# WUFI Workshop NBI / SINTEF 2008 Radiation Effects On Exterior Surfaces

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1 WUFI Workshop NBI / SINTEF 2008 Radiation Effects On Exterior Surfaces Manfred Kehrer

2 Content: Introduction; Importance of Radiation Short Trip into Radiation Physics Typical Handling of Radiation on Exterior Surfaces Model Explicit Radiation Balance How to use the Model in WUFI 4.1 Application Examples 2

3 Radiation: energy source and sink The exterior surface temperature of a building envelope component depends on: ambient air temperature and surface transfer absorption of short-wave radiation from the sun emission/absorption of long-wave radiation Mean diurnal readings Oct- Nov Temperature [ C] Hot box / cold box at ORNL Air temperature Wall surface (west) 3

4 Condensation in ventilation planes Moisture Readings 1989 (Rafter North) Sky radiation Ventilation Condensation Moisture content [mass-%] air tight ventilated 5

5 Result:Condensation yields to Mould and Algee Growth on Exterior Surfaces. No Insulation EIFS 9

6 Content: Introduction; Importance of Radiation Short Trip into Radiation Physics Typical Handling of Radiation on Exterior Surfaces Model Explicit Radiation Balance How to Use to use the Model in WUFI 4.1 Application Example 11

7 Every body has an radiant emittance according to the law from Max Planck,depending on Temperature and Wave Length. 12

8 Emittance of a Surface Spectral Emittance Radiation to a Recipient Surface (Irradiance) Spectral Irradiance Integral yields approx W/m² (Solar Const.) approx. 230 W/m² Wave Length, µm 13

9 Integration of the Planck Law over all Wave Length over the half space yields to the Specific Emittance of a black body according to Stefan-Boltzmann-Law. M e = σ T 4 Specific Emittance M e : Specific σ : Stefan Boltzmann -8 W 5, m ²K T : absolute Emittance Temperatur M e = ε σ T Constant; e W m² For Gray Radiators gilt: 4 [K] ε : Emissivity [ ] 14

10 Example for the Emittance: A Human Being has the follwing Properties: Mass: 80 kg (basicaly Water) Surface: 1,8 m² Surface Temperature: 34 C The Emittance of about 900 W yields to a body temperature 25 C in 1 hour and this Human Being will die. To avoid this he must eat kcal a day. Where is the fault? This Human Being has not only an Emittance of 900 W, he does also absorb the Irradiation of the surrounding Environment (about. 750 W at 20 C). 15

11 The Atmosphere is not a solid body and has another Radiation Behavior. Emittance of the Ground at 15 C Integral yields about 370 W/m² Irradiance from the Atmosphere at 15 C Integral yields about 300 W/m² Spectral Emittance Spectral Irradiance Wave Length [µm] Wave Length [µm] Difference (about. 70 W/m²) ist the reason for night-time overcooling. 16

12 Content: Introductiont; Importance of Radiation Short Trip into Radiation Physics Typical Handling of Radiation on Exterior Surfaces Model Explicit Radiation Balance How to Use to use the Model in WUFI 4.1 Application Examples 17

13 How is long-wave Radiation typically taken into account? German Standard DIN EN ISO 6946: Bauteile Wärmedurchlasswiderstand und Wärmedurchgangskoeffizient - Berechnungsverfahren R s = h c 1 + h r R s : Heat Transfer Resistance [m²k/w] h c : Heat Transfer Coefficient, Convection [W/m²K] h r : Heat Transfer Coefficient, long-wave Radiation [W/m²K] q = 1 q : Heat Flux [W/m²] T T : Temperature Difference Surface - Air [K] R s Consequence: Surface Temperature can not sink below Air Temperature. Conclusion: This Method is applicable for thermal long term calculation. It is not applicable to model real physical processes on Exterior Surfaces. 18

14 Content: Introduction; Importance of Radiation Short Trip into Radiation Physics Typical Handling of Radiation on Exterior Surfaces Model Explicit Radiation Balance How to Use to use the Model in WUFI 4.1 Application Examples 19

15 20

16 Radiation Model in WUFI 4.1 Explicit Radiation Balance at Exterior Surfaces 21

17 Further Splitting yields 7 Radiation Parts 22

18 If your meteorological data-set does not include atm. counter radiation but cloud cover N, WUFI will use the following empirical equations: I l, atm = N I cloud + (1-N) I air I air = σ T 4 ( p ) T: air temperature at station [K] p: vapor pressure at station [hpa] I cloud = σ T 4 D T D : = Dewpoint temp. at station 23

19 Validation of the Radiation Model Solarimeter (short-wave range µm) Pyrgeometer (long-wave range 5 25 µm) Brick wall EIFS (10 cm EPS; 5 mm Plaster) Oriented to the North. Measurement of long-wave and short-wave radiation and Surface Temperature Measurement of Temparature and RH of the Air. Measurment short-wave Absorptivity (a short =0,39) and long-wave Emissivity (ε long =0,96) of the Surface at IBP laboratory. 26

20 Comparison of measured and calculated Surface Temperature Surface temp. measured Surface temp. calculated Air temperature Note: Without Explicit Radiation Balance the Surface Temperature will remain beyond Air Temperature!!! But: Conversion to walls or inclined Surfaces is not validated here 27

21 Validation of Conversion to inclined Surfaces (1) Measurement of the Long-Wave Radiation to the Horizontal at IBP (2) Measurement of the Long-Wave Radiation to a west oriented vertical Surface at IBP (1) (2) Mean Difference: 9 W/m² 28

22 WUFI -Pro 4.1 hygrothermal simulation with radiation balance 29

23 Content: Introduction; Importance of Radiation Short Trip into Radiation Physics Typical Handling of Radiation on Exterior Surfaces Model Explicit Radiation Balance How to Use to use the Model in WUFI 4.1 Application Examples 31

24 How to use this Radiation Model in WUFI 4.1 Note: If Explicit Radiation Balance is used WUFI must know whether the Exterior Surface Transfer Resistance includes long-wave radiation parts!!! Online Help 32

25 View of all Radiation Parts in the WUFI -Results Note: All Boundary Conditions (und thus all Irradiations to the Components Surface) are not multiplied with their corresponding Surface Transfer Coefficient!!! The Emission from the Components Surface is multiplied with the long-wave Emissivity of the Components Surface. 33

26 Additional Report in Input Data / Summary 34

27 Content: Introduction; Importance of Radiation Short Trip into Radiation Physics Typical Handling of Radiation on Exterior Surfaces Model Explicit Radiation Balance How to Use to use the Model in WUFI 4.1 Application Examples 35

28 WUFI simulation of a white flat roof at IBP Holzkirchen (Year 2003) - Simplified approach yields It performs well, but it probably will fail. - Negelcting all radiation as supposed to produce results on the safe side is problematic, too 38

29 WUFI Workshop NBI / SINTEF 2008 Radiation Effects On Exterior Surfaces Manfred Kehrer

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