ss n-fn-te v FØn-t - Hcm-fmWv Rm : kn.-hn. _me-ir-jvw

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1 sabv hmeyw. 22 e w. 10 hne `.4.00 txmakv Ipcp-hn-f, X tim bw: ss n-fn-te v asßn-sb-ønb Bf-, ss_-_nfn-te v FØn-t Hcm-fmWv Xms p {]kn km-ln-xy- Imc kn.-hn. _me-ir-jvw hnfn- -s - -h- At\-Iw, Xnc-s -Sp- -s - -h Npcp w' F p ss n-fn Hcp hmiyap- v. B Npcp w t]cn-sem-cmfmwv Rm. Rm ss n-fnte v as-ßn-sb-ønb Bf-. ss n-fn-te v FØn-t Hcm-fm-Wv. hn. tbml- ms kphn-ti-j-amwv Rm\mZyw hmbn- p- Xv. _m Uvta-fhpw sakm-t^m-wn-eqss "F -Xn-i-bta, sszh-øn kvt\lw' F Km\hpw sszh-cmpy {]kw-k-hpambn Rß-fpsS tzi-sø-ønb kphn-ti-j-kw-l-øn \n mwv B kphn-ti-j-{]xn F\n p e`n- p- -Xv. AXns -sim- p- m- HmSn-s m- n-cp hml-\-߃ v api-fn-te v acw howp; Bdp-t] v ]cp v hm Ø ]cn-ÿn-xn-bpss {]Xn-tj[w! Published from Thiruvalla on ss n-fn-te v FØn-t - Hcm-fmWv Rm : kn.-hn. _me-ir-jvw Ih -tãm-dn ss nƒ ]g-b-\n-b-ahpw ]pxn-b-\n-b-ahpw a[p-cw! Xncp-h-N\w ]gb \nb-ahpw {InkvXob hnizm-kn-ifpw \ap v ]g-b-\n-baw thwtam? ka-im-eni ]{XnI ]pdw-n- -bn IdpØ A -c- Øn "hn.-tbm-l- ms kphnti-jw' F p tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bncp- p I-fn Hcp ae-tbmc {Kma-Øn sh v Hcp sshzn- I ]pxnb \nb-a-ønse \mep kphn-ti-j-ß-f-s-ßnb ss_- _nƒ F\n p kωm-\n- p. am m-\w I Ω-eoØm B{i-a- Ønse amwn- -Ø-\m-cpsS a\- n-em-bn. t\xr-xz-øn kpdn-bm-\n-bn tijw t]pv 9 Pm L- n \yq\-]- -߃ Bi- -bn \yqu ln: BZn-hm-kn-Iƒ p `qcn-]- -ap Pm L v `cn- p _nsp]n k m ax-]-cnh Ø\ \ntcm-[\ \nbaw {]m_-ey-øn-em- m Hcp-ßp- p. ss{ikvx-h-scbpw k`m t\xr-xzsøbpw D]-{Z-hn- m-\p \o -am-bn- mwv CXns\ ]ecpw ho n- p- -Xv. tabv BZyw \S _nsp-]n-bpss kwÿm\ FIvkn-Iyq- ohv tbmk- Øn-emWv CXp kw_- n {]tabw Ah-X-cn- n- -s - -Xv. \n _- n-t m {]tem-`n- nt m \S- Øp F m ax-]-cn-h Ø-\-ßfpw in m lam- p \nbaw {]m_-ey-øn sim p-h-cm k m-cn-t\m-sm-h-iy-s -Sp {]ta-b-amwv ktωf-\-øn ]m m- n-b-sx v _nsp]n h mhv sp.-_n. Up_n v ]d- p. hn-zym-`ymk BtcmKy taj-e-i-fn {InkvXy anj-\-dn-iƒ \S-Øp {]h Ø-\- ߃ {Kmao-W-cmb BZn-hmkn ZfnXv P\-hn-`m- K-ßsf BI jn- p- p-sh hne-bn-cp-ø _nsp-]n pw Nne sslμh kwl-s-\-iƒ p-ap- v. ax-]-cn-h Ø\-Øn\v X߃ FXn-c-s pw F m Bcp-sS-sb- nepw Zmcn-{Zytam a p {]bmk-ßtfm apx-se-spøv AXp \S-Øp- Xv kzoimcy-a-s pw _nsp]n h mhv kqnn- n- p. `c-w-l-s-\-bn GsXmcp ]uc\pw MEMBER NEWS PAPERS ASSOCIATION OF INDIA Tel Bd- pf Fb t]m p ] Xn \S- n-em- Ww: tum. tpm Pv Fw. Im -\m- v Xn-cp-h- : {]-hm-kn a-e-bm-fn-ifp-ss kz-]v-\-am-b B-d- p-f F- b -t]m - v bm-ym - y-am- m K-h -sa v Xo-cp-am-\w ]p-\-]- cn-tim-[n- -W-sa- v thƒ-uv a- e-bm-fn Iu -kn ssh-kv {]- kn-u v tum. tpm -Pv Im- -\m- v B-h-iy-s - p. a-\- - n-d-bn {In-kv-Xy Iƒ- -d skm-ssk- n \ -In-b kzo-i-c-w-tbm-k- Øn {]-kw-kn- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p A-t±-lw. {]-kn-u v tum. kn.- hn. h-s-h-\ A-[y- -X h-ln- p. ]-Ø-\w-Xn- Pn- m ]- m-b-øv ssh-kv {]-kn-u v tpm -Pv am- Ω sim- q k-tω-f-\w D-Zv- \n p ae-bm-f-øn-te p hnh Ø\w snbvx ss n-fmbn-cp p AXv. ae-bmf KZy-`mj-bpsS hf -bpss {][m-\-l- -ambn anj-\-dn-am-cpss ss nƒ hnh Ø-\-Im-esØ Rm ImWp- p. kwkvir-x- Øn-s bpw kpdn-bm-\n-bp-ssbpw ]nsn-bn \n p \ΩpsS `mj tamn\w t\sn-b-xn\p ImcWw ss nƒ hnh Ø-\-am-Wv. ]n osv timgn-t m- p Hcp kplr-øn \n mwv ss_- _nƒ skmssk n Hm^v C y {]kn- o-i-cn "kxy-thz ]pkvxiw' e`n- p- -Xv. B ]pkvx-i-øn\v Ihdpw N bpw H p-ap- m-bn-cp- n-. "kxy-th- Z-]p-kvXIw' F t]cv Fs BI jn- p. "thzw' F -XpsIm v "Adnhv' F mwv D-t±in- p- -sx v ]n osv F\n p tum. tpm Pv Fw. Im -\m- v Lm-S-\w sn-bv-xp. B-d- p-f F-b -t]m - p ]- - Xn A-S- A-[ym-b-am- -cp-xv sf.]n.kn kv-t - v I -h -j tim -bøv Ip-º-\m-Sv: sf.]n.kn B-dm-a- Xv kw-ÿm-\ I -h -j Un-kw-_ 5 ap-x 10 h-sc tim- -bw s\-lv-dp kv-t -Un-b- Øv \-S- pw. D-]-hm-k-{]m - - \, hn-fw-_-c-pm-y, bp-h-k-tωf-\w, tkm-z-cn-k-tω-f-\w, am- [y-a {]-h -Ø-I-cp-sS kw-k-aw, ip-{iq-j-i- m-cp-ss k-tω-f-\w, k-t -kv-iqƒ So-t -gv-kv ao- v, Pm-K-c-W {]m - -\ F- n-h I -sh -j-s `m-k-am-bn \- S- pw. tim- -bw sf. ]n.kn Sm- _ -\m- nƒ k-`-bn \-S- ao- nw-kn I -sh -j-s \- S-Øn- n-\m-bn hn-hn-[ I-Ω- n-isf sx-sc-s -Sp-Øp. kwÿm-\ {]-kn-u- v ]m-ã si.kn.txm-a-kn-s A- y- - X-bn kv-t - v sk-{i- -dn ]m- à jn-_p s\-sp-th-en I h -j-s \-S-Øn- n-s\- p-dn- v {]-kv-xm-h-\ \-S-Øn. ]m-ã - ax-]-cn-h Ø\ \ntcm-[\ \nbaw {]m_-ey-øn-em- m {iaw Abmƒ n-jvs-ap axw kzoi-cn- m\pw {]tlmjn- m\pw D Ah-Imiw Dd p \ Ip- ps pw \n _- nt m {]tem-`n- nt m {InkvXym- \n-iƒ Bscbpw ax-]-cn-h Ø\w \S-Øp- ns pw dm n AXn-cq-]X klmb sa{xm _nj v sse-kvt^m _n pwkv ]d- p. {InkvXym- \n-i-fm-im Bsc- nepw B{K-ln p hcp- p-s - n AXv Ah-cpsS kz w CjvS-{]-Im-c-amsW pw At±lw hy -am- n. Un-kw-_ 5 ap-x 10 h-sc F- v k-tω-f-\w {]-ta-b-øn-eqss k - m-cn-t\m-sp B-h-iys p. d-h. A- -Ip- v C-e- q {]-ta-bw A-h-X-cn- n- p. {]-hmkn-iƒ- n-s-bn-se an-i- kmw-kv- m-cn-i km-ln-xy {]-h -Ø-\- ß-sf am-\n- v tum. tpm -Pv Im- -\m-sn-\p {In-kv-Xy Iƒ- -d skm-ssk- n-bp-ss ]p-c-kv-im-cw tpm -Pv am-ω sim- q k-ωm- \n- p. A-Pn-Øv am-xyq-kv s]m- m-s A-Wn-bn- p. _n-j- v k-æn G-{_-lmw, d- h. tpm-bn am-xyp, d-h. tpm-kv sf- -c- -Sn, _- -an txm-a-kv, am-cm-b cm-pp ]q-h- m-e, kn.kn.f-{_-lmw, {_-Z tpmbn X-\-th-en, m-uv-k tp- -_v F- n-h hn-hn-[ N - m sk-j-\p-iƒ- v t\-xr-xzw \-ev-in. ]m-ã si.kn.txm-akv (P-\-d I -ho-\ ) ]m- à -am-cm-b si.c. txm-a-kv, k- Æn tpm -Pv, k-tlm-z-c- m-cm-b m-uv-k tp- -_v-, Ip-cy tpm-k-^v (P-\-d tpm-bn -dv I -ho-\ -am ) ]m-ã -am-cm-b ]n.f. am-xyp, txm-a-kv am-xyp Nm-cp-th-en,cm-Pp B-\n- m-sv, h -Ko-kv am-xyp (P-\-d -tim - Un-t\-t -gv-kv) ]m-ã -am-cm-b am-xyp-tu-hn-uv, kp-tc-jv Iogq, kp-\n th- -a-e, Sn.kn. tim-in, Fw.hn.-tXm-a-kv (P- \.tpm-bn v tim -Un-t\-t -gvkv) F- n-h Dƒ-s -Sp- hn- ]p-e-am-b I -h -j `m-c-hmln-i-sf sx-sc-s -Sp-Øp. Cu-Pn-]v- n ]-c-kv-]-cw am-tωm-zo-km Aw-Ko-I-cn- pw si-bv-tdm: I-tØm-en- -cpw tim- ]v- n- v Hm -Ø-tUm-Iv-kv ss{i-kv- X-h-cpw ]-c-kv-]-cw am-tωm-zo-km Aw-Ko-I-cn- p-sa- v {^m -kn-kv am -]m- -bpw tim-]v- n- v Hm -ØtUm-Iv-kv ]m-{xn-bm - o-kv X-hmt{Zm-kv Zzn-Xo-b-\pw ]p-d-s -Sp-hn- kw-bp- {]-kv-xm-h-\ hy- - am- n. {^m -kn-kv am -]m- -bpss Cu-Pn-]v-Xv k-μ -i-\-tøm-s- \p-_- n- m-wv kw-bp- {]-kv- Xm-h-\ ]p-d-s -Sp-hn- -Xv. tim-]v- n- v Hm -Ø-tUm-Iv-kv ss{i-kv- X-h-cpw I-tØm-en- -cpw X-Ωn-ep- N - -bp-ss ]p-tcm-k-xn- v sh- p-hn-fn-bm-bn \n- {]-[m-\ {]- Xn-_- -am-wv am-tωm-zo-km-bp-ss ]-c-kv-]-c-ap- Aw-Ko-Im-c-tØmsS ]-cn-l-cn- -s - -Xv. I -Xr-{]m - -\-bp-ss s]m-xp-hm-b ]-cn-`m-jbp-ss-bpw Cu-à B-tLm-jn- m-\p- s]m-xp-zn-h-k-øn-s - bpw Im-cy-Øn Xo-cp-am-\-ap- m- Ip-sa- pw kw-bp- -{]-kv-xm-h-\- bn kq-nn- n- p- p. kp-\n am-xyp, ssj h -Kokv, d-h. G-{_-lmw am -t m-kv, s{]m-^. n.-kn. tim-in Xp-S-ßnb-h {]-kw-kn- p. ""a-[y-xn-cp-hn-xmw-iq-dn \n- m-wv G- -hpw Iq-Sp-X B-fp- Iƒ hn-tz-i-ß-fn tpm-en snøp- -Xv. {]-hm-kn-i-fp-ss kz-]v- \-am-wv B-d- p-f F-b -t]m - v. km-t -Xn-I-X-bp-sS-bpw cm-jv-{sob tn-cn-xn-cn-hn-s -bpw t]-cn Cu ]- -Xn D-t]- n- -Xv sx- mbn-t m-bn. K-h -sa p-iƒ am-dnam-dn h-cp-tºmƒ C-Ø-cw ]- - Xn-Iƒ D-t]- n- m ]m-sn-. tijw t]pv 9

2 2 ka-im-eni ]{XnI sabv 20 snb am tpm h Kokv amt\-pnwkv FUn- ^n n cmpp lqã No^v FUn- A Ip v Ce- q Hmh kokv FUn- DΩ F_-t\-k Hmh kokv Ub-d-Œ tum. Fw.-F-kv. kmap-h dkn-u v FUn-t gvkv Ipcym-t mkv txm -Øn Pm kn F. h Kokv Atkm-kn-tb v FUn-t gvkv jn_p ap -Im- n h Kokv amxyp Nm eokv amxyp sdpn aqtesw amxyqkv ]n. tpm tpmkv sf -c- Sn sd n tp _v tpm Pv s_ n sim p-h-s-t k_v FUn-t gvkv sp n h Kokv spbv -txm-akv amen-bn s]m Ω kmw kvs]jy dnt m t gvkv osbkv I -amw-aq- n sdpn h Kokv shæn- pfw ^n n s_ -an h Kokv PÃkv N{μ-t_mkv kmw amxyp \yqtbm v bp. -si. P\-d tim -Hm Un-t\- PnPn _tdmu bp.-f.-c. P\. tim -Hm Un-t\- tpm aømbn AXn-cp- tpm. tim -Hm Un-t\- spbnwkv taa\ tim -Hm Un-t\-t gvkv a p ]osn-tb- s_ n ]m - H -e-tlma cmp G{_lmw tam kn hf- -h w Umf v tpmbn kmw tp _v Im\U hm jni hcn-kwjy C y-bn : 150 cq] bp.-f-kv.-f. & Im\U : $ 50 Cw v : 20 ]u v Kƒ^v cmpy-߃ : 2000 cq] hcn-kwjy Ab-bvt hnemkw acp- πmt m w timwπivkv Xncp-h- - 1, tic-f. t^m : FUn-t m-dn-b F n-\m-wv Cu A^vkv]? IÆq-cnse cmjv{sob sime-]m-x-i-߃ v A yw D m- I-W-sa- n A^vkv] (AFSPA) {]txyi ssk\n-im-[n-imc \nbaw \S- n-em- -W-sa v kwl-]-cn-hm \nc- cw Bh-iys -Sp- p. tic-f-p-\-x-bpss Dd w sisp-øp sime-]m-x-icm-jv{sobw F p hne simspøpw Ah-km-\n- nt Xocq. a\pjys Poh-s\-Sp- m Hcp cmjv{sob ]m n pw Bcpw A[n- Imcw simsp-øn- n. `cn- p- -h-cntem s]meo-kntem hnizmkw Ipd-hp- Xp sim m-wt m A^vkv]bv v th n kwl-]-cn-hm apd-hnfn Iq p -Xv. A^vkv]-bpsS ]e hip- p-ifpw hfsc Ipg w ]nsn- -Xm-Wv. kpc mtk\-iƒ v GsXm-cm-sfbpw kwi-b-øns t]cn t]mepw shsn-sh p sim m A[n-Imcw \ Ip hip p hsc CXn-ep- v. Aßs\ sim p kpc- m-tk-\mw- K-߃ v t{]mkn- yq-j-\n \n p- \nb-a-]-cn-c- -bpss Dd- p-ap- v emwv Cu \nbaw BZy-ambn ]mkm n-b-xv t`z-k-xn-iƒ D m-bn. awn- q, Akw, \mk-em v, antkm-dmw, talm-e-b, Acp-Wm-N, PΩp Imivao F n-hn-s-ß-fn ]q Æ-amtbm `mkn-i-amtbm Cu \nbaw {]-tbm-kn- p- p- v. simsnb a\p-jym-h-imi ewl-\-߃ Cu \nb-a-øns ad-hn \S- -Xmbn A mcmjv{s a\p-jym-h-imi kwl- S-\-bmb B\wÃn C \m-j- W shfn-s -Sp-Øp- p. Adp- ]-txmfw ]T-\-ß-fpsS ]n _- e-øn-emwv Ah Aßs\ ]dbp- -Xv. A^vkv] \S- n-em- nb ÿe-ß-fnse {Iqc-X-Iƒ sr n- n- p- -Xm-Wv hymp G p-ap- -ep-i-fmwv awn- q-cn am{xw \S- -Xv. Cc-I-fpsS IpSpw-_mw-K-߃ cq]o-i-cn kwl-s\ kp{]ow tims-xn-bn sxfnhp klnxw ]d IW- m-wn-xv. Iq _em kwkßfpw ssewkn-i-]o-u-\-ßfpw hymp G p-ap- -ep-i-fp-am-bn-cp p kaq-l-øn\v A^vkv] F mbn-s-ß-fnepw kωm-\n- -Xv. \qdne-[niw t]sc sims msp nb sltcm-pnxv F tim Ã-_nƒ \S-Ønb Ip -k-ωxw temiw ti Xv sr -tem-ss-bmbn-cp- p. tae-[n-im-cn-i-fpss B A\p-k-cn- pi am{x-ambn-cp p At±lw snbvx-xv. A^vkv]-bpsS ad-hn F p {Iqc-XbpamImw. a\p-jy-po-h\p hne-bn-. a\p-jy-xz-c-ln-xhpw Incm-X-hp-amb Cu \nbaw FSpØp If-b-W-sa v \nc-h[n a\p-jym-h-imi kwl-s-\-iƒ Bh-iys - n- p- v. k m-cp-iƒ \nb-an \nc-h[n IΩ- n-iƒ A^vkv]-bpsS KpW-tZm-j-ß-sf- n ]Tn p dnt m v \ Inbn- p- v. Incm-X-amb Cu hip v FSpØp If-b-W-sa- p Xs bmwv IΩ- n-ifpsssb mw \n t±-iw. P\-t{Zm-l-]-c-amb Cu \nb-asø Xmtem-en- p- Xv cm-jv{sob ]m n-iƒ Xs -bm-wv. ti{μ-k m ap kp{]ow timsxn PUvPn Poh sdõn-bpss t\xr-xz-øn IΩ- nsb \ntbm-kn v A^vkv]sb n dnt m p txsnbxm-wv. Cu \nbaw d±m- -W-sa- m-bn-cp p B IΩ- n-bpss ip]m i. laozv A- kmcn A[y- -\mb Imivao kw_- n h nwkv {Kq pw 2007 \nbaw d±m- m ip]m i snbvx-xm-wv. F m tim- {Kkv _n.-sp.]n k m-cp-iƒ ip]m i AwKo-I-cn- n-. AhcpsS cmjv{sob t\ -߃ e y-am n Cu \nbaw d±m- n-bn! Gsd A]-ISw ]nsn Cu \nbaw Bsc kwc- n- m-\m- Wv? _em kw-k-ßfpw Iq - p-cp-xn-ifpw \S- m Imc-Wamb Cu \nbaw ]uc-kzm-x-{ ysø sh p-hn-fn- p- -Xm-Wv. P\-ß-fpsS Poh\pw kzøpw kwc- n- m F{Xtbm \nb-a߃ D v. AXp am{xw t]msc? a\p-jym-h-im-i-߃ v t\sc Cu -hm-fm-bn-cn- p A^vkv] IÆq-cn {]tbm-kn- -Wsa v kwl-]-cn-hm itn- p- -sx- n-\mwv? tic-f-øns cmjv{sob kmwkvim-cni ] m-ø-e-߃ A^vkv]bv v CSw \ Ip- -X-. ChnsS \nb-ahm-gvnbv v Kpcp-X-c-amb hogvn-i-fn-. C y-bnse an kwÿm-\-ß-sf- mfpw kmwkvim-cni D -a-\hpw a\p-jym-h-imi aqey-ßfpw atx-xc \ne-]m-sp-ifpw D kwÿm-\-amwv tic-fw. tic-f- Ønse kwl-]-cn-hm-dns \ne-]m-sp-iƒ t]mepw a p kwÿm- \-ß-fnse kwl-]-cn-hm-dn \n pw F{Xtbm hyxy-kvx-ambn-cn- p- p. CXp tic-f-øns \ -bm-sw p ]d-bmw. h Kob Iem-]-߃t m cmjv{sob Iq -s m-e-iƒt m ChnsS {]k- n-bn-s - -XmWv kxyw. sime- -Øn-Isf kvt\ln- p P\-X-b ae-bm-fn-iƒ. IÆq-cns cmjv{sobssien tic-f- tnmcno nbpw t_mws_-dn pw B[n-]Xyw ÿm]n- m-sa- Xv hymtamlw am{x-am-wv. Hcp P\-Iob hnnm-cw Bh-iy-am-Wv. lnu AP- -Ifpambn \S- p emh-wyhm- p-imsc AXp-]Sn hniz-kn- -cp-xv. ticf P\-Xbv p th mø sime-]m-xi cmjv{sobw \S- n-em- p- -Xm-cm-Wv? hmsi sime-bmfnisfbpw Kp -I-sfbpw D]tbm- Kn- p-ibpw kwc- n- p-ibpw snbvx-xmcmwv? Ch-cpsS Hfn-Øm-h-f-߃ GsXms -bmwv? ax-ÿm-]-\-ßsf h Kob {[pho-i-c-w-øn-\p-]-tbm-kn- p- -Xm-scms -bm-wv? P\-Iob hnnm-c-w-bn ]e am\y- m-cp-ssbpw \ X kmwkvim-cni ticfw ImWpw. Øns apjy-[mcm cmjv{so-b-hp-a-. hc-ºøp Iqen Xo psa pw simebv p sime \S-Øp-sa pw Bt{Im-in- p- -htcmsv P\-߃ v ]p -am-wv. cmjv{so-b-øn axw Ie tø- Xv F m cmjv{so-b- m-cp-ss-bpw Bh-iy-am-Wv. ]s AXns AXn-{]-kcw A]-I-S-am-Wv. sime-]m-x-i-cm-jv{so-b-øn\v A yw Ipdn- p-hm Chn- SpsØ P\-߃ v [m ΩnI-i- n-bp- v. AΩ-am-cp-sSbpw hn[- h-i-fp-ssbpw IÆp-\o IÆq cmjv{so-bsø shæo-dm- pw. C\n F{X \mƒ IqSn IÆq ssien XpS-cm-\m-hpw? Bbp-[- ߃ Xmsg-bnt axn-bm-iq. Ffn-bn ITm-c-bp-am-bn, ssibn t_mw_p-ambn Gsd \mƒ t]mim BIn-. F m-hcpw Ah-c-h-cpsS ho -W-Øn icn-bm-wv. ChnsS icn sx p-i-fpss kwhm-z-hym-]m-c-a Bh-iyw. A{Iacmjv{Sobw Dt]- n- p am\-km- -c-am-wp- m-ti- -Xv. tnmcno nbpw t_mws_-dn pw B[n-]Xyw ÿm]n- m-sa- Xv hymtamlw am{x-am-wv. Hcp P\-Iob hnnm-cw Bh-iyam-Wv. lnu AP- -Ifpambn \S- p emh-wy-hm- p-imsc AXp-]Sn hniz-kn- -cp-xv. ticf P\-Xbv p th mø sime- ]m-xi cmjv{sobw \S- n-em- p- -Xm-cm-Wv? hmsi simebmfnisfbpw Kp -I-sfbpw D]tbm-Kn- p-ibpw kwc- n- p- Ibpw snbvx-xm-cmwv? ChcpsS Hfn-Øm-h-f-߃ GsXms -bmwv? ax-ÿm-]-\-ßsf h Kob {[pho-i-c-w-øn-\p-]- tbm-kn- p- -Xm-scm-s -bm-wv? P\-Iob hnnm-c-w-bn ]e am\y- m-cp-ssbpw \ X kmwkvim-cni ticfw ImWpw. ]I-se mw atx-x-c-xzhpw Alnw-kbpw {]kw-kn- p-ibpw cm{xn-bn h Kob hntzz-j- Øn\p shsn-a-cp p \nd-bv p- Ibpw snøp I]-S-t\-Xm- sf kaqlw H -s -Sp-Ø-Ww. Bflm -X-bp-s - n tic-f-øns sime-]m-xi- Kp m cmjv{so-bw-]-cn-l-cn- mhp- -tx-bp- q. AXn\v BgvN- Iƒ t]mepw th. Znh-k-߃ axn, `cn- p- -h v C m-i- nbp- m-i-ww. s]meo-kn\v \n- `-b-ambn tpmen snøm Ahkcw D m-i-ww. \nb-a-hm-gvnbn P\-߃ v hnizm-k-ap- m-im CS-h-c-s. sime-]m-x-i-cm-jv{sobw hcp- Ønb Zpc- -ß-sf- n At\zjWw BImw. ]T-\-dn-t m p-iƒ {]kn- o-i-cn- Ww. Cc-IfpsS IpSpw-_-ß-fpsS k -S-߃ s]mxp-tem-isø Adnbn ncp-s - n sime- Øn \n ΩmWw Ft \ne p t]mtb-t\w. sime-]m-x-i-cm-jv{so-b-øn-s\-xnsc i_vzn- p- -h v am[y-a-ß-fn CSw Is tø- -Xp- v. Alnw-k-bpsS i_vz- X-cw-K-߃ \ΩpsS A -co- -Øn apg-ß-s. R߃ ]Icw snøn-. Hcm-fp-sSbpw Poh A]l-cn- n-. ]Ibpw hntzz-jhpw hn p If-bp- p Cßs\ {]Xn snøp Imew D msb- n! CX- msx thsdmcp am K-apt m? tnmc sim p adp-]sn ]d-bp- -hsc Fßs\ cmjv{sob- m-sc p hnfn pw! Aß-s\-bp- -h {Um p-fift! Ae n tx XpWn-bp-SpØp \S- p apjw-aq-sn-i-fmb {Um p-fisf P\w Xncn- -dn-bpw. atx-x-cxzw {]kw-kn- p-ibpw h Ko-b-X-bpsS hnj-k- n-bp-ambn k -cn- p- -hsc P\-߃ H -s -Sp-Øpw. P\-Iob Iq m-bva-iƒ i n-s -S-s. `cww \oxnbpw kpxmcy-hp-am-i-s. apjy-a{ n Hcp cmjv{sob ]m n-bpssbpw Bfm- I-cp-Xv. \nb-a-øns ]me-icpw kwc- -I-cp-am-Wv s]meo-sk v t_m[yw h m P\-߃ v Bfl-hn-izmkw e`n- pw. A^vkv]bv p th n apd-hnfn Iq p- -sx- n-\mwv? A^vkv] Cu \msn-s\ p KpWw snbvxp? km[m-cw P\-ßfpsS PohnXw Xmdpam-dm- m-\t AXp D]-I-cn- n- p- q? i{xphn-t\msp an- m\pw Cc-I-tfmSp klm- \p-`q-xn-tbmsp s]cp-am-dm\pw Ign-bp-sa- n AXt ]pwyw. IÆp Xpd- p-tºmƒ ImtW- p- Xv am p snøp- ] m-f- m-sc-b-. kam- [m-\-øns {]m -sf-bm-wv. kvt\l- Øn-s bpw a-bp-ssbpw kln-jvwp-xbp-ssbpw `mj kwkm-cn- m-\-dn-bm-hp- h IÆq-cns hoyn-i-fn kam-[m-\-ktμiw tlmjn- -s. IÆp-\ocpw Ic- nep-ap cm{xn amdn IÆq-cn\v Hcp ]pxnb kqtcym-zbw D m-i-s.

3 3 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn ss nƒ: ]g-b-\n-b-ahpw ]pxn-b-\n-b-ahpw sabv 20 sszhw ss n-fn-\p- n \nc-h[n Bflob aqey-߃ Dƒs m- n- n- p- v. Bbp- p-ap-gp-h ]-Tn- mepw XocmØ A b J\n-bm-Wn-Xv. ]Tn- p-t mdpw ]pxn-b Bi-b-߃ AXp- {]-Zm\w snøp- p. Xs P\-Øn\p \ Iphm\mbn sszhw Xncp-lr-Z-b- Øn kq n- n-cp Imcy-߃ ss n-fn-eqssbmwv \ In-b- Xv. am n eqy ]d- -Xv I- p-im-en-iƒ v ]p am-en-t]msebpw a\p-jy-\p- `-h\w t]mse-bpw -] n-iƒ v - ] cw t]msebpw {]mhn\p ]md- nf p-t]m-sebpw a y-øn\p \Zn-t]m-se-bp-amWv hnizm-kn- Iƒ p Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-Iƒ. 1. ss n-fn-\p- n : sszhw ss n-fn-\p- n \nc-h[n Bflob aqey-߃ Dƒs m- n- n- p- v. Bbp- p-ap-gp-h ]- Tn- mepw XocmØ A b J\nbm-Wn-Xv. ]Tn- p-t mdpw ]pxnb Bi-b-߃ AXp- {]- Zm\w snøp- p. Hcp Iq p-im-c F t]mse Bh-iy-ß-f-\p-kcn v ss nƒ sszh-`- - mtcmsv kwkm-cn- p- p-sh- Xv ss_-_n-fn\p am{x-ap {]txy- I-X-bm-Wv. ss n-fn-\p- n F-s m-s -bmwp- -sx p t\m mw: (i) c n-xmhv: ss n-fn ]m]n-bmbn Xo a\p-jy\v Hcp c n-xm-hns\ ImWp-hm Ign-bpw. sszh-i-ev]\ ewln v ]m]-øns ]Sp-Ip-gn-bn \n]- Xn \n -lm-b-\mb a\p-jy\v sszhw tbip-{in-kvxp-hn-eqss Hcp c -Is\ \ In. ""Ahƒ Hcp ais\ {]k-hn pw. Ah Xs P\sØ Ah-cpsS ]m]- ß-fn \n pw c n- m-\n-cn- sim v \o Ah\v tbip F v t] hnfn-t -Ww''. (a-ømbn 1:21) ""tbip-{inkvxp ]m]n-isf c n- m temi-øn h p F p- Xv hnizm-kyhpw F mhcpw AwKo-I-cn- m tbmky-hpamb hn\w Xs '' (1-Xn-tam-sYtbmkv 1:15). sszh-`- -\mb Hcp alm ]d- -Xn-{]-Im-c-am- Wv : ""thz-]p-kvxiw \ns ]m- ]-Øn \n pw AI- pw. As - n ]m]w \ns thz-]p-kvx- I-Øn \n I pw''. (ii) kam-[m\ ZmXmhv: ]m- ]w sn-bv-xn-\m a-\p-jy-h - - Øn-\v lr-z-b-k-am-[m-\w \-jv-sam-bn. sn-bv-xp t]m-b ]m-]-øns Ip- -hn-[n-bn \n- pw tama[p-cw! Xncp-h-N\w ]mã si.-ssh.-ko-h Kokv N-\w {]m-]n- p-hm I -Ω-am - -hpw `- n-am - -hpw m-\- am - -hp-sa- mw am-dn-am-dn ]-co- n- v ]-cn- o-w-cm-b a-\p-jyh - -Øn-s \n-e-hn-fn-bp-ss H-cp Zr-jv-Sm- w am-iv-_-øn-s I-Ybn-eq-sS tj-iv-kv-]o-b \- m-bn Nn-{Xo-I-cn- n- p- v. \n -t±m-jn-bmb U- - cm-pm-hn-s\ sim-e snbv-xv am-iv-_-øv knw-lm-k-\w ssi- -em- n. A-tXm-sS X-s a-\- -am-[m-\w \-jv-s-s - p. ""alm-k-ap-{z-ß-fn-se sh- -Ønt\m A-td-_ym-bn-se ap-gp-h kp-k- -ssx-e-øn-\p t]m-epw X-s ssi-i-fn ]- n-bn-cn- p- U- - cm-pm-hn-s c- -Zp -K- - a-i- -\m-hn-s - p'' hn-e-]n- p- I-Ym-]m-{X-sØ hn-eyw tj-iv-kv- ]o-b \- m-bn A-h-X-cn- n- n- p- v. k-am-[m-\w \-jv-s-s - a-\pjy-h - -Øn-\v tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hneq-ss H-cp k-am-[m-\ Zm-Xm- -hn-s\ ssz-hw Zm-\-am-bn \ -In. {In-kv- Xp \-Ωp-sS k-am-[m-\-am-sw- v ss_-_nƒ hn-fn- -dn-bn- p- p. ""A-h \-Ωp-sS k-am-[m-\w...'' (F-s^-ky 2:14-19) ""hn-izm-k- Øm \o-xn-i-cn- -s - n- p \-ΩpsS I -Øm-hm-b tb-ip-{in-kv-xpaq-ew \-ap- p ssz-h-tøm-sp k- am-[m-\w D- v'' (tdm-a 5:1). C- ß-s\ ssz-h-k-a-m-[m-\-hpw sszh-tøm-sp k-am-[m-\-hpw {In-kv- Xp-aq-ew e-`n- p- p. a-\p-jy ]m-]w sn-bv-x-xn- \m ssz-h-øn-s i-{xp-hm-bn- Xo - p. ""\n-ß-fp-ss A-Ir-Xy߃ A-s{X \n-ß-sf-bpw \n-ßfp-ss ssz-h-sø-bpw X-Ωn `n- n- n- n-cn- p- -Xv...'' (sb-i-øm 59:2) C-ß-s\-bp- a-\p-jy - v {In-kv-Xp-hn-eq-sS ssz-h-tøm-sp \n-c- p {]m-]n- v ssz-h-k-am-[m- \-Øn-\p-S-a-I-fm-Imw. ]p-cm-x-\ `- -\pw Zm -i-\n-i-\p-am-b C-tøm- _v \ -Ip- ]mtw {i-t -b-am- Wv: ""\o A-h-t\m-Sn-W-ßn k-am- [m-\-am-bn-cn-...'' (C-tøm-_v 22:21). ssz-hm-{i-b-øm Cu Zn-hy-k-am-[m-\w Po-hn-X-Øn \n-e-\n -Øm-sa- B-i-bw sbi-øm-hpw \ -Ip- p: ""ÿn-c-am- \-k \n- n B-{i-bw h- ncn- -sim- v \o A-h-s\ ]q -Æk-am-[m-\-Øn Im- p- p'' (sb-i-øm-hv 26:3). ssz-h-sø-bpw ssz-h-h-n-\-sø-bpw A-\p-k-cn- v Po-hn- p- -h- - v \-Zn-t]m-se I-hn-s m-gp-ip- Zn-hy-k-am-[m- \-am-wv ssz-hw hm-kv-z-øw snbv-xn-cn- p- -Xv: ""A-tøm \o F- s I-ev-]-\-I-sf-tI- v A-\p-kcn-s - n sim- m-bn-cp- p. F- m \n-s k-am-[m-\w \-Zn t]m-se-bpw \n-s \o-xn k-ap- {Z-Øn-se Xn-c-t]m-se-bpw B-Ipam-bn-cp- p.'' (sb-i-øm 48:18) (iii) sshzy : ss_-_n-fn tcm-kn- p ssh-zy-s\ ssz-hw hm- Kv-Z-Øw sn-bv-xn- p- v.""tb-ip A- Xp ti- v A-h-tcm-Sv Zo-\- m - - m-sx ku-jy-ap- -h - v ssh- Zy-s\-sIm- v B-h-iy-an-, Rm \o-xn-am- m-sc-b- ]m-]n- I-sf-b-s{X hn-fn- p-hm h- - Xv F- p ]-d- p''. (a -t m-kv 2:17) ""Rm \n-s ku-jy-am- p- b-tlm-h B-Ip- p'' F- v tam-i ap-tj-\ ssz-hw hm-kv- Z-Øw sn-bv-xn- p- v. (]p-d- m-sv 15:26) {In-kv-Xp-hn-s {Iq-iv-a-c-Wam-Wv tcm-k-im- n-bp-ss A-Snÿm-\w. ""F- m A-h \-ΩpsS A-Xn-{I-a-߃ \n-an-øw apdn-th- pw \-Ωp-sS A-Ir-Xy-߃ \n-an-øw X-I - p-an-cn- p- p; \- Ωp-sS k-am-[m-\-øn-\m-bp- in- A-h-s ta B-bn. A-hs A-Sn- n-w-cp-i-fm \-ap- v ku-jyw h- p-an-cn- p- p'' (sbi-øm-hv 53:5). (iv) a y-ÿ : Ip -hm-fn- p a y-ÿ-s\bpw ss n-ƒ {]Zm\w snbvxn-cn- p- p. ]m-]nbmb a\p-jys\ ]cn-ip- -\m-b tb-ip-{in-kv-xp C-l-tem-Iw hn-sp- -Xn-\p-ap-ºv X-s in-jy- m-sc B-iz-kn- n- h-n-\w F-{X- \n-kv-xp-ey-am-wv: -\n-ß-fp-ss lr-z-bw I-e-ßn-t m-i-cp-xv, ssz-h-øn hn-iz-kn- n, F- n-epw hn-izkn- n. F-s ]n-xm-hn-s `-h-\-øn A-t\-Iw hm-k-ÿ-e߃ D- v... -Rm \n-߃- p ÿ-ew H-cp- p-hm t]m-ip- p. Rm t]m-bn \n-߃- p ÿ-ew H-cp- n-bm Rm C-cn- p- C-S-Øp \n-ß-fpw C-cn-t - -Xn-\p ]n-s -bpw h- p \n-ß-sf F- s A-Sp- tn -Øp-sIm- pw'' sszh-tømsp \nc- n- p sszhhpw a\p-jy-\p-ambmwv {InkvXptbip h -Xv. ""sszhw Hcph\s m, sszh-øn\pw a\pjy pw a y-ÿ\pw Hcp-h. F m-h pw th n adp-hn-ebmbn X -Øm simspø a\p-jy-\mb {InkvXptbip- X- s.'' (1 Xntam- -tbmkv 2:5, 6) (v) A\m-Y p ]nxmhv: sszhw A\m-Y-cpsS ]nxm-hm- Wv. A\m-Y-cpsS \ne-hnfn lrzb-t`-z-i-am-wv. Zpc- -ß-fnepw a pw AI-s v amxm-]n-xm fpw _ p- fpw \jvs-s v lrzbw s\m p-\n-e-hn-fn- p Ip pßsf I n- p- v. Aß-s\-bp- -h v Bizmkw \ Ip A\m-Y-cpsS ]nxm-hm-wv sszhw. ""sszhw Xs hnip- -\n-hmk-øn A\m-Y v ]nxmhpw.'' (k- o Ø-\-߃ 68:5) (vi) hn[-h-bpss \ymb-]me-i : ssz-hw hn-[-h-bp-ss \ymb-]m-e-i-\m-wv. \-bo-\n-se hn-[- h-bp-ss I-c- n I- v a-\- -en- v A-h-fp-sS G-I-a-I-s\ tbip-{in-kv-xp D-bn - n- N-cn-{Xw eq-t m-kn-s kp-hn-ti-jw 7:11-15 h-sc-bp- -`m-k-øp- v. A- \m-y-sc-bpw hn-[-h-am-sc-bpw A- h-cp-ss k- -S-ß-fn sn- p Im- Wp- -Xm-Wv km- m ssz-h-`- n-sb- v bm-t m-_v A-t m-kv- X-e- D-]-tZ-in- p. (bm-t m-_v 1:27) ssz-hw hn-[-h-bp-ss \ym-b- ]m-e-i-\m-wv. ""ssz-hw... hn-[-ham - p \ym-b-]m-e-i-\p-am-ip- p'' (k- o -Ø-\-߃ 68:5) (vii) Bizm-k-Zm-b-I : ssz-hw Zpx-Jn-X-sc B-iz-kn- n- p- -h-\pw A-h-cp-sS I-Æp-\o Xp-S- p- -h-\p-am-sw- v ss_- _n-fn ]-d- n-cn- p- p.'' A- h A-h-cp-sS I-Æn \n- pw I-Æp-\o F- mw Xp-S- p-i-f-bpw. C-\n a-c-ww D- m-i-bn-, Zpx- J-hpw ap-d-hn-fn-bpw I-jv-S-hpw C- \n D- m-i-bn-... Cu h-n-\w hnizm-k-tbm-ky-hpw k-xy-hpw B- Ip- p-sh- pw A-h I-ev-]n- p.'' (sh-fn- m-sv 21:4, 5) tb-ip-{in-kv- Xp C-l-tem-Iw hn-sp- -Xn-\p-ap- ºv X-s in-jy- m-sc B-iz-kn- n- h-n-\w F-{X-\n-kv-Xp-ey-am- Wv: -\n-ß-fp-ss lr-z-bw I-e-ßnt m-i-cp-xv, ssz-h-øn hn-izkn- n, F- n-epw hn-iz-kn- n. F-s ]n-xm-hn-s `-h-\-øn A-t\-Iw hm-k-ÿ-e-߃ D- v... -Rm \n-߃- p ÿ-ew H-cp- p-hm t]m-ip- p. Rm t]m-bn \n-߃- p ÿ-ew H-cp- n-bm Rm C-cn- p- C-S- Øp \n-ß-fpw C-cn-t - -Xn-\p ]n-s -bpw h- p \n-ß-sf F-s tijw t]pv 8

4 4 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn ss nƒ: ]g-b-\n-b-ahpw ]pxn-b-\n-b-ahpw sabv 20 kwkm-cn- n-cp- p.-a- m-fp-i-fn sszhw kwkm-cn hn-\-ßsf kwkv cn XpI-enepw a pw Fgp-Xn- Npcp-fp-I-fmbn kq n- ncp- p. AXn-\m-emWv ]pkvxi- p-cpƒ F t]cp- m-b-xv: At mƒ Rm ]d p CXm- Rm- hcp p, ]p-kvxi pcp-fn Fs Ipdn v Fgp-Xn-bn-cn- p- p (-k- o Ø-\-߃ 40:7). 12. sszh-øns Acp-f- m- Sp-Iƒ: btlmh C{]-Imcw A- cp-fn-s -øp psh v Bh- -Øn- p ]d- n-cn- p {KŸ-am-Wv ss nƒ. AXn-\m ssz-h- Øn-s Acp-f- m-sp-iƒ F t]cv CXn\v XnI pw tbmpn- p- -XmWv. H m-axv sszh-øns Acp-f- m-sp-iƒ Ah-cpsS ] ka n- n-cn- p- Xp Xs... (-tdm-a 3:2) 13. Bflm-hn hmƒ : sszhp-\-øn\v F m-ehpw i{xphn-t\msv ]S-s]m-cp-tX- -Xp- v. a\p-jy-c sszh-p-\-øns i{xp. -{]-XypX ]nim-nm-wv. ]nim-nv a\p-jysc Bbp-[-am- p- p-s - p- Xv kxy-am-wv. ]nimnv tbip-hns\ ]co- n- -t mss n-fns hnhn[ t]cp-iƒ ss n-fn-\p- n X- s AXns\ hnti-jn- n- p ]e-t]-cp-iƒ ImWm-hp- -Xm-Wv. Ah-bn {][m-\-am-b NneXv NphsS tn p p. 1.btlm-h-bpsS ]pkvx-iw: sszh-amb btlmh-bpss ]pkvx-i-sa- -t]-cp- ss n-fn\p XnI pw tbmpn- p- -Xm-Wv. temi-øn Hmtcm-cp-Ø Fgp- Xnb \nc-h[n ]pkvx-i-߃ D- v. F m sszh-øns ]pkvx-i-sa- -t]cv ss n-fn\p am{x-amwp Xv. btlm-h-bpss ]pkvx-i-øn At\zjn- p -hm-bn- p-t\m- p-hn ; Ah-bn H pw ImWm-Xn-cn- -bn-. H n- \pw CW C m-xn-cn- -bp-an. A-hs hmbt m I n- Xv, A-hs Bflm-hs{X Ahsb Iq n hcp-øn-bxv. (sb-i-ømhv 34:16) 2. btlm-h-bpss \ymb-{]- amww: sszhw Xs P\-Øn- \p A\p-{K-l-ambn Pohn- p-hm- Bh-iy-amb s]cp-am- -N- -߃ AS-ßnb Xs Znhy-{]-am-WsØ \ In-bn-cn- p- p. sszh- P\w {]am-w-an- m-ø-h-cmbn Pohn- p-hm sszhw CjvS-s -Sp- n-. sszh-øns \ymb{]-am- Ww XnI-hp- Xpw sszhp\w A-Xp-hn v CS-tØmt m hetøm-t m amdp-hm ]msn- m-ø- Xpw BIp p. (k- o Ø\w 1:2;- aømbn 5;17;8) 3. A n-a-b-amb {]amww: -sszhw kzm{]im-i-øn hkn- p- -h-\m-sw pw {]Im-isØ- h-kv{x-ambn [cn- -p -hs\ pw sh-fn- -ß-fpsS ]nxmhm-sw- psa mw ss nƒ hnh- n- n-cn- p- p.(k- o -Ø- \߃ 104:1,2; bmt m_v 1:17) temi-øns shfn- -ambn shfns {InkvXp-hn-s {]Imi-Øn- \S phm\n-jvs-s -Sm-Ø- P\w sszhøns \ymb-hn-[n- p -hn-t[-b-cm-ip-sa pw ss_- _nƒ ap -dn-bn- n- p- v.(tbml- m 3:16-19; 8:12)...-A-h p-th- n A n-a-b-am-sbm-cp- {]-amww Ahs hewiøn - D- m-bn-cp- p. (B-h Ø\w 33:2) 4. Xncp-sh-gpØv : ss nfn\v Xncp-sh-gpØv (ssz-h-øns Fgp-Øv) F -t]cv A\z- - w Xs. sszhw Xncp-hmbv sam-gn- p-\ Inb hn\w B- I-bm sszhni AwKoImcap{Z temi-øn- At\- I-cpsS hm p-iƒ k-xy-a- m-xmbn Xo- p-sim- n-cn- p-tºmƒ kxy-h- N-\-sa p t]-cp Hcp {KŸw `qan-bnep v.axm-wv hnip- ss_-_n-ƒ. sszh-h-n-\amb-xn-cp-sh-gp-øn-\p- v. F m-xn-cp-sh-gpøpw sszh-izm-ko-b-am-i-bm sszh-øns - a-\p-jy ki-e-k {]-h - Øn pw hi {]m]n p XnI- h BtI- -Xn\v D]-tZ-i-Øn- \pw imk-\-øn-\pw,-xn-cp-ø-en- \pw, \oxn-bp ]cnioe-\-øn- \pw {]tbm-p\ap Xv B-Ip- p. -(2XntamsY-tbmkv 3:16,17) 5. sszh-h-n\w: hnip- - ss_- -_n-fn\v sszh-h-n-\-sa- t]cv A\p-tbmPyw Xs. kie-søbpw ImWp- h\pw Adnbp- -h\p-amb sszhw Xs P- \-Øn\p hn\w \ In : sszh- Øn-s hn\w Poh\pw ssnx- \y-hpw D -Xmbn Ccp-hm-bvØe-bp GXp-hm-fn-s\- mfpw aq -tb-dn-bxpw {]mw-s\bpw Bflm-hn-s\bpw k n-a- -Isfbpw th s -SpØpwhsc Xpf- p sn p Xpw lrz-b-ønse Nn -I-sfbpw `mh-ß-sfbpw hnth-nn- p- Xpw BIp- p. (-F- {_m-b 4;12;sbi-ømhv 40:8) 6. sszh-i-ev]\: sszhw cm- Pm-hmWv. (1 iap-th 8:7 k- o- -Ø\߃ 5:2) cmpm-hmb sszhw Xs {]P-I-tfmSp I-ev]n- p- -h-\p-am-wv. sszh-øn-s I- ev]-\-iƒ v sszh-tøm-fw {]m- [m-\y-x-bp- v. -cm-p-i-ev]-\-bpss ewl\w Ip -I-chpw in- m-tbm- Ky-hp-am-Wv.- B-I-bm sszh-iev]-\isf AX- ln- p- Kuch-tØmSpw BZ-c-thm-Spw IqsS ]men-t Xv Bh-iy-am-Wv. Cßs\ \n߃ D]-tZ-in- - p k{º-zm-b-øm ssz-h-i-ev]\ Zp _-e-am- p p... (a -t mkv 7:1 3) btlm-hsb `b-s v Xs Iev]-\-I-fn G -hpw CjvS-s -Sp a\p-jy `m-kyhm. (k- o Ø-\-߃ 112:1) 7. Xncp-h-N\w: sszh-h-n-\- Øns as mcp t]cmwv Xncph-N-\w.- Xncp-h-N\w Fs A- Æm- n\v F{X a[pcw. Ah F- s hmb v tx\nepw \ -Xv. (-k- o Ø-\-߃ 119:103) 8.-hn-ip- -tc-j-: Aip- -cmb a\p-jysc hnip- -cm- p-, sszh-h-n-\-amwv hnip- -ss_- _nƒ.- ss_-_n-fn\v hnip- tcj F t]cv G hpw DNnXw X- s. sszhw Xs ]p{x\pw \- Ωp-sS I Øm-hp-amb tbip-{inkvxp-hn-s\- p-dn v Xs {]hm- N-I- m apjm- cw apºp-iq n hmkvzøw snbvx kphn-ti-j- Øn-\mbn th Xn-cn p hnfn- s A -kvtxm-e\pw tbip-{inkvxp-hns Zmk-\p-amb ]utemkv... (-tdm-a 1:1 3) 9.- k-xy-h-n\w: temi-øn- At\-I-cpsS hm p-iƒ k- Xy-a- m-xmbn Xo p-sim- n-cn- p-tºmƒ kxy-h-n-\-sa p t]- cp Hcp {KŸw `qan-bn-ep v. AXmWv hnip- -ss nƒ. imkv{x- m\w t]mepw s]m-fns -gp-xp C m-eøv (Hcp imkv{x icn-sb p ]d- kn m w as m-cp-h Xncp-Øn Ipdn- p p) sszhw X n-cn- p- am an- mø kxyhpw \nxyhp-amb hn-\-amwv ss_-_nƒ. kxy-h-n-\sø bym - -ambn {]kw-kn- p-sim v e- n- m- kwkxn C mø the- m-c- \m-bn sszh-øn\p sim m-ip- -h-\mbn \n m {ian- p- I. (2XntamsYtbmkv 2:15) 10. kxy-kÿw: sszhw X- s -{]-hm-n-i-\mb Zm\n-tb-ent\mSp kwkm-cn- p-tºmƒ sszh-h-n-\sø kxy-k-ÿ-sa t]-cn-emwv ]cn-n-b-s -Sp-ØnsIm-Sp- p Xv. a\pjy Fgp- Xp {KŸ-ß-fn-sems Ak- Xy-߃ Hfn pw sxfn pw ImWp-hm Ignbpw. sszhw k-xy-hm F {KŸw t]mepw Ak-Xy-ß-fpsS Ie-h-d-bm- Wv.-A-Xn At\Iw Ak-Xy߃ sh -]qin tn Øn-cn- p- Xp ImWmw. -F- m kxy- {K-Ÿ-Øn Fgp-Xn-bn-cn- p- Xv Rm \ns Adn-bn- mw -F- mwv sszhw Acp-fn-sN-bvXn-cn- p- -Xv. (-Zm-\n-tb 10:21) 11. ]pkvx-i- p-cpƒ: IS-emkpw A -Sn-hn-Zybpw \ne-hn h n v Nne \q m pisf Bbn- p q. -F- m AXn\p hfsc apºpw sszhw Xs P\-tØmSp ss nƒ alm- m-cpss ZrjvSnbn G{_lmwen- : (bp.-f- v. {]kn-u v ) sszhw a\p-jy-\p \ Inb al-ømb Zm\-amWv ss nƒ F p Rm hniz-kn- p- p... c -I-\n \n p \ -I-sf mw \ap v FØn- p-x-cp- Xv Cu al-xv{k-ÿ-amwv tpm v hmjnw-kvs (bp. F v. {]kn-u v ): sszh-sø-iq-sm-sxbpw ss nƒ C m-sxbpw temi-sø- i-cn-bmbn `cn- p-hm km y-a tpm BUwkv (bp.-f v. {]kn-u v ): k Δ-tem-I-Øn-s bpw {i sb BI jn- p-hm ]cym-]vx-amb GI {KŸ-amWv ss nƒ. alm-flm-km n: Alnw-k-bpsS XXzw {iotb-ip-hns Kncn-{]-`m-j-W-Øn-emWv Rm Is -Øn-b-Xv. ]pxn-b-\n-b-a-hmb\ Fs Ft mgpw B\-μ-`-cn-X-\m- p- Ibpw AXn-e-[nIw kt m-jn- n- p-ibpw snøp- p. teun Pbn t{k (cm n Cw v ): ss nƒ Xcp B\-μ-Øn-\p-ap-ºn euio-i-ßfmb D m-k-߃ am p-t]m-ip \ng t]mse am{xsa Ccn- p- p- p. bqen-s kv {Km v (bp.-f v {]kn-u v ): \ΩpsS kwkv m-c-øns D -a-\-øn\v \mw IS-s - n-cn- p- Xv ss n-fn-t\m-s-s{x. AXp-Xs \ΩpsS `mhn- p- am Z in-bpw. hneyw m v ({_n ojv {][m-\-a{ n ): Fs Poh-Im-eØv temi- Øn-ep 95 alm- m-sc- F-\n v t\cn v Adn-bp-hm Ign- n- p- v. Ahcn 87 t]cpw ss nƒ hniz-kn- p- -h Bbncp p. hpt{um-hn k (bp.-f v.{]-kn-u v ): ss n-fnse m\w kw_- n v Adn-hn- møh temi-ønse G hpw sa -am-b-xn-s\- n Adn-hn- m- Ø-h-\-s{X. tdmh v t_mb : ss n-fns\ Hcp Bbp-[- p-cbm-bn- Rm ]cn-k-wn- p- Xv ; {]XypX sszh- Øns at\m-lm-cn-xsb \nxyw-[ym-\n- m-\p Hcp tzhmebw Bbn- s{x!! k sfk- v\yq- : G hpw D IrjvS-amb XXz- m-\-ambn Xncp-sh-gp-Øp- Isf Rm ImWp- p. hmbn p Xo phm Ign-bm-Ø-Xp-t]mse ]pkvx-i-߃ F\n- p v. AXn-se mw hne-a-xn- p Hcp {KŸ-ap v ss nƒ. sle si : {]Imi-tØmSpw A- -Im-c-tØm-Sp-ap \ΩpsS k p-en-xmhÿ \jvs-am-ip-sa- -Xn-\m kt mj-k- m] thf-i-fn Hcp-t]mse thz ]pkvx-i-øn B{i-bn- p coxn hf Ønsb-Sp-t - n-bn-cn- p p. s\t m-fn-b t_mw- m v: ss nƒ tihew Hcp ]pkvxiw am{xw Bbn-cn- msx {]h Ø-\-ti-jn-bp Hcp Bf-Xzam-bn-\n-e-sIm- p- p. AXns hym]-\sø sndp- p GsXm-cp-i- n-sbbpw AXp Iog- S- p- p. ƒ sszh-h-n-\-sa Ccp-hmbvØ-e-bp hmfn-\m-emwv ]nim-nns\ txmev n- -Xv. sszh-p- \w t]m -f-øn-em-i-bm F- t mgpw ]nim-nn-t\msp ]S-s]mcp-Xm PmK-cq-I-cmbn Ccn-t - -XmWv. (F-s^-ky 6:10 13; aømbn 4:1 11)- c F inckv{xhpw sszh-h-n-\-sa B- flm-hns hmfpw ssi-sim-ƒho. (Fs^-ky 6:17). 14. am- -an- mø hn-\w: hm- p amdp kz`m-h-ap a\p-jycpss at y-po-hn- p ssz-h-p- \-Øn\p {]am-w-ambn kz - -Øn- ÿnc-am- n-bxpw B-Im-ihpw `qanbpw amdn-bmepw am- -s -Sm-Ø- Xp-amb Xncp-h-N-\-am-Wv sszhw \evin-bn-cn- p- -Xv.- B-Im-ih-pw `qanbpw Hgn- p-t]m-ipw. Fs hn-\-ßtfm Hgn- p-t]m-i-bn-. kxy-ambn Rm- \nß-tfm- Sp ]d-bp p, B-Im-ihpw `qan-bpw Hgn- p-t]m-ipw- hsc,k-i-ehpw \nh -Øn-bm-Ip-thmfw \ymb-{]- am-w-øn- \n v Hcph n F- nepw ]p- n F nepw Hcp \mfpw Hgn- p t]m-ip-i-bn (a- Ømbn 5:18;24:35)

5 5 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn ss nƒ: ]g-b-\n-b-ahpw ]pxn-b-\n-b-ahpw sabv 20 ]gb \nb-a-øns {Ko v ]cn-`m-j-bmb sk]v z-pn pw sptdm-ans em n hƒtk pw C p \mw D]-tbm-Kn- p NXp hn[ hn`-p\w ] -{K-Ÿ-߃, Ncn-{X-]p-kvX-I-߃, Imhy-]pkvX-I-߃, {]hm-ni ]pkvx-i-߃ BWv ]n p-s n-cp- -Xv. ]gb \nba ]pkvx-ißsf ""Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-Iƒ'' F mwv ]pxnb \nb-a-øn ]cm-a- in- n- p- -Xv. tbip-{in-kvxphpw As m-kvx-e- mcpw Ahsb sszh-izm-kob Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-I-fmbn AwKo-I-cn- n-cp- p. ]gb \nb-ahpw {InkvXob hnizm-kn-ifpw Xt Adn psim- Ww. {]- hn\w Hcn epw a\pjys C- Øm h X, sszh-iev]- \bm a\pjy ]cnip- m-fl- \ntbmkw {]m]n n p kwkmcn- -Xt{X'' (2 ]s{xmkv 1:21). sszhw {]hm-n-i- m-cn-eqss a\p-jytcmsp kwkm-cn- p am - amwv sszh-izm-ko-b-x. thz-]p-kvxi {KŸ-߃ tih-ew k m-fli Fgp-Øp-ImcpsS `mh-\-bn hncn Imev]-\nI cn-\-i-f-, sszhw shfn-s -Sp-Ønb Acp-f- m-sp-iƒ F- \ne-bn sszh-\n-bp F- gp- -Øp-Im Fgp-Xn-b-h-bmWv F- p kqnn n p -Xn-\mWv Cu ]Zw D]-tbm-Kn- n-cn- p- -Xv. ]gb \nb-a-øns sszh-izm-ko-bx ]gb \nbaw sszh-izm-kob Xncp-sh-gp-Øm-sW v AXp X- s Ah-Im-i-s -Sp-Ibpw {]hm- NI hn-\-ambn sszh-p\w AwKo-I-cn- p-ibpw snøp p (2 ]s{xmkv 1:21). sszh-øns hnc sim- v ]Øp Iev]-\-Iƒ Fgp-Xnb Iev]-e-I-Iƒ tamsi \nb-a-s - -I-Øn kq n- p-sh p (Bh. 10:5). ]n osv CXn-t\mSv {]hm- NI Fgp-Øp-Iƒ Iq n-t Øp (tbm-ip. 24:26; 1 iaq. 10:25). X- s Fgp-Øp-Iƒ sszh-øn \n- p- -h-bm-sw v tamsi A- h-im-i-s p (]p-d. 20:1; te-hy. 1:1; kwjy. 1:1; Bh. 1:3). ]gb \nb-a-øns CXc `mk-߃ tamsi-bpss Fgp-Øp-I-sf-ssZh-iz-m-kob Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-I-fmamXyp ]me-øp- ]g-b, ]pxnb \nb-a-ß-fnepƒs 66 ]p-kv-x-i-ß-f-s-ßnb hn-ip- ss_-_n-fn-s\ B-[n- Im-cn-I ssz-h-h-n-\-am-bn Aw-Ko- I-cn- p- -h-cm-wv s{]m- -à v hnizm-kn-iƒ. Cu Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øp- I-sf A-Sn-ÿm-\ {]-am-w-am-bpw ssz-h-im-kv-{x, D-]-tZ-i, cq-]o-ic-w-øn-\p- B-[n-Im-cn-I A- Sn-ÿm-\-am-bpw A-h Aw-Ko-Icn- n-cn- p- p. hn-izm-k-øn-\pw B-N-c-W-Øn-\p-ap- A-Sn-ÿm- \w hn-ip- Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øp-I-fm- Wv F- m-wn-xn-\ - w. _nªnb F- se-øo ]- Z-Øn \n- p-am-wv ({Ko- v _ntªm-kv)- ss_-_nƒ F- ]-Z-ap- m-b-xv. ]m- n-d-kv sn-sn-bn \n- pw D-ev-]m-Zn- n- p- F-gp-Øp km-a-{kn-sb (I-S-em-kv) kq-nn- n- m-\m-wv Cu ]-Zw D-]-tbm-Kn- p- -Xv. B-Zy-Im-e ss_-_n-ƒ c-n- \-Iƒ ]m- n-d-kn-epw kw-kv-i-cn- ar-k-tøm-en-epw (sh- w) B- bn-cp- p ]-I -Øn-bn-cp- -Xv. ]g-b, ]pxnb \nb-a-߃ {In-kv-Xp-hn-\p ap-ºv G-Xm- v H-cp k-l-{km-_v-z-øn-e-[n-i-ambn sb-lq-z k-aq-lw tc-j-s -Sp- Øn kw-c- n- v ]m-en- p- t]m- -h-bm-wv ]-g-b \n-b-a {K-Ÿßƒ. ]p-xn-b \n-b-aw {In-kv-Xp in-jy- m F.-Un.- H- mw \q- m- n c-nn- -h-bm-wv. c- p I- n-iƒ X-Ωn-ep- ""D-S-º-Sn'' A-Y-hm ""D-`-b-k-Ω-X''- sø kq-nn- n- p- -Xn-\p- F- {_m-b, {Ko- v ]-Z-ß-fp-sS X - -a-bm-wv ""\n-b-aw'' F- -Xv. tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hn-s B-f-Xz-Øneq- n-b-xm-wv c- p \n-b-a-߃ X-Ωn-ep- kz-ssc-iyw. ]p-xn-b \n-b-aw ]-g-b-\n-b-a-øn a-d- p-in-s- p- p F- pw ]-g-b \nb-aw ]p-xn-b \n-b-a-øn sh-fns -Sp-Ø-s - n-cn- p- p F- pw sk v A-K-Ãn {]-kv-xm-hn- ncn- p- p. sb-lq-z- m F-{_m-b ]-g-b \n-b-a-sø aq- m-bn Xn-cn- n-cn- p- p: tam-si-bp-ss ]- -{K-Ÿß-f-S-ßn-b \ym-b-{]-am-ww (txm-dm), {]-hm-n-i ]p-kv-x-i-߃ (s\-_n-bnw), F-gp-Øp-Iƒ (si-xq-_nw). txmdm: Dev]Øn, ]pd- m-sv, tehym-]p-kvx-iw, kwjym-]p-kvx-iw, Bh- -Ø- \]pkvxiw; s\-_n-bnw: ap - Im-e {]hm-n-i- m tbmip-h, \ymbm-[n-]- m, iaq-th, cmpm- - m ; ]n-ev me {]hm- N-I- m sbi-øm-hv, bnsc-aymhv, sbsl-kvti, 12 sndnb {]hm-n-i- m ; sixq_nw: Imhy-]p-kvX-I-߃ k o Ø-\- ߃, kzr-i-hm-iy-߃, Ctøm- _v; sakn-t møv (A p Npcpfp-Iƒ) DØ-a-Ko-Xw, cqøv, hnem-]-߃, Ftÿ, k`m-{]- kwkn; Ncn{X ]pkvx-i-߃ Zm\o-tb, F{km- -s\-sl-aymhv, Zn\-hr-Øm- -߃. F -ncp- mepw ""\ymb{]-am- Whpw {]hm-n-i- mcpw'' F {]tbmkw ]gb \nbaw apgp-hs\bpw kqnn- n- n-cp- -Xmbn Im-Wmw (skj. 7:12; Zm\o. 9:2, 6,11,13). ]gb ]pxnb \nb-a-ßfpss CS- me Ncn-{X-Ønepw (2 a m-_n-b 15:9; am\p-h Hm^v Unkn-πn 9.11, Ip{am ) ]pxnb \nb-a-ønepw (a-øm. 5:17; eqs m. 16:31) Cu {]tbm-kw Im- Wm-hp- -XmWv. eqs m. 24:27 ""\ymb{]-am-whpw {]hm-n-i- mcpw'' F -Xns\ ""F m Xncpsh-gpØpw'' F p I Ømhv hnti-jn- n- n-cn- p- p. H mw \q m- n Xs aq masø hn`m-ksø thdn p kqnn- n p XpS-ßn. A mw \q- m- nse anjv\m (_m_m _m- {X) cq]oi-cwtømss-bm-wv ap- I-fn kqnn- n ]Xn-s\m- p ]p-kvx-i-ß-f-s-ßnb si-xq-_ow F aq mw hn`m-ksø thdn- p kqnn- n p XpS-ßn-b-Xv. A- Xp-hsc ] -{K-Ÿ-߃ Hgn-sIbp- -hsb {]hm-n-i- m F- mwv hyh-l-cn- n-cp- -Xv. ]gb \nb-a-øns {Ko v ]cn-`m-j-bmb sk]v z-pn pw sptdm-ans em n hƒtk pw C- p \mw D]-tbm-Kn- p NXp - hn[ hn`-p\w ] -{K-Ÿ-߃, Ncn-{X-]p-kvX-I-߃, Imhy-]pkvX-I-߃, {]hm-ni ]pkvx- I-߃ BWv ]n p-s n-cp- -Xv. sbi-øm-hns Npcpƒ ]gb \nba ]pkvx-i-ßsf ""Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-Iƒ'' F mwv ]pxnb \nb-a-øn ]cm-a- in- n- p- -Xv. tbip-{in-kvxphpw As m-kvx-e- mcpw Ahsb sszh-izm-kob Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-Ifmbn AwKo-I-cn- n-cp- p. ss n-fns sszh-izm-ko-bx ""sszh-izm-kobw'' F ]- Zw (God-breathed) Xntbm-]v\yqkvt m-kv F {Ko p ]Z-Øns X -a-bm-wv. sszh-øns izmkw DuXn-bXv F - - w (D-ev]. 2:7). _ -an hm - ^o Uv AXns\ hni-zo-i-cn- ncn- p- -Xv, ""hnip Fgp-Øp-ImcpsS cn-\-iƒ v sszhn-i-amb hnizm-k-tbm-kyx e`n- p- -Xn- \mbn sszhm-flm-hn-\m Ahcp-sS-ta snep-ø-s {]Ir- timuivkv høn- m-\kv sbi. 52:10 54:2 hsc Xym-Xo-X-amb kzm[o\w'' F m- Wv (ISBE, Vol. 1, p.1473). sszhni \nb-{ -W-Øn sszhni Fgp-Øp-Im Fgp-Xnb cn-\-ifp-ss-ta Ahsb B[n-Im-cn-Iambn AwKo-I-cn- p sszh-øns- ssisbm v F \ne-bn- Xs izmkw sszhw Du-Xn F p a\- n-em- m-hp- -Xm-Wv. As mkvxe\mb ]usemkv Xnsam-sY-sbm-kn\v Fgp-Xn, ""F- m Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øpw ssz-hizm-ko-b-am-i-bm ssz-h-øns a-\p-jy k-i-e-k -{]-hr- Øn- pw h-i {]m-]n- p Xn-I- h B-tI- Xn-\v D-]-tZ-i-Øn- \pw im-k-\-øn-\pw Kp-Wo-I-c- W-Øn-\pw \o-xn-bn-se A-`ym-k- Øn-\pw {]-tbm-p-\-ap- -Xv B-Ip- p'' (2 Xnsam. 3:16,17). ]gb \nba Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-I-sf-bmWv ChnsS ]cm-a in- n-cn- p- -Xv. Xntbm-]v\yq-kvt mkv F ]Zw ChnsS am{xta D]-tbm-Kn- n- p- p. F m ""sszh-øns hmbn \n pw hcp kie hn-\-ßfpw'' F p ]d-bp- n- SØv (a-øm. 4:4) tbip-{inkvxp C m-cy-amwv kqnn- n- n-cn- p- -Xv. ""btlmhbpss Bflmhv F- n kwkmcn p p; Ahs hn\w Fs \mhnt Ccn p p'' (2 iaq. 23:2) F v ZmhoZv {]kvxm-hn- p. ss n-fns sszh-izm-kobx kw_- n- p as mcp {]- [m\ hmiyw 2 ]s{xmkv 1:21 B- Wv. ""XncpshgpØnse {]hn\w H- pw kzbamb hym-jym\-øm- DfhmIp X F v BZyw

6 6 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn ss nƒ: ]g-b-\n-b-ahpw ]pxn-b-\n-b-ahpw sabv 20 \ap v ]g-b-\n-baw thwtam? bn AwKo-I-cn p (tbm-ip. 1:8; 1 i-aq. 12:6; Zm\o. 9:12; s\sl. 13:1). tamsi p tijw ""b-tlmh C{]-Imcw Acp-fn-s -øp p'' F {]kvxm-h-\-tbmss {]hm- N-I- m {]h-nn- p. ]g-b-\n-ba Ime-L- -Øns A y-l- -Øn- ""tamsibpw {]hm-n-i- m-cpw'' Fgp-Xnb Fgp-Øp-I-fpsS sszhni B[n-Im-cn-IX AwKo-I-cn- -s - n-cp- p (Zm-\o. 9:2; skj. 7:12). ]gb \nbaw sszh-izmkob Xncp-sh-gp-Øm-sW v ]pxnb \nbaw km n- p- p. tbip-{inkvxp ]gb \nbasø sszh-h-n-\-ambn AwKo- I-cn p. 1. A\p-k-cn-t sszhh-n-\-amwh.""aßs\ Fgp-Xnbncn p p'' F p {]kvxm-hn- p-sim v ]g-b-\n-b-asø sszhni {]am-w-ambn AwKo-I-cn- p. ""a\pjy A wsim p am{xa, sszhøns hmbn qsn hcp kie hn\wsim pw Pohn p p F v FgpXn-bncn- p p'' (a-øm. 4:4, 7, 10). 2. Ah Hcn- epw \o w hcm-ø-h-bm-wv. ""kxyambn Rm \nßtfmsv ]dbp p: B- Imihpw `qanbpw Hgn p-t]m- Ipwhsc kiehpw \nhr-ønbmipthmfw \ymb{]-amw-øn- \n v Hcp h n F nepw ]p- n F nepw Hcp\mfpw Hgn- pt]mipibn '' (a-øm. 5:18). 3. Ah sx n- q-sm-ø-h-bm- Wv. ""sszhøns Acpf msv D- mbn p hsc tzh m F v ]d p F n -Xncpsh-gpØn- \p \o w h piqst m '' (tbml. 10:35). 4. Ah sx n- m-ø-h-bm- Wv. ""kxyøm Ahsc hn-ip- oicn Wta; \ns hn\w kxyw BIp p'' (tbm-l. 17:17 H.-t\m. aøm. 22:29). 5. Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn IrXy-Xbp- -Xmbn AwKo-I-cn- p. B- Zmw, lδ, t\ml, tbm\m F nhsc Ncn{X hy n-i-fmbn ]gb \nb-a-tøm-sp {InkvXob hntcm- [w C pw C -sebpw Bcw-`n- -X-. k`m Ncn- {X-Ønse BZysØ Zpcp-]-tZ-i-I-cn-sem-cp-h- \mb am kn-b-\mwv ]gb \nb-asø X n- -f-bw-sa v BZy-ambn hmzn- -Xv. Icn- -S XocØv s]t m-knse knt\m- n Hcp _nj- n-s ai-\m-bn- mwv am kn-b P\n- -Xv. k- º- -\mb I \n Ωm-Xm-hmbn hf - am - kn-b k`-bnse D]-tZ-jvSm-hm-bn-Øo- p. F.-Un. 140 tdman-se-ønb Abmƒ t mãniv XXz-Nn- -bnepw tumk- n-kn-k-øn-epw BIrjvS-\mbn. Be- m-cni hymjym-\-sø ]q Æambn X n- -f- p-sim v B- - -cni hymjym-\sø am kn-b apdpsi ]nsn- p. Kvt\mÃnIv Nn -bpss ASn-ÿm-\-Øn ]gb \nb-a-ønse sszhw XmW-\n-e-bn-ep {kjvsmhmw sszh-am-sw pw (su-an-b Pv) {Iqc-\mb bp -Øn-s bpw \oxn-bp-ssbpw \nba-øn-s bpw sszh-am-sw pw Abmƒ hmzn- p. AtX-k-abw ]pxnb \nb-a-ønse sszhw Icp-W-bp- h\pw c n- p- -h-\pw Xs ]p{x-\mb {InkvXp-hns\ c n-i-\mbn Ab- -h-\pw BWv. ]pxnb \nba Fgp-Øp-Im-cn ]usemkv am{xamwv bym As m-kvxe. ImcWw ]usemkv sblqz \ymb{]-am- WsØ Xnc-kvI-cn- p. ]pxnb \nb-a-øn\v am kn-b D m- nb Imt\m-\mWv BZysØ timuivkv ssk\-bv n- kv AwKo-I-cn- n-cn p p (a-øm. 12:40; 24:37-38). 6. A na A[n-Imcw Xncpsh-gp-Øn-\m-Wv. ""A-h A-htcm-Sv D-Ø-cw ]-d- -Xv: \n-ßfp-ss k-{º-zm-bw-sim- p \n-߃ ssz-h-i-ev-]-\ ew-ln- p- -Xv F- v? A- -s\-bpw A-Ω-sb-bpw _-lp-am-\n- p-i F- pw A- s\-tbm A-Ω-sb-tbm Zp-jn- p- -h a-cn- -Ww F- pw sszhw I-ev-]n- p-h-t m'' (a-øm. 15:3, 4). ssz-h-h-n-\-øn-\-xo-x-am-bn X-ß-fp-sS ]m-c-º-cy-ß-sf ap-dpsi- n-sn- -h-sc tb-ip im-kn- p (a-øm. 15:1 6). ]-g-b \n-b-a-øn-s ssz-hizm-ko-b-x kw-_- n- tb-iphn-s ]Tn- n- \n-cp-]m-[n-ihpw H-Øp-Xo - n- m-ø-xp-am-bncp- p. tb-ip-hn-s h-n-\-߃ \n-tj-[n- p- -h-\p am-{x-ta ]- g-b \n-b-a-øn-s ssz-h-izm-kob-x-sb \n-tj-[n- m I-gn-bq. ]-g-b \n-b-a-øn-s B-[n-Im-cn- I-X H-cp-h Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- ns - n c- -I-s k-xy-k- - X-sb \n-tj-[n- p-i-bm-w-h sn-øp- -Xv. am kn-b\pw ]g-b-\n-ba hntcm-[hpw ]pxnb \nba Imt\m. AXn eqt m-kns kphn-ti-jhpw (B-ZysØ aq v A[ym-b-߃ \o w snbvx-xv), ]usem-kns ]Øp tej- \-ßfpw BWv Dƒs - n-cp- -Xv. tbip-{inkvxp kv{xobn \n pw P\n- -Xs pw F.-Un. 29 {]mb-]q Øn-bmb Hcp hy n-bmbn I^ -lq-anse kn\-tkm-kn s]s p {]Xy- -s -Sp-I-bm-bn-cp p F pw am kn-b ]Tn- n- p. {]Xy- -Øn am{x-ambn-cp p tbip a\p-jy. a\p-jys tzlnbpw Bflmhpw am{x-amwv hos -Sp- -s -Sp- X.v ico-c-øns ]p\-cp- m-\-øn hniz-kn- n-cp- n-. ]g-b\nb-a-ønse sszhw sblq-z- m-tcmsv {]txyi {]oxn ImWn- n-cp- -Xn-\m ]gb \nb-a-søbpw sblqz hmb-\- m-tcmsv A\p- `mhw ]pe Øp ]pxnb \nba ]pkvx-ißfpw X n- -f-b-wsa- mwv am kn-b hmzn- -Xv. F.-Un. 144 k` am kn-bs\ Zpcp-]-tZ-i- I-\mbn ap{z-ipøn ]pd-øm- n. 207 sx Øp-ey ""am -kn-bs\-xn-cmbn'' F JWvU-\-sa-gp-Xn. (Stanley E. Porter, Dictionary of Biblical Criticism and Interpretation, New york: Routledge, 2007, pp ; The History of Christianity, UK: The Lion Publishing, 1977, pp. 102, 103). As m-kvx-e- mcpw injy- mcpw ]gb \nb-asø sszhh-n-\-ambn AwKo-I-cn p. 1. ]s{xmkv. ""Ah\n hnizkn p Gh\pw Ahs \mawaqew ]m]tamn\w e`n- pw F v kie {]hmn-i mcpw km yw ]dbp p'' ({]-hr. 10:43) F v ]s{xmkv sim teym-kn\v Dd- p-sim-sp- p- p. ]g-b-\n-ba Fgp-Øp-Im-cn-ep ""{InkvXp-hns Bflm-hmWv'' Ah-cn-eqsS {]h-nn- -sx v ]- s{xm-kv hy -am- p p (1 ]- s{xm. 1:10-12). ""Ahcnep {InkvXphn Bflmhp {InkvXphn\p htc I ßsfbpw ]n- -hcp alnasbbpw apº-n - Iq- n km oicn t mƒ...'' 2. ^nen-s m-kv. ""^nen-s mkv Cu XncpshgpØv B[mcam- n Aht\mSv tbiphns-\ pdn- p kphn-tijw Adnbn- phm XpSßn'' ({]-hr. 8:35). sbi-øm {]h-n-\-ønse Xncp-shgpØv BW-sX p hy -am-wv. 3. ]usem-kv. ""sszhw Xs ]p-{x\pw \ΩpsS I -Øm-hpamb tbip{inkvxp-hns\- pdn- p hnip tcj-ifn Xs {]hm- NI- m apjm cw apºpiq n hmkvzøw snbvx kp-hntijøn \mbn...'' (tdm-a. 1:1, 2). Xmsg- -d-bp coxn-bn ]gb \nb-a-ønse GXm v F m hn`mk-ß-fn \n pw ]usemkv D -cn- p- p- v. \ymb-{]-amww Dev]-Øn, ]p-d- m-sv, tehy, kwjy, Bh - Ø-\w. {]hm-n-i- m 1 & 2 iaqth, 1 cmpm m, sbiømhv, bnscaymhv, sbsl-kvti, Zm\o-tb, tlmti-b, tbmth-, Btam-kv, l_- p-iv, skjcym-hv, aem-jn. Fgp-Øp-Iƒ k o Ø-\- ß-ƒ, kzr-i-hm-iy-߃, Ctøm- _v. 33 k o Ø-\-ß-fn \n pw sbi-øm-hnse 29 A[ymb-ß-fn \n pw ]usemkv D cn- p- p- v. 4. k o Ø-\-ß-fn {]Xn- ]m-zn- n-cn- p IjvSw kln- p \oxn-am tbip-{in-kvxphm-sw v BZna hnizm-kn-iƒ hniz-kn- n-cp- p. sszh-izm-ko-bxbpss ^ew sx n- q-smbva: sszh-izmko-b-x-bpss ^ew sx n- q-sm- Ø Hcp hn\w \ap p e`n- p F -Xm-Wv. sszhw kxy-hm\pw (tdm-a. 3:4), ss nƒ sszh- Øn \n p h Xp-am-sW- n (2 Xnsam. 3:16) ss nƒ BZntbm-S w kxy-am-wv. A coi sszh-izm-kobx: sszh-izm-ko-bx ss nfnse Bi-b-߃ p am{x-a-, hm p-iƒ p-ap- v. 1 simcn. 2:12-13 ]d-bp- -Xp-t]m-se, ""\mtam tem-iøns Bflmhns\ A-, sszhw \ap p \evinbxv A-dnbphm\mbn ssz-høn -\n- p Bflmhns\ At{X {]m- ]n- Xv. AXp R߃ am\pj- m-\w D]tZin p hn\- ß-fm A, Bflmhv D]tZin- p hn\ßfm Xt {]-kvxmhn psim -v B-flnI- m v BflnIambXp sx-fnbn p p.'' ""F v Fgp-Xn-bn-cn- p- p'' (a-øm. 4:4,7,10) F hm- p-i-fn A -coi sszhizm-ko-bx ImWmw. ""BIm-ihpw `qanbpw Hgn p-t]mipw-hsc kiehpw \nhrøn-bmipthm-fw \ymb{]amw-øn \n- v Hcp h n F nepw ]p n F- nepw Hcp \mfpw Hgn pt]mipibn '' (a-øm. 5:18) F p I Ømhp ]d- p. kºq Æ sszh-izm-kobx: ss nfns F m `mkßfpw Xpey-\n-e-bn sszh-izmko-b-am-wv. 2 Xnsam. 3:16 ]d-bp- p, ""F m Xncp-sh-gpØpw sszh-izm-ko-b-am-i-bm...'' ]gb \nba Imt\m cq]o-i-cww ]-g-b-\n-b-a-øn-se 39 ]p-kv- X-I-߃ am-{x-am-twm ssz-hizm-ko-bw? F-ß-s\-bm-Wv Cu ]p-kv-x-i-߃ Aw-Ko-Im-cw e-`n- -Xv? F- o tnm-zy-߃- v D-Øcw \ -Ip-I-bm-Wv Im-t\m F- -Xp-sIm- v D-t±-in- p- -Xv. Imt\m F- {Ko- p ]-Z-Øn-\v ""A-f-hp-tIm '' F- -W - w. ss_-_n-fn-t\m-sp- _- - Øn ssz-h- -izm-ko-b {K-Ÿ-ßfp-sS Im- -tem-kv A-Y-hm ]- n-i B-Wv Im-t\m. Bw-^n-tem- nb-kv (F.-Un. 380) B-Wv Cu \n-e-bn Cu ]-Zw- B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- -Xv. tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hns Im-e-Øn-\p ap-ºp X-s C- -sø \n-e-bn-ep- ]-g-b \nb-a Im-t\m cq-]o-ir-x-am-bn-cp- p F- p hy- -am-wv. am-{x-a- A-h-sb ssz-h-izm-ko-b Xncp-sh-gp-Øv F- \n-e-bn tbip-{in-kv-xp D-]-tbm-Kn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xn-cp- p. sb-lq-z ]m-c-º-cy-a-\p-k-cn- v F-{km-bpw a-lm-kn-\-tkm-kp-am- Wv ]-g-b-\n-b-a Im-t\m cq-]o- I-cn- -Xv. sk-cp- m-t_-en-s Imew Xp-S-ßn \o-xn-am-\m-b sska (ssk-a Zn P-Ãv) h-sc \n-e-\n- -Xpw {]-hm-n-i- m-cpw sb-lq-z-k-aq-l-øn-se {]-am-wnam-cpw Dƒ-s - -Xp-am-b kw-l-ambn-cp- p a-tlm kn-\-tkm-kv. _n.- kn. aq- mw \q- m- n-s B-cw- `-Im-e-Øv \o-xn-am-\m-b ssk-a- Wn-s Im-e-Øv Im-t\m cq-]o- I-c-Ww ]q -Øn-bm-b-Xm-bn hn-izkn- -s -Sp- p. kn-dn-b cm-pm-hm-b A- t ym- -kv F- n-^m-\-kv (_n.- kn.168) \ym-b-{]-am-w ]p-kv-x-i- Øn-s tim- n-iƒ Xo- n-c-bm- p-i-bpw \ym-b-{]-am-ww ssih-iw h-bv- p- -Xv h-[-in- e- `n- p- Ip- -am-bn {]-Jym-]n- p- I-bpw sn-bv-xp (1 a- m-_n-b 1:56). F- n-epw ]o-um-im-e-øn- \p-ti-jw ]-g-b \n-b-aw C- p Im-Wp- \n-e-bn ho- pw D- ]-tbm-kn- -s - p. F- n-epw Cu Im-e-L- - Øn [m-cm-fw A-Im-t\m-\n-I {K-Ÿ-߃ c-nn- -s -Sp-I-bpw D- ]-tbm-kn- -s -Sp-I-bpw sn-bv-xp. a- m-_n-b, F-kv-{Zm-kv, m- \w Xp-S-ßn-b-h h-f-sc {]-Nm-cw t\-sp-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. Cu km-l- N-Øn, sb-cq-i-tew \-in- n- s - -Xn-\p-ti-jw, F.-Un. 70 sb-lq-z d- n-am-cp-ss kw-lw Pmav-\n-b-bn tbm-kw tn-cp-i-bpw ]-g-b \n-b-a Im-t\m ]q -Ønbm-b-Xm-bn {]-Jym-]n- p-i-bpw C- -sø \n-e-bn-ep- ]-g-b \nb-a {K-Ÿ-߃ Aw-Ko-I-cn- p-ibpw A-t m-{in-^m {K-Ÿ-ß-sf Xn-c-kv-I-cn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. F- m _n.-kn. 300 \p tijw H-fn- n- p h- n-cp- Nm-hp-I- S Np-cp-fp-I-fp-sS Iq- -Øn \nc-h-[n A-t m-{in-^m {K-Ÿ-߃ D- m-bn-cp- p. am-{x-a- Im-t\m- kw-_- n- Cu A- n-a \n - Æ-b-Øn-\p ap-ºv \n -Ωn-

7 7 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn ss nƒ: ]g-b-\n-b-ahpw ]pxn-b-\n-b-ahpw sabv 20 am -an- mø Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-Iƒ {Ko p ]-cn-`m-j-bm-b sk-]v- z- Pn n-epw A-t m-{in-^m {K-Ÿßƒ Dƒ-s - n- p- v. {In-kv-Xo-b ]-g-b\n-b-a Im-t\m tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hpw A-s m-kv- X-e- m-cpw Cu ]-g-b \n-b-a Imt\m-\n-I {K-Ÿ-ß-sf ssz-h-\nizm-ko-b-am-bn Aw-Ko-I-cn- n-cp- p F- p kq-nn- n- p-h-t m. F- n-cp- m-epw A-h-cm-cpw ]-g-b \nb-a Im-t\m-\n-I {K-Ÿ-ß-fp-sS ]- n-i \ -In-bn- n-. F.-Un. c- mw \q- m- n B-cw-`n- v A- mw \q- m- n F-gp-Xn A-hkm-\n- n- X -aq-zn Cu ]-gb \n-b-a {K-Ÿ-߃ F- mw X- s ]-cm-a -in- n- p- v. \m-emw \q- m- n-s A-h-km-\-Øn sp-tdm-an-s F-gp-Øp-I-fn-epw C- tx Im-t\m-s\ kq-nn- n- n- p- v. C-Xm-Wv sb-lq-z- m-cp-ss Imt\m F- v sp-tdmw km- ys -Sp-Øn-bn- p- v. \m-emw \q- m- n X-s F- n-^m-\n-b-kv, F-{_m-b {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fp-sS Imt\m C-Xm-sW- p ]-d- v ]- n-i \ -In-bn- p- v. ]-g-b \n-b-a-hpw {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fpw {In-kv-Xo-b k-` cq-]w sim- k-a-bw ap-x X-s sblq-z-s th-z-{k-ÿ-sø ssz-hizm-ko-b Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øm-bn Aw- Ko-I-cn- n-cp- p. s]- -t m-kv-xp \m-fn-se {]-kw-k-øn X-s ]- s{xm-kv ]-g-b-\ \n-b-a D- -c-wn- Iƒ D-]-tbm-Kn- v A-\y-`m-jm-`mj-Ww F- {]-Xn-`m-k-sØ k- a - n- n-cp- p. tb-ip-{in-kv-xp-hns P-\-\w, Po-hn-Xw, D-]-tZi߃,- I-jv-Sm-\p-`-hw, a-c-ww, D-bn -sø-gp-t -ev-]v F- n-h-sb- mw ]-g-b \n-b-a Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øp- I-fp-sS \n-hr-øn-bm-bn B-Zn-a k` hym-jym-\n- p. ]p-xn-b \n-b-a Im-t\m k` cq-]o-i-cn- -Xm-sW- n ]-g-b-\nb-a Im-t\m k-`-bv- v ss]-xr- I-am-bn e-`n- -Xm-Wv. ]p-xn-b \nb-aw F-gp-X-s -Sp- -Xn-\p-ap-ºv ]- g-b \n-b-a-am-bn-cp- p B-Zn-a k- `-bp-ss ss_-_nƒ. ]p-xn-b \nb-aw e-`n- -txm-ss ]-g-b \n-b-a Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øn-s\m- w A-Xpw Aw-Ko-I-cn- p-i-bpw ]-g-b \n-baw p-xn-b \n-b-a-tøm-ssm- w sszhn-i sh-fn- m-sm-bn \n-e-\n - p- Nmhp-I-S Npcp-fp-Iƒ I-bpw sn-bv-xp. ]-g-b\n-b-aw ]-g-b-xm-bn-t m-tbm? ""]-g-b \n-b-aw'' F- t]-cv th-z-]p-kv-x-iw \ -In-b t]-c-. c- mw \q- m- n-em-wv ss_-_nfn-s\ ]-g-b \n-b-a-sa- pw ]p-xnb \n-b-a-sa- pw c- m-bn Xn-cn- -Xv. F- n t]m-epw {In-kv-Xob k-`-bp-ss ssz-h-im-kv-{x cq- ]o-i-c-w-øn-epw D-]-tZ-i t{im- Uo-I-c-W-Øn-epw ]-g-b \n-b-a Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øp-Iƒ- v {i-t -b-amb ÿm-\-ap- v. ssz-h-sø- pdn- v D-ev-]-Øn B-Zn-bm-b ]p-kv- X-I-߃ \ -Ip- A-dn-hp-I-f- m-sx a-s - m-wp \-ap- p- -Xv? `q-an-bp-ss kr-jv-sn- v, B-Zn am-xm- ]n-xm- ƒ, ]m-]-øn-s D-Zv-`-hw Xp-S-ßn-b Im-cy-ß-sf- p-dn-s - mw hy- -am-bn hn-h-cn- p- -Xv ]-g-b \n-b-a-am-wv. ssz-hw H-cp ]p-xn-b \n-b-aw \ -Ip-sa- v bn-sc. 31:31-34 {]-Jym-]n- p- p- v. A-Xn-s A- Sn-ÿm-\-Øn ""]-g-b-xv'' \o-ßnt m-bn F- p Nn- n- p- -h-cp- Ip{am-\nse Kpl v. F- m C-hn-Sp-sØ {]-I-Sam-b kq-n-\, tam-ssi-i \ym-b- {]-am-ww I-ev-]-e-I-bn F-gp-Xs - -Xm-sW- n ]p-xn-b \n-b-aw lr-z-b-øn F-gp-X-s - -Xm-Wv F- p- -Xm-Wv (2 sim-cn. 3:6 11). \ym-b-{]-am-ww {In-kv-Xp-hn-s {]-am-w-øm \o-ßn-t m-bn F- p ]-d-bp- ]u-sem-kv X-s C-X-c `m-k-ß-fn ""F- v F-gp- Xn-bn-cn- p- p-h-t m'' F- p tnm- Zn- p-sim- v X-s hm-z-øn-s ]n -_-e-øn-\m-bn ]-g-b \n-b-a `m-k-߃ D- -cn- p- p-ap- v (Kem. 3:1 14 H.-t\m. 4:21 31). ]-g-b \n-b-aw bn-{km-tb P- \-Øn-\m-Wv ssz-hw \ -In-b-sX- n-epw k-i-e a-\p-jy - p-ap- h-n-\-am-w-xv. ssz-h-øn-s hos -Sp- n ]- -Xn-bp-sS N-cn-{Xam-Wv c- p \n-b-a-ß-fn-ep-am-bn \mw Im-Wp- -Xv. D-ev-]-Øn 3 Im-Wp- ho-gv-n-bpw hn-s -Sp- p- Im-c-s hm-kv-z-ø-hpw bn-{km-tben-\p am-{x-ap- -X-. A- v sblq-z-t\m Pm-Xn-I-tfm C-. ]n- o- Sp- A-t\-I \q- m- p-iƒ, A- {_-lm-an-s Im-ew h-sc ssz-hw a-\p-jy-cm-in-tbm-sv t\-cn- v H-scm- P-\-X-sb- \n-e-bn-em-wv C- S-s]- n- p- -Xv. F- m a-\p-jy- Xp-S -am-\-am-bn ]-cm-p-b-s - t m-gm-wv A-{_-lm-an-s\ sszhw Xn-c-s -Sp-Ø-Xv. A-{_-lm- an-eq-ss tem-i-tøm-sv C-S-s]-Sphm-\pw A-h-s k- -Xn-bn-eq-sS a-in-lm-bp-ss h-c-hn-\p I-f-samcp- p-hm-\p-am-wv ssz-hw ]- -Xnsbm-cp- n-b-xv. sb-lq-z-\m-bn tb-ip-{in-kv-xp P-\n- -Xp-sIm- v A-h sb-lq- ]gb\nba As m-{in^m {KŸ-߃ 1 Fkv{Zmkv 2 Fkv{Zmkv txm_nøv PqUnØv Ftÿ-dns A\p-_ w item-tams m\w F o-kn-tbm-ãn- kv _mcq v t_epw alm-k hpw aq v F{_mb _me- mcpss Km\w a\-s»-bpss {]m \ 1 a m-_n-b 2 a m-_n-b (Ch IqSmsX \qdp-i-w- n\v hyp enjn-x-ßfpw (Pseudo-epigrapha) D v) ia-cy-cpss alm-]p-tcm-ln-x ] -{K-Ÿ-Øns Npcp-fp-ambn Z-s am-{xw c- -I A- m-xncn- p- -Xp-t]m-se sb-lq-z-\n-eqss e-`n- Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øp-Iƒ sblq-z-s am-{x-a-. ]p-xn-b \n-ba Xn-cp-sh-gp-Øp-I-fpw sb-lq-z- mcn-eq-ss-bm-wv \-ap- p e-`n- -Xv F- Im-cyw a-d- m-xn-cn- p-i. bp-ss (ssk-a s_-t m-ti- _m) hn-π-h-im-e-øv sb-lq-z- m Cu ÿ-e-sø Xm-ev- men-i hm-k-ÿ-e-am- n. G-Xm- v 300 h -j-tøm-fw H-cp sb-lq-z hn-`m-k-øn-s ti-{μ-am-bn-cp- p Ip-{am {]-tz-iw. H-cp k-a-bw B-fp-Iƒ C-hn-sS ]m -Øncp- p F- v A-\p-am-\n- -s -Sp- p. F-t -\y F- k-aq-l-ambn-cp- n-cn- mw C-h F- m-wv an- ]-Wv-Un-X- m-cpw A-\p-am- \n- p- -Xv h-sc-bp- Im-e-L- - Øn {]-tz-i-øp-\n- v 270 Kpl-Iƒ I-s -Øn. 40 F-Æ- Øn ]m-{x-ß-fpw a- p h-kv-xp- -fpw e-`n- p. 11 F-Æ-Øn \n- v Kp-l 1 \n- p e-`n- -Xpt]m-se-bp- I-sø-gp-Øp {]-Xn- Iƒ e-`n- p. ]-g-b \n-b-a ]p-kv- X-I-ß-fp-sS F-{_m-b-bn-epw A- cm-ay-bn-ep-ap- 100 e-[n-iw tim- n-iƒ e-`n- p. Iq-Sm-sX F-{_mb km-ln-xy Ir-Xn-Iƒ, sk-]v- z-pn n-s `m-k-߃ F- n-hbpw e-`n- p. Kpl 1: sbi-øm-hns kºq Æ Npcpƒ, sbi-ømhns `mkni Npcpƒ, l_- piv Ia -dn, l_- p- ns c v A[ym-b-߃, am\p-h Hm^v Unkn-πn, kvxpxnkox߃, At m-{in^m Dev]-Øn, shfn ]p{x- m-cpw A -Imc ]p{x- mcpw XΩn-ep bp ߃, IqSmsX Bbn-c- -W- n\v ]m{x, hkv{x IjW߃. Kpl 2: ]pd- m-sv, tehy, kwjy, Bh Ø-\w, bnsc-aymhv, Ctøm_v, k o Ø-\w, cqøv F o ]pkvx-i-ß-fpss 100 e[niw `mk-߃. Kpl 3: \n[n Hfn- -n ncn p ÿe-ß-sf- p-dn v hnh-cn- p 12 C v hen- ap snºv Npcpƒ. Kpl 4: A m-x-amb cn- \-IfpsS 40,000 IjW-߃. 400 FÆw Xncn- -dn- n p v 100 FÆw Ftÿ Hgn-sI-bp ]gb \nba ]pkvx-i-ß-fp-ts-xm- Wv Ij-W-߃: Bh Ø-\- Øns 13 Npcp-fp-Iƒ; sbi-ømhns 12; k o Ø-\-Øns 10; ]pd- m-sns 6; Dev]Øn-bpsS 5; _n.-kn. aq mw \q m- n-se -iaq-th-ens `mkw (I-s -Øn-bn- Nm-hp-I-S Np-cp-fp-Iƒ sb-cn-tlm-hn \n- pw G-gc ssa sx- v Nm-hp-I-S Xoc-Øp- Ip-{am {]-tz-i-sø Kpl-I-fn \n- pw e-`n- ]p-cm-x- \ en-jn-x-ß-sf-bm-wv Nm-hp-I- S Np-cp-fp-Iƒ F- p hn-fn- p- -Xv Im-Wm-sX-t]m-b B-Sn-s\ A-t\z-jn- v \-S- H-cp C-S-b _m-e ap- n I- Kpl-bv- p- n-te- v H-cp I-s -Sp- Øn- -t mƒ A-km-[m-c-W-am-b i-_v-zw ti- p. I-b-dn t\m- n-bt mƒ [m-cm-fw a -]m-{x-ß-fpw A-h-bv- p- n Xp-Wn-bn s]m-xn- \n-e-bn txm-en-s - bpw sn-ºn-s -bpw Np-cp-fp-I-fpw I-s -Øn. ]n- o-sv k-ao-] Kpl-I-fn \n- pw ]p-cm-h-kv-xp K- th-j-i [m-cm-fw Np-cp-fp-Iƒ I- s -Øp-I-bp- m-bn. c- m-bn-c- Øn-e-[n-Iw h -j-ß-fm-bn a-\pjy-kv-] -i-ta-ev- m-ø-h-bm-bncp- p A-h. _n.-kn. 130 ap-x F.-Un. 68 h-sc Ip-{am k-aq-l-øn-s hmk-ÿ-e-am-bn-cp- p Cu {]-tz-isa- v hn-iz-kn- -s -Sp- p. F.- Un se _ sim- v-_m- tijw t]pv 8

8 8 ka-im-eni ]{XnI Ih -tãm-dn ss nƒ: ]g-b-\n-b-ahpw ]pxn-b-\n-b-ahpw sabv 20 3 mw t]pv XpS A-Sp- tn -Øp-sIm- pw'' (tbm-l- m 14:1 3) I-Æp-\o Xp-S- v B-iz-kn- n- p- ssz-h-sø Nq- n- m-wn- p- ss_-_n-ƒ C-t m-gpw B- izm-k-øn-\m-bn Xn-cp-k- n-[n-bnte- v kv-t\-l-tøm-ss hn-fn- p- p:""a- zm-\n- p- -h-cpw `m-cw Np-a- p- -h-cpw B-bq-t m-sc, F- m-h-cpw F-s A-Sp- h- cp-ho, Rm \n-ß-sf B-izkn- n- pw'' (a-øm-bn 11:28). 2. hmsam-gnbpw hc-sam-gnbpw ss n-fnse sszh-h-n\w BZn-bn hmsam-gn-bmbpw A\- cw hc-sam-gn-bmbpw sszhw \- In.- ]-Øp-I-ev]-\-Iƒ ]pd- m- Sp- ]pkvxiw 20:-17 hscbp th-z-`m-køv tcj (hc-samgn)-bm- n \ In. F m AXn-\pw F{Xtbm apºp Xs Dev]Øn ]pkvx-i-øn ]Øp-I-ev]\-Ifn-ep Bi-b-߃ P\w ]men- m X -hæw hmsam-gn-bmbn {]Nm-c-Øn-encp- p. Ah-cpsS at y H p-in AXv BNmc-tam A\p-k-c-Wtam As - n- ewl-\tam Bbn- m-bn-cn- mw Dev]Øn ]pkvx-i-øn ImW-s -Sp- -Xv. 1. Rm\- msx A\y-ssZ-hw \n߃ p- m-i-cp-xv. ]pd- msv20:1-3 Dev 1:1,30 2. bmsxmcp hn{k-lhpw D m- -cpxv. ]pd- msv 20:4-6, Dev] 31: 19,30 3. sszh-\maw hrym FSp- cpxv. ]pd- msv 20:7 Dev] 24:4, 25:33,34, 27:20,31: i_-xv\m-fns\ ip o-i-cn- m Hm. ]pd- msv 20:8-11, Dev]Øn 2: \ns A -s\-bpw AΩsbbpw _lp-am-\n. ]pd- msv 20:12,- Dev] 31:35 6. Ipe-sN-ø-cpXv. ]pd- msv 20:13, Dev]Øn 4:8-14, 37:27 7. hy`n-nmcw snø-cpxv. ]pd- msv 20:15 8. tamjvsn- -cp-xv. ]pd 20:15 Dev]Øn 31:30,D-ev]Øn 12:10 9. I -km yw ]d-b-cp-xv.- ]pd- msv 20:16 Dev]Øn 8:21, Iq p-im-cs `h-\sø tamln- -cp-xv.- ]p-d- msv 20:17,- (9:1 17) BZnbn hmsam-gn-bmbn sszhw Xs P\-Øn\p \ -Inb Znhy {]am-w-߃ Ah A- `w-kpcw A\p-h Øn p-hc-sh ]cn-ip mfl t{]c-w-bm sszh-`- AXp hc-sam-gn-bm- p-ibm-bncp- p. s]s -t m-kvxp- \mfn ]cn-ip- mfl-\nth-in-x- \mb ]t{xmkv At m-kvx-e sszh-k-`-bpss ASn-ÿm\ D]- tz-i-ß-fpss cq]-tcj s]m-xpp-\- at y ]c-ky-ambn {]Jym-]n- p. AX-\p-k-cn v sszhsø tkhn pw Bcm-[n pw t]m hnip m sszh-øns ]cn-ip- flmhns t{]c-w-bmepw \ntbm-k-ønepw AXp tcj-bm- n. k`-bmwv ss nƒ Fgp-Xn-b- Xv, BI-bm R߃ p ss_- _nƒ A k-`bpss D]-tZ-i-ßfpw s]cp-am ß-fp-am-Wv {]- [m\sa p ]d-bp- -Xnse A_- hpw kmøm\y NXnbpw a\- n- em- pi. kz -Øn F-t - pw ÿnc-am- n-bn-cn- p- -Xpw BIm-ihpw `qanbpw am-dn-bmepw am -s -SmØ ZnhyhN-\-sØ A- Xns D a-bn Dƒ-s m- pi. 3. ]cn-wm-a-h-mzhpw ss n-fpw ]cn-wm-a-h-mz-øns D]- a[p-cw! Xncp-h-N\w m-xm-hmb Nmƒkv Um -hn ( ) Hcp sszh-hn-izmkn Bbn-cp- p.- bu-h-\- m-c-\m-bncp- -t mƒ Pohs D ]-Ønsb- p-dn- p Xs Nn ImSp- I-b-dn. Aßs\bmWv \m\q-tdmfw t]pp-iƒ hcp ""Poh-s Dev]Øn'' (The Orgin of species) F {KŸw cnn- Xv. AXnepw A-t±lw sszhsø X n-]-d- n- n ; sszh-øn-ep hnizmkw sh-fn-hm- pi am{x-am- Wv snbvxn-cn- p- -Xv. Cu {K- Ÿ-Øn 96 {]mhiyw \ap v Aßs\ A\p-am\n- m-hp- -Xm- Wv, F\n v Aßs\ txm p- p, AXn\v km y-x-bp v, Rm- Duln- p p Fs - mw Fgp- Xn-bn- p- v. sse^v B v set gvkv F Xs as mcp {K- Ÿ-Øn buh-\-ønse {]- kvxp-x Nn m-k-xn-i-fnepw cn- \-bnepw th Xr]vXn C m-bncp- psh kqn-\-bp-ap- v. a p- -h-cmwv ]-cn-wm-a-hm-zøn\v \nco-iz-c-\ndw \ In AXv hym]-i-ambn {]N-cn- n Xv. PohnX kmbm- -Øn X- s kμ in teun tlm v Um hn-\p-ambn \SØnb kw`mjww Ah-cpsS hm p-i-fn Xs ]I Ø-s : ""at\m-l-c-amb Hcp ic- XvIme kmbm- -Øn-emWv Rm At±-l-Øns ASp-Øncp- -Xv. acn- p- -Xn-\p-apºv GXm\pw amkw At±lw an hmdpw InS- -bn-em-bn-cp- p. Hcp Icw kqcym-kvx-a\ Zni-bntebv v \o n lm! F{X-a-t\mlcw F -t±lw ]d- p. adp- I-c-Øn thz-]p-kvxiw Ccn- p- Xp I Rm A p-xtømss tnmzn- p. "" Ct mƒ Asß- mwv hmbn- p-sim- ncn p- Xv?'' ""F{_mb tej-\w; Rm AXns\ cmp-iob {K- Ÿw F p hnfn- p- p. sszho-i krjvsn- ns\ ]p n- p X- p Nne-cpsS {]Jym-]-\-ßsf- n XpS p tnmzn- -t mƒ At±lw hymipe NnØ-\mbn adp-]sn ]d- p.- cq-]-c-ln-xamb Bi-b-ß-tfm-Sp-IqSnb Hcp bphm-hm-bn-cp- p Rm. F m- ns\ - nbpw F m-bvt mgpw A- pxwiqdn-sim v Rm Nnekw-i-b-ßfpw A`n-{]m-b-ßfpw ]pd-s -Sp-hn p. ]q Æ-ambpw sxfn-bn- -s -Sphm km[n- m-ø Nne-Im-cy-ßfpw \nk-a-\-ß-fpsa- mw Rm\pw Fs ]pkvx- I-Øn Fgp-Xn. B Bi-b߃ Im p-xo-t]mse ]S p ]nsn- -Xp-sIm v Rm A p- X-s - p-t]m-bn.- a-\p-jy Ahsb mw imkv{x kxy-ß-fmbn IcpXn. A mss hniz-kn v a\pjy AsXmcp ax-am- n-am n. A ]-w aq-ixbv p-tijw `hyambn Iøn ]nsn- n-cp ss_- _n-fn t\m n-sim v sszho- I hnip- n-sbbpw thz]p-kvx- I-Øns al-xz-søbpw Ipdn v Um hn hf-scb-[niw {]- kvxm-hn- p. ASpØ Znhkw Xs DZym- \-Øn ap -Xp-t] n-cn- mhp apdn-bn h v Hcp {]m - \m-tbmkw {Iao-I-cn- -W-sa pw tbip-hn-s\- p-dn pw X n IqsS-bp Bfl-c- -sb- pdn pw kwkm-cn- -W-sa pw kwko-txm-]-i-c-w-ß-fpss klm-b-tøm-sp-iqss Nne Km\- ߃ Be-]n- -W-sa pw AhtcmSp Xmev]-cy-]q Δw Bh-iys - p. (-C- m-cy-߃ 1916 am v 25 se t_mw_ Km U-ob\n {]kn- o-i-cn- n-cp- p) 4. ss nfns kzm[o-\- i n temi-ønse XXz-im-kv{X߃t m ax-{k-ÿ-߃t m Ign-bmØ h kzm[o-\-x-bm-wv ss nƒ lrz-b-ß-fn hcp- Øn-bn- p- -Xv. B`m-k- m,- A- {I-an-Iƒ, Bfl-l-Xybv p {ian- -h,- a-zy-]m-\niƒ, sime- ]m-x-i- m, F n-ß-s\-bp e -ßsf CXp \ Pohn-X- Øn-tebv p ssi]n-sn p \S- Øp- p. (i) NmØp tat\ms am\-km- cw: 1817 sszh-`- -\mb _- -an s_bven-bpss D m-l- Øm ae-bmf ss nƒ ]cn- `mj Bcw-`n- p. ]cn-`m-j-bpss {][m\ Npa-Xe tamk-kv,- ssh- Zy-\mY Aø, NmØp-ta-t\m F n-h v Bbn-cp- p. X - a Xocp- -Xn-\p-apºp Xs H - m-eøpimc-\m-bn-cp- Nm- Øp-ta-t\m tbip-hns\ I - Øm-hpw c n-xm-hp-ambn kzoicn- p. Xs ]p{x- m-cmbn ]- Xv\m-`-t\mSpw tkmhn-μ Ip n tat\m-t\mspw tn p hnizm-kkv\m\w kzoi-cn- p-ibpw tpmk-^v s^, t_ s^, s_-bven-s^, F n t]cp-iƒ Ah bym-{iaw kzoi-cn- p-ibpw snbvxp. ae-bmf ss nfns N-cn-{X-Ønse Ahn-kvac-Wo-b-amb Hcp kw`-ham-bn-cp- p AXv. (ii) eo-hm-e-kpw- _ ldpw: _ l F ]pkvx-i-søbpw ss{ikvxh Ne n{x-søbpw ] n tiƒ m-ø-h Npcp- -am-bn-cn- pw. \nco-iz-c-\mb tdm_ v C tkmƒ Xs kvt\ln-x\pw Hcp henb Fgp- Øp-Im-c\m-bn-cp eohme-knt\msv tbip-{inkvxp Ncn-{X-]pcp-j As v ÿm]n v Hcp ]pkvxiw Fgp-Xp-hm Bh-iys - p. eo hmekv hf-sc ]T-\- ß-fpw Kth-j-W-ß-fpw- CXv kw_- n v \-S-Øn. ]t Cu Kth-j-W-߃ p- tijw eohm-ekv Hcp {InkvXp hnizmknbpw sszh-`- -\p-am-bn- Øo p. Xs Kth-jWw ^e-ambn At±lw Xøm-dm- nb {]_- -amwv {InkvXp-hnizm-ksØ Du n-d-d- n p-hm DX-Inb "_ l ' F hniz- {]-kn- -amb {KŸw.- ]n- -tø- Xn AsXmcp kn\na-bm- nam n. (iii) tiw Pbnwkv C hn : 1971 Pqsse 26 \v N{μ-\n Cd-ßnb tiw spwbnwkv C hn-t\msv " N{μ- \n Cdßn \S- -Xn-\m \n߃ Hcp henb A p-xamwv {]h Øn- n-cn- p- -Xv F p ]d- -t mƒ ss n-fneqss Pohn-X-cq-]m- -ccw {]m]n {InkvXp ` -\mb C hn Cßs\ {]Xn-h-Nn- p: "sszhw a\p-jy-\mbn `qan-bn \S- -Xm-Wv AXnepw henb A pxw. At mtfm 11 se bm{x-nicm-bn-cp- p Bwkvt{Sm-Kpw, Bƒ{Un\pw Pqsse 21 \v N{μ-\n \n pw- sim v Cu ss nƒ hmiyw hmbn p:""\ns hnc-ep-i-fpss ]Wn-bmb BIm-i-sØbpw \o D m- nb N{μ-s\bpw \ -{Xß-sfbpw t\m p-tºmƒ a Xys\ \o Hm t - -Xn\v Ah F v? a\p-jy-]p-{xs\ kμ in-t - -Xn\v Ah F p am{xw (k o 8:3,4). CXv apgp-tem-i-hpw ti p. N{μ-\n FØnb BZy-{KŸw F _lp-a-xnbpw ss n-fn-\mwv e`y-am-b-xv. (iv) tum. hneyw F^v Hmƒss{_ v: ]pcm-h-kvxp -K-thjW cwkøv ]{ -t mfw tumivs-td- n\psa-bmb Hcp _lp-ap-j-{]-xn` Bbn-cp- p - hneyw Hmƒ ss{_ v. Dev]Øn ]pkvi-ønse Nne ]cm-a i߃ A_ PUn-e-am-sW Xs Nn m-kxn kyn-co-i-cn- m- \mbn Hcp henb Kth-jW ]cn- ]m-sn-bp-ambn At±lw ]pcm-x-\- _m_n-tem-wn-s Ncn-{Xm-h-injvS-ß-fn ]cn-th Ww \S- Øm bm{x-bm-bn. apgp-tem- Ihpw Xs Kth-j-W-^-esØ D p-t\m- n-sim- n-cp- p. aq ph j- m-ew Kth-jWw XpS - p. X ^-e-ambn ss n-fn\- {]XypX X\n- p-x-s -bmwv sx p-]- n-b-sx v bmym yw ap hn[n IqSmsX kω-xn- p. A-tXm Øv A\p-X-]n- p. XpS - v Xm Fgp-Xn-b dok v Unkv -h-dokv C ss nƒ em Uv, {^w tãm- GPv p {InkvXym-\n- n, B n-tbm-fpn B v doeopn-b Hm^v C{kmtb, HmƒUv ssãvsa v B - ntbmfpn F o {KŸ-ß-ƒ hniz-{]-kn- hpw ss nƒ {]kvxm-h-\-isf kl jw ]n m-ßp- -h-bp-am-bnamdn. (v) k spbnwkv knw]vk- : C m-eøv Bip-]-{Xn-Ifn ikv{x-{io-bv p apºp tcmkn-isf ab- p-hm D]-tbm- Kn- p A\-kvXo-jy-bpsS B- Zy-cq-]-amb t mtdmt^mw I p- ]n-sn alm-\m-bn-cp p k spbnwkv knw]vk, ap Im-e-ßfn tcmkn-isf ab- msx A- h-cpss icocw Iodn-ap-dn- - p-tºmƒ Ah thz-\-bm ]pf-bp 7 mw t]pv XpS p- -Xn-te pw G hpw ]g- ap ]gb \nba Isø-gpØp {]Xn-bm-Wn-Xv). Kpl 5 10: [mcmfw Npcp-fp- Iƒ Kpl 11: k o Ø-\-ß-fpsSbpw tehym-]p-kvx-i-øns bpw Npcp-fp-Iƒ. sszhm-eb Npcp-fp-Iƒ: 1967 se Bdp Zn\ bp -k-a-bøv Cu Kpl-I-fn H n \n pw Is -Sp- -s hbmwv ""sszhmeb Npcp-fp-Iƒ.'' bmk-ß-sfbpw hgn-]m-sp-i-sfbpw kw_- n \nb-a-ßfpw N -ß-fp-am-Wn-Xn-ep- -Xv. IqSmsX sszhm-e-bsø kw_- n hni-z-amb hnh-c-wßfpw CXn-ep v ]t ck- I-c-amb Imcyw `mhn-bnse sszhm-ebw kw_- n- p- - XmWv Cu hnh-c-w-߃! Nmhp-I-S Npcp-fp-IfpsS {]m[m\yw ]gb \nba ]pkvx-i-ß-ƒ ]nev me Fgp-Øp-Im Fgp-Xnb-XmWv F en_-d Xn-tbm- -f-pn-b- mcpss hmzsø Nm-hp-I- S Npcp-fp-Iƒ s]mfn- p- p. ZznXob sbi-øm-hv, {XnXob sbi-ømhv F kn m- sø cwkw sszh-`- -\mb knw]vksw thz\-s]-sp-øn. Hcp Znh-kw ss nƒ hmbn- p-tºmƒ Dev]Øn ]pkvxiw 2:21,22 X-s {i sbs] p-w Øn. ""b-tlm-hbmb sszhw a\p-jy-\p Hcp KmV-\n-{Z-h-cp-Øn. Ah- Ddßn-bt mƒ Ah-s hmcnsb- p- I-fn Hs -Sp-Øv...'' a\p-jy\p KmU-\n{Z hcp-øn-bn v ikv{x- {Io-b p hnt[-b-\m- n-bm Ah\v thz\ Adn-bp-I-bn- F \nk-a-\-øn F-Øn-b k knw]vks _p- n-bp-ss aqi-bn- sxfn Bi-b-amWv t mtdm-t^mw. knw-]vks ac-w- n-s- bn kl-{]-h Ø-I-cmb bphim-kv{x- - m HcptNmZyw tnmzn- p. ""Aß-bpsS I p]n- Sp-Øßfn G hpw hen-bxv FXmWv''? t mtdmt^mw F adp-]sn {]Xo- n p \n AhtcmSv t\cnb i_vz-øn sndp- ]p- n-cn-tbmss knw]vk ]d- adp-]sn Ahsc AXy- w Nn n- n p:- Nn-e-h j-߃ apºv Hcp {InkvXp-a v Zn\-Ønse B-cm-[-\-bn a\p-jy-h - Øn-s - c- - m-bn m-wv tbip `qan-bn a\p-jym-h-xmcw FSp- Øp Im h-dn-bn acn- p-b - ØsX ktμiw Xms\m-cp ]m]n-bm-sw p I p-]n-sn m- Xs klm-bn- p. AXm- -bn-cp- p Xs G hpw henb I p- ]n-sp-ø-sa p ti kl-{]-h - ØI v Ah-cpsS `mhn-sb- pdn pw Nn n- p-hm klm-b- I-am-bn. Aßs\ Hcp sszh ss]x-emb Xs, sszhw hfsc A\p-{K-ln- p-ibpw a\ptjym-]-im-c-{]-z-amb \nc-h[n I p-]n-sp-ø-߃ snøp- -Xn\v Xs _p nsb {]Im-in- n- p- Ibpw snbvxp-sh v acw- n- S- -bnepw alm-\mb B imkv{x- km yw ]d- p. ss nƒ Xs kzm[o-\n Imcy-߃ ]d-bp-tºmƒ At±lw hmnm-e-\m-ip-am-bn-cp- p. am -an- mø Xncp-sh-gp-Øp-Iƒ sbi-øm-hns Npcpƒ \ni-_vzam- p- p. ]pxnb\nba ImeØv F- {_m-b arx-`m-j-bm-bn-cp p F- hmzsø JWvUn- p- p. e- `n- ]e Npcp-fp-Ifpw F{_m-b- `m-j-bn-ep- -Xm-bn-cp- p. C v \ap v e`y-amb ]gb \nbaøn Hcp Xncp-Øepw h- n- n-s - v _n.-kn. H mw \q- m- - n Fgp-X-s ]gb \nba Isø-gp-Øp-{]-Xn-I-fp-am-bp Xmc-Xayw sxfn-bn- p- p. C sø ss n-fn Im-Wp AtX sbi-ømhv Xs -bmwv _n.-kn. 150 Fgp-X-s Nmhp- I-S Npcp-fnse sbi-øm-hv. (klm-bi {KŸ-߃: (John Jahn, Introduction to the OT, New York: G&C Carvill, 1933; Stanley E. Porter, Dictionary of Biblical Criticism and Interpretation, New york: Routledge, 2007,; Norman L. Geisler & William E. Nix, From God to Us: How We Got the Bible, Matthews: Bastion Books, 2012; David Noel Freedman (Ed.), The Anchor Bible Dictionary, New York: Doubleday; Paul J. Achtemeier (Ed.), Harper Collins Bible Dictionary, San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1985; John Bright, The Authority of the Old Testament, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1975)

9 9 ka-im-eni ]{XnI hm ØIƒ sabv 20 1 mw t]pv XpS "B-bp- n-s ]p-kv-x-iw' F- gp-xp- k-a-b-øm-wv ku-μ-cyap- H-cp ss_-_nƒ F-\n- p kz- -am-bn e-`n- p- -Xv. A-t mtg- pw ss_-_n-fn-s B- -cn- I ku-μ-cy-øn Rm ap-kv- - \m-bn-cp- p. Ip- n- m-e-sø F-s {Km-a- L-S-\-bn-tem Ip-Spw-_-L-S-\-bntem ss_-_n-fn-\v C-S-ap- m-bncp- n-. A-Xp-sIm- m-wv Rm ss_-_n-fn-te- v F-Øn-t - H-cm-fm-sW- v Xp-S- -Øn ]-d- -Xv. t_-_n- m-b-\pw (Im- - \m-s ) I-dn-bm- -\p (k- -dn-b) sam-s ss_-_n-fn-te- v a-s-ßnt m-b-h-cm-wv. 70 I-fp-sS A-hmk-m\w I - - -bn ]-{X-{]-h - Ø-I-\m-bn-cp- Im-e-Øv, sk v t]mƒ-kv I-Øo-{U-en-se B-cm- [-\-bn ]- p-sim- p-i-bpw I- gp-øn sh- n-ß A-Wn-bp-Ibpw sn-bv-xp-sim- v H-cp ss{ikv-x-h-s\-t m-se Po-hn- -Im-ew F-\n- p- m-bn-cp- p. B-bp- n- s ]p-kv-x-iw c-nn- p-hm-\p- t{]-c-w F- n sn-ep-øn-b-xv Cu Im-e-am-Wv. ]n- o-sv \-thm- Z-b A- - -s -Ww kzo-i-cn- v Rm-\pw I-dn-bm- -\pw Iq-Sn sn-ss -bn Ip-d- p-im-ew Xma-kn- p. ss-en-hn-j kw-t{]-j- W-Øn-\p- ss_-_nƒ ]-c-ºc-bp-ss I-Y-sb-gp-Øn-\m-bn-cp- p Cu "H-fn-hp Po-hn-Xw'. ss_- _nƒ ]T-\-{K-Ÿ-߃ \n-d- H-cp h-en-b-ap-dn Pn-tPm (\-thm-zb) R-߃- p-th- n H-cp- n-bncp- p. ss_-_nƒ ]-c-º-c-bp-ss H-t m c-t m F- n-tkm-uv am- {X-ta kw-t{]-j-ww sn-øm I- gn- p- p. A-Xp-sIm- v Rms\-gp-Xn-b `m-kw kw-t{]-j-ww ayq-kn-iv ss\- v- hm-k hm-k: C-Ωm-\p-th {In-kv-Xy N - n-s A- m-a-xv hm -jo- Im-tLm-j-ß-tfm-S-\p-_- n- v kp-{]-kn- {In-kv-Xy Km-b-I-\m-b kn-dn s\m-tdm-w-bp-ss t\-xr-xz-øn ayq-kn-iv ss\- v- \-S-Ø-s -Sp- p. sa-bv 27 ssh-in- v 6 ap-x 9 h-sc, s -^o -Un-se bp-ss\- nw- Kv N - v lm-fn (10 m -Um sπ-bv-kv, A -Un kv-t m-dn-\v k-ao-]w, s -^o -Uv, hm-k hm-k) h- p \-S- p- k-tω-f-\-øn ]m-ã kp- \n k-j-dn-b ap-jy k-tμ-iw \ -Ipw. ]m-ã- G-en-bm-kv tpm A- y- -X h-ln- p- k-tω-f-\-øn Ip- n-i-fp-ss hn-hn-[ t{]m-{km-ap- Iƒ D- m-bn-cn- p- -Xm-Wv. Cw- o-jv, ln-μn, a-e-bm-fw, X-an-gv ]m- p- Iƒ, Dƒ-s m- n- p {I-ao-I-cn- n-cn- p- ayq-kn-iv ss\- n {_-Z {]o-pn ]u-tem-kv- Hm - -kv-{s-bv- v t\-xr-xzw \ -Ipw. ]m-ã G-enbm-kv tpm, {_-Z _n- n am-xyp, {_-Z k-\p Ip-cy, {_-Z en- _p h -Ko-kv, {_-Z tpm -Pv tpm F- n-h-cp-ss t\-xr-xz-øn hn- ]p-e-am-b Ir-ao-I-c-W-߃ \-S- p h-cp- p. Iq-Sp-X hn-h-c-߃- v: ]m-ã G-en-bm-kv tpm : , _n- n am-xyp: sf.-]n.-kn. -\-ho-i-cn sf.-un.-im Uv hnx-cww Bcw-`n- p Ip-º-\m-Sv: sf.-]n.-kn.-ti-c-fm tã- v \-ho-i-cn- sf.-un.-im -Up-I-fpsS hn-x-c-ww B-cw-`n- p. Iu -kn ao- nw-kn-t\m-s-\p-_- n- v sa-bv 9 -\v Ip-º-\m- v \-S- N-S-ßn Im -Uv hn-x-c-w-øn-s Hu-tZym-Kn-I D-Zv-Lm-S-\w {]-kn-u v \n -Δ-ln- p. {]-Y-a Im -Uv ]m-ã jn-_p s\- Sp-th-en-bn \n- v ]m-ã si.-kn.-txm-a-kv G- p-hm-ßn. sk ip-{iqj-i- m - p- {]-Y-a Im -Uv B-e- p-g Cu-Ãv sk ip-{iq-j-i ]m-ã G-{_-lmw tpm -Pv G- p-hm-ßn. ]-cn-jv- -cn- hn-hn-t[m-t±-i sf.-un.-im -Up-Iƒ- v th- n F- m ip-{iq-j-i- m-cpw A-Xm-Xv sk - dp-iƒ h-gn-bm-wv A-t]- k-a - n-t - -Xv. A-t]- k-a - -Ww ]ptcm-k-an- p- -Xm-bn sk-{i- -dn A-dn-bn- p. _m -tim -Unw-Kp- ]p-xnb Im -Up-Iƒ ip-{iq-j-i- m-sc kw-_- n- ti-{μo-ir-x I-ºyq- t{]m-{km-ap-am-bn _- n- -s - n-cn- p- p. C-\n ap-x ip-{iq-j-i ao- nw- Kv, C-e- - t]m-se-bp- k-μ -`-ß-fn- A- -U -kv tc-j-s -Sp-Øp- -Xn-\pw a- pw Im -Uv D-]-tbm-Kn- pw. ip-{iq-j-i- m-cp-ss Um- m-t_- kv A-]v-tU-j \-S- p-sim- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. C-\n-bpw t^m-ap-iƒ \ -In-bn- n- m-ø sk -dp-iƒ F-{X-bpw th-kw t^m-ap-iƒ \ -I-Wsa- v sk-{i- -dn A-dn-bn- p. t\-c-sø sf.-]n.-kn.-ip-{iq-j-i- m-cm-b-hcn ]-Ømw m-kv ]m- m-bn- n- m-ø-h - v \n-e-hn sf.-un.-im -Ups - n \-ho-i-cn- Im -Up-Iƒ e-`n- p- -Xn-\v X-S- -an-. ]p-xp-xm-bn ip-{iq-j-i-cm-ip-hm `-c-w-l-s-\ {]-Im-c-ap- A-Sn-ÿm-\ hn-zym-`ym-k tbm-ky-x-bm-b ]-Ømw- m-kv ]m- m-bn-cn- -Ww. sn-bv-xp Im-Wp-hm I-gn- n-. ]-t sn-ss -bn I-dn-bm- mt\m-ssm- w I-gn- B Im-ew F-\n- p ss_-_nƒ ]T-\-Im-eam-bn-cp- p. ss_-_n-fn-s\ kw-_- n- [m-cm-fw hn-h-c-ß-f-s-ßn-b Cw- ojv ]p-kv-x-i-߃ C- m-e-b-fhn hm-bn- p-hm I-gn- p. ]- g-b-\n-b-a-øn-se-bpw ]p-xn-b-\nb-a-øn-se-bpw tz-i-im-e-n-cn-{xhpw km-aq-ln-i-hpw kmw-kv-im-cn- I-hp-am-b k-hn-ti-j-x-i-fpw sszh-im-kv-{x-k- -]-\-ß-fp-sams a-\- n-em- p-hm Cu hmb-\ D-]-I-cn- p. F-gp-Øp-Im-c F- \n-ebn \n-c-h-[n ]p-xn-b Z -i-\- ߃ ss_-_nƒ F-\n- p \ - In. tem-i-sa-ßp-ap- F-gp-Øp- Im-sc, Nn-{X-Im-c- m-sc, N-e- n- {X-{]-h -Ø-I-sc ss_-_nƒ B- g-øn kzm-[o-\n- n- p- v. Nmƒkv Un- -kv, tsmƒ-tãm-bn, Z- kv-x-tb-hv-kv-in F- o {]-Xn-`mim-en-I-fp-sS k - m-fl-i-x-sb {]-Im-in- n- ss_-_nƒ, Po-hn- X-Øn-se k-μn-kv- m-h-ÿ-i-sf A-h-X-cn- n- p-hm-\p- sh-fn- w F-\n- p k-ωm-\n- p. Z-kv-X-tbhv-kv-In-bp-sS "Ip- -hpw in- -bpw' (Crime and panishment) F- t\mh-en tkm-wn-b-bp-ss-bpw d-kvt mƒ \n-t m-^n-s -bpw C-cp- Po-hn-X-Øn-te- v ss_-_nƒ sh-fn- -am-sb-øp- p- v. sim-e- ]m-x-in-bm-b d-kv-t mƒ \n-t m- ^v ssk-_o-cn-b-bn-te- v \m-sp- I-S-Ø-s -Sp-tºmƒ, B sim-spw ssi-xy-øn, bm-x-\-iƒ- n-sbn ss_-_n-fn-s\ kv-] -in- p- H-cp cw-k-ap- v. a-\p-jy-`m-kt[-b-ß-sf \n -Æ-bn- p- B {K-Ÿw B a-\p-jy-\v H-cp ]p-xnb Po-hn-X-{]-Xym-i ssi-h- A- Fen-k-_Øv G{_lman\v A ym-rvpen Xn-cp-h- : h-s-ti-cn- -c am-ωq- n sx-t -Xn Ip-º-\m- v Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw Sn.-C.-h -Ko-kns -bpw (X- - ) dm- n shfp-tø-s-øv en-kn h -Ko-kns -bpw a-i-fm-bn dq-_n F- F-en-k-_-Øv apw-ss_- bn P-\n- p. B-flo-b ]m-c- º-cy-Øn-epw ]- m-ø-e-ønepw h-f - p-h- dq-_n 12 mw h-b-kn c- n- -s - p. apwss_ km- m-{iq-kv a -tøm- Ωm C-S-h-I-bp-sS k-t -kv- Iqƒ, bq-øv s^-tem-jn- v, sim-b F- n-h-bn k-po-ham-bn {]-h -Øn- p. C-S-h-Ibn \-S- sf.-c.-fw. I h -j-\n-eq-ss an-j-\-dn {]-h - Ø-\-߃- m-bn Po-hn-Xw k- a - n- p. Im-ew sn-bv-x k-j-dn-bmkv am -sx-tbm-^n-tem-kv k- {^-K sa-{xm-t m-eo-øm km- m-{iq-kv C-S-h-I-bn hn-imcn-bm-bn-cn- p-tºmƒ, ti-c-f- Øn-\v ]p-d-øv P-\n- p-h-f-cp- a -tøm-ωm bp-h-p-\-߃- mbn bq-øv s^-tem-jn- v D- m- I-W-sa- B-i-bw ap-t m- ph- -Xv dq-_n-bm-bn-cp- p. sa- {Xm-t m-eo-ø-bp-ss t{]m- ml-\-øn-eq-ss bq-øv s^-temjn- v B-cw-`n- p. ssz-ho-i B-tem-N-\-bp-sSbpw {]m - -\-bp-ss-bpw ^-eam-bn 1985 P-\p-h-cn 24 \v d-h. k-æn G-{_-lm-ap-am-bn Xn-cph- sk v txm-a-kv a -tøm- \p-`-hw k-ωm-\n- p. ss{i-kv-xh-cm-b F-gp-Øp-Im-sc- mƒ Iq- Sp-X ss_-_n-fn-s `m-j-bpw ssi-en-bpw kz-c-hn-ti-j-hp-sams {]-I-S-am- n-b F-gp-Øp-Imc F- v ]-e-cpw F-s hn-tijn- n- p- p. B hn-ti-j-w-øn- \v Rm I -Øm-hn-t\m-Sv \-μn ]-d-bp- p. ss_-_n-fn G- -hpw kzm- [o-\w sn-ep-øp- hy- n-xzw tb-ip-hm-wv. tb-ip-hn-s "]p-\- cp- m-\w' F- B-i-b-am-Wv F- s `m-h-\-sb G- -hp-a-[n-iw B- I -jn- p- -Xv. ]p-xn-b-\n-b-aw hn-h-cn- p- -Xp-t]m-se a-c-w- Øn-\p ti-j-ap- ]p-\-cp- m-\- a-. Hm-tcm a-\p-jy-cp-ss-bpw Pohn-X-Øn kw-`-hn- p-hm-\p- ]p-\-cp- m-\-sø- p-dn- v ss_- _nƒ c-l-ky-am-bn F-t m-sv kwkm-cn- p- p. a-\p-jy-\p- Ime-tØm-fw kw-`-hn-t - -Xm-b ]p-\-cp- m-\w... Resurrection. a- s m-cp Nn- "\n-xy-x'bm-wv. "\n- Xy-Po-h ' F- m-wv ss_-_nƒ A-Xn-s\ hn-ti-jn- n- p- -Xv. tb-ip ]-d- p, "Rm \n-߃- v Po-h k-ar- n-bm-bn \ -Iphm h- p'. "F- n hn-iz-kn- p- -h H-cp-\m-fpw a-cn- -bn- '. "\n-xy-i-co-cw' F- - tb-ip A- Xn-s\ hn-ti-jn- n- -Xv; \n-xy-poh. ]p-xn-b-\n-b-a-øn-eq-ss a-\- v k- -cn- p-tºmƒ tb-ip am- {X-am-Wv F-s ap-ºn-ep- -Xv. {Inkv-Xp k-ln- ]o-um-k-l-\w... Ip-cn-ip-a-c-Ww... k-xy-øn-\p km- yw ]-d-bm h- {In-kv-Xp. A-Xp-t]m-se t m-`n- p- {Inkv-Xp. tb-cp-i-tew tz-hm-e-b- Øn hm-wn-`w \-S-Øp- -h-sc Nm- -hm-dp-sim- v A-Sn- p ]-d- Øm- p- {In-kv-Xp. G- -hpw sndp-xn -t]m-epw ku-μ-cyw Z -in- 1 mw t]pv XpS B-d- p-f F-b -t]m - v ]- -Xn \-S- n-em- m k-a-hm-bw D- m- m-hp- -tx-bp- q. ]-cn-ÿn-xnbv- v Im-cy-am-b {]-iv-\-߃ h- cp-øm-sx F-b -t]m - p-iƒ D- m- m-\p- km-t -Xn-I hn-zy- Iƒ C- p- v. A-ta-cn- -t]m-ep- cm-py-ß-fn-se F-b -t]m - p- Iƒ C-Xn-\p am-xr-i-bm- m-hp- - Xm-Wv. ]-Ø-\w-Xn- -bn F-hn-sSsb- n-epw F-b -t]m - p \n -Ωn- Ωm ]- n-bn h- v hn-hm-lw \- S- p. C-S-h-I ip-{iq-j-bn k- a - -W-tØm-sS sim- -Ω A- - \v ]n- p-w \ -In. C -tum, C- m -kn, t\- m \-K F- o D- Ø-tc- y C-S-h-I-I-fn-se ip- {iq-j-bn-epw C -tum-dn a - tøm-ωm N - v kv-iqƒ ÿm-]n- p- -Xn-epw t\m -Øv tkm an-j t{]m-p-iv-sn-epw A- -t\mssm- w {]-h -Øn- p ti-c-f-øn a-s-ßnsb-øn tim-g-t -cn, s]-cp-sº- n, A-Xym, Np- - m-d, B-e-{], F-S-Xz, B-\-{]-ºm, Nm-Ø- - cn Xp-S-ßn-b C-S-h-II-fn-epw ip- {iq-j-bn A- -t\m-ssm- w ]- mfn-bm-bn {In-kv-Xy en- -td- an-\n-kv-{sn F- Zu-Xy-hp-ambn B-cw-`n- kp-hm -Øm-`-h {]-kn- o-i-c-w im-e-bp-ss U-bd-Iv-S-dm-bn. ]p-kv-x-i {]-km-[-\w, F-Un- n-ßv Xp-S-ßn-b {]-h -Ø- \-ß-fn k-po-h-am-bn ]- m-fnbm-bn ssz-ho-i Z -i-\- Øn-epw \n-tbm-k-øm-epw `mc-x-kp-hn-ti-jo-i-c-ww e- yam- n B-cw-`n- bp-ssw- -Uv N - v Hm-^v C- y-bp-ss _nj- m-bn d-h.-k-æn G-{_-lmw \n-tbm-kn-x-\m-b-t mƒ ]q -Wa-\-t m-ss B ip-{iq-j-bp-ss `m-k-am-bn. d-h.-k-æn G-{_- lm-an-s -bpw dq-_n sim- -Ωbp-sS-bpw Ip-Spw-_-Po-hn-X- Øn 1985 P-\n- B-Zy Ip- v a-c-w-a-s- p a-iƒ C-hm- -en-\pw 1992 a-i Xn-tam-Øn-bpw P-\n- p P-\p-h-cn-bn-em-Wv imco-cn-i A-kz-kv-X-X-I-sf- Xp- S - v ]-cn-tim-[-\-iƒ- m-bn B-ip-]-{Xn-bn A-Uv-an- m-ip- -Xv. ssx-tam-a F- tcm-kw tum-iv-s- -am ÿn-co-i-cn- p. Xp-S - v \n-c- -c Nn-In- -Iƒ- v hn-t[-b-bm-bn. tcm-k-øns ImTn-\y-Øn-epw H-cn- t]m-epw \n-cm-i-tbm-ss kwkm-cn- n-. Xn-I- {]-Xym-itbm-Spw ss[-cy-tøm-spw Iq-sS Po-hn-X-Øn-s A-h-km-\ \mfp-iƒ ]n- o-sv 2017 sa-bv 12 \v cm-hn-se 9.50 \v I -Xr-k- n-[n-bn-te- v tn - -s - p. a- ƒ: C-hm- -en G- {_-lmw, Xn-tam-Øn G-{_- lmw. a-cp-a-i : jm-c G-{_- lmw (H- -ssx- F-d-Wm- Ip-fw). sim- p a-i : tpm-k- ^v (tpm- p- ) ss n-fn-te v FØn-t Hcm-fmWv Rm : kn.-hn. _me-ir-jvw p- {In-kv-Xp. "h-b-en-se Xma-c F-ß-s\ h-f-cp- p F- p \ncq-]n- n A-Xv A-[zm-\n- p- n-, \q - p- -Xp-an-. F- m i-tem-tam -t]m-epw X-s k - Δ-a-l-Xz-Øn-epw C-h-bn H- nt\m-fw N-a- n-cp- n- ' F- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s hm- p-iƒ A- tß-b- w "aesthetic' B-b a-\pjy-\p-am-{xw ]-d-bm I-gn-bp- - Xm-Wv. A-Xp-t]m-se k-º-ønt\m-sp- tb-ip-hn-s k-ao-]-\w. tb-ip-hn-\v ]-W-tam a-sn-»o-e-tbm C-. "ssi-k - p- -Xv ssi-k - pw ssz-h-øn-\p- -Xv ssz-h- Øn-\pw' F- \n-e-]m-sv. A-Xnep-]-cn, kv-{xo-i-tfm-spw Ip- n-itfm-sp-ap- Im-gv-N- m-sv Xn-I- pw B-[p-\n-I-\m-b H-cp a-\p-jy-\m- Wv tb-ip F- p sh-fn-s -Sp-Øp- -Xm-Wv. th-iy-i-fp-ss-bpw hn-[- h-i-fp-ss-bpw ]- -Øv \n - p- {In-kv-Xp. "Cu sn-dn-b-h-cn H-cp-Ø - v \n-߃ sn-øp- -Xv F-\n- m-ip- p sn-øp- -Xv'; "\nß-fn ]m-]w sn-øm-ø-h C- h-sf I-s -dn-b-s ' F- {]-kv- Xm-h-\-Iƒ. "in-ip- -sf F-s A-Sp- h-cp-hm hn-sp-hn. A-h-sc X-S-b-b-cp-Xv' F- A- tß-b- w kv-t\-l-]q -Æ-am-b B- lzm-\w.. Cu hm- p-i-fp-ss k-a- Im-e {]-k- n \mw Hm - p-i. Cu-bn-sS Un.-F- v tem-d kn-s "The Man who Died' F ]pkvxiw hnh Ø\w snøm-\n-cn- p-tºmƒ Rm ho pw ss n-fn-te v FØnt p. "It is a never ending book' F mwv Un.-F- v. temd kv ss_-_n-fns\ hnti-jn- n- p- -Xv. Hcn- epw Ah-km- \n- mø ]pkvx-iw. temiøv Aßs\ Hcp ]pkvx-i-an-. F- m ]pkvx-i-ßfpw Ah-km-\n- pw. F m ss nƒ Hcn- epw Ah-km-\n- mø ]pkvx-i-am-sw v Un.-F- v.-temd kv ]d-bp- p. Bta... Bta... Bd- pf Fb t]m p ] Xn \S- n-em- Ww.. m D-t±-in- p- {]-tbm-p-\w In- -W-sa- n-. Iq-Sp-X ]-cnÿn-xn {]-iv-\-ß-fpw bm-{xm-t i-ß-fpw D- m- mw. ]-Ø-\w-Xn-, B-e- p-g, tim- -bw Pn- -I-fnep- -h - v G- -hpw ku-i-cy-{]- Z-am-b ÿ-ew B-d- p-f X-s bm-wv. ]-Ip-Xn h-gn-bm-b B-d- pf F-b -t]m - v \n -Ωm-Ww ]q - Øo-I-cn- m hn-`m-ko-b-x-iƒ a- d- v cm-jv-{so-b ]m - n-iƒ k-l- I-cn- -Ww'' tum. tpm -Pv Im- -\m- v ]-d- p.

10 10 ka-im-eni ]{XnI sabv 20 F.-sF. tpm p-ip n ico-c-ønse c w aen-\-am-bm F m Ah-b-h-ß-fp-sSbpw {]h Ø\w XI-cm-dnemIpIbpw acww kw`-hn- p-ibpw snøpw F -Xp-t]mse, \Zn-I-ƒ aen-\-s - m `qan-bn Pohs \ne-\nev]v {]Xn-k- n-bn-em-ipw. Hcp Xe-apd apºv hsc ip - Pew kar- -ambn Hgp-In-s m- n-cp At\I \Zn-Iƒ C v h n-h-c v, shdpw aw -c v am{x-am-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. i-co-c-øn-se c- -hm-ln-\n- p-gep-iƒ t]m-se, `q-an-bn k-ky-߃- pw Po-h-Pm-e-߃- pw H-gn- p-iq-sm-\m- Im-Ø kw-hn-[m-\-am-wv ip- -P-ew H- gp-ip- \-Zn-Iƒ. sa-k-s m-tø-an-b kw-kv-im-cw, ss\ \-Zo-X-S kw-kv-imcw, kn- p-\-zo-x-s -kw-kv-im-c-w ap-x-emb ]p-cm-x-\ Im-e-sØ \m-k-cn-i-x-i-sf- mw \-Zo-X-S-ß-fn-em-bn-cp- p cq-]w-sim- -Xv. a-\p-jy Ip-Sn-tb-dn-]m - p- -bn- S-ß-fn i-cn-bm-b ip-nn-xz-an-s - n ]-I - -hym-[n-i-fpw am-dm-tcm-k-ß-fp-w ]n-sn-s]-sm km-[y-x G-sd-bm-Wv. B- tcm-ky-øn-\pw ip-no-i-c-w-øn-\pw ip- -P-ew h-f-sc {]-[m-\-s - -Xm-Wv. ] - Δ-X-\n-c-I-fn -\n- v D- -hn- v A-t\-Imbn-cw ssa-ep-iƒ H-gp-Ip- a-lm-\-zn-iƒ `q-an-bp-ss D-]-cn-X-e-sØ ^-e-]p-jv- Sn-bp- -Xm- p- p. k-i-e-hn-[-po-h-pme-߃- pw B-h-iy-am-b `- y-[m-\yß-fpw hr- -e-xm-zn-i-fpw X-g- p-h-f-cp- p. i-co-c-øn-se c- w a-en-\-am-bm F- m A-h-b-h-ß-fp-sS-bpw {]-h -Ø- \w X-I-cm-dn-em-Ip-I-bpw a-c-ww kw-`hn- p-i-bpw sn-øpw F- -Xp-t]m-se, \- Zn-I-ƒ a-en-\-s - m `q-an-bn Po-h-s \n-e-\n-ev-]v {]-Xn-k- n-bn-em-ipw. H-cp X-e-ap-d ap-ºv h-sc ip- -P-ew k-ar- am-bn H-gp-In-s m- n-cp- A-t\-I \- Zn-Iƒ C- v h- n-h-c- v, sh-dpw a-w - -c- v am-{x-am-bn-cn- p-i-bm-wv. ]- -Wß-fn-se am-en-\y-ß-fpw ^m-iv-s-dn-i-fn - \n- v ]p-d- - p- hn-j-hp-sa- mw Iq- Sn- -e - H-cp I-dp-Ø {Zm-h-Iw \-Znbp-sS hn-cn-am-dn-se a-w -Ip-gn-I-fn X- fw-si- n-\n-ev- p- p. tlm-c-h-\-øn N-Øp-In-S- p- ar-k-øn-s amw-kw Im - p-xn- p-hm Np- pw-iq-sp- {Iq-c- P- p- -sf-t m-se, -h-c- p-w-ßn-b \- Zn-bn A-h-ti-jn- p- a-w-, \n-[nt]m-se hm-cn-s m- p-t]m-ip-hm h- cn-h-cn-bm-bn tem-dn-iƒ \-Zn-bp-sS hn-cnam-dn-te- v C-d-ßn-s - p- p. ]-Ww hmcn-sb-dn- v, k - m-cp-i-sf Iq- p-]n-sn- v, \n-b-a-øn-s ]-gp-xp-i-fp-]-tbm-kn- v Nn-e a-w-ep-sim- v k-º- -cm-ip- p. a- p-nn-e ^m-iv-s-dn-i-fn-se -am-en-\y߃ \-Zn-I-fn H-gp- p- p. ip- -P-ehpw ip- -hm-bp-hpw hn-e-sim-sp-øp-hmßm Iyq \n-ev-t - p- ÿn-xn-bn- \mw F-Øn-bn-cn- p- p. Ip-d- -]- w A-º-tXm A-dp-]-tXm h -jw ap-ºv ip- -P-ew H-gp-In-bn-cp- ÿn-xn-bn-te- v \-Ωp-sS \-Zn-I-sf Xn-cn-sI-sb-Øn- phm km-[y-x-bp-t m? [q -Øpw ]- W-s m-xn-bpw \n-d- a-en-\-am-b -a-\- p-i-fm-wv A-Xn-\v X-S- w. i-cn-bm-b am-en-\y-kw-kv-i-c-ww \-Ωp-sS X-e-ap-dsb ]-cn-io-en- n- p- -co-xn-bn hn-zym- Z i\w H-gp- v \-jv-s-s - \-Zn-Iƒ..! `ym-k- k-{º-zm-bw A-gn- p-]-wn-b-ww. Zo -L-ho- -W-ap- -h A-Xn-\v ap ssi-sb-sp- -Ww. ]p-d-sa-bp- am-en-\y-øn-s Imcyw-t]m-se-X-s \-Ωp-sS hy- n-xz- Øn-se am-en-\y-ß-fpw i-cn-bm-bn kwkv-i-cn- -s -ts- -Xp- v. ]- -W-Øn-sebpw ^m-iv-s-dn-i-fn-se-bpw hn-hn-[ am-en- \y-߃ \-Zn-I-fn-te- v H-gp- p- -Xpt]m-se, ]-c-kv-]-c-kv-t\-l-hpw Im-cp- Wy-hpw Z-b-bpw H-gp-In-s m- n-cp- lr-z-b-ß-fn-te- v C -s\- v, k-aq-lam-[y-a-߃, kn-\n-a, ko-cn-b-ep-iƒ ap- X-em-b Zr-iy-am-[y-a-߃ h-gn tæ- -Xbpw, kzm - -X-bpw, h - o-b- -hw-io-b hn-tzz-j-hpw hn-j-{zm-h-i-߃ t]m-se tem-i-sa-ßpw ]p-xp-x-e-ap-d-sb a-en-\- s -Sp-Øp- p. 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