HOUPIS, Linear Control System Analysis and Design: Conventional and Modern, New York: McGraw-Hill,

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