Supported by. Role of plasma edge in global stability and control*


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1 NSTX Supported by College W&M Colorado Sch Mines Columbia U CompX General Atomics INL Johns Hopkins U LANL LLNL Lodestar MIT Nova Photonics New York U Old Dominion U ORNL PPPL PSI Princeton U Purdue U SNL Think Tank, Inc. UC Davis UC Irvine UCLA UCSD U Colorado U Illinois U Maryland U Rochester U Washington U Wisconsin Role of plasma edge in global stability and control* J. Menard (PPPL), Y.Q. Liu (CCFE) R. Bell, S. Gerhardt (PPPL) S. Sabbagh (Columbia University) and the NSTX Research Team MHD Control Workshop November University of Wisconsin  Madison * This work supported by US DoE contract DEAC0209CH11466 Culham Sci Ctr U St. Andrews York U Chubu U Fukui U Hiroshima U Hyogo U Kyoto U Kyushu U Kyushu Tokai U NIFS Niigata U U Tokyo JAEA Hebrew U Ioffe Inst RRC Kurchatov Inst TRINITI KBSI KAIST POSTECH ASIPP ENEA, Frascati CEA, Cadarache IPP, Jülich IPP, Garching ASCR, Czech Rep U Quebec
2 Outline 1. Experimental motivation 2. Role of E B drift frequency profile 3. Kinetic stability analysis using MARS code Comparisons with experiment Some control considerations Selfconsistent vs. perturbative approach 4. Summary, future work, questions 2
3 Error field correction (EFC) often necessary to maintain rotation, stabilize n=1 resistive wall mode (RWM) at high β N No EFC n=1 RWM unstable With EFC n=1 RWM stable J.E. Menard et al, Nucl. Fusion 50 (2010)
4 EFC experiments show edge region with q 4 and r/a 0.8 apparently determine stability n=3 EFC stable No EFC n=1 RWM unstable n=1 EFC stable No EFC n=1 RWM unstable unstable stable stable unstable stable stable unstable unstable 4
5 MARS is linear MHD stability code that includes toroidal rotation and driftkinetic effects Singlefluid linear MHD Kinetic effects in perturbed p: Y.Q. Liu, et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, Modeparticle resonance operator: MARSK: MARSF: + additional approximations/simplifications in f L 1 Fast ions: MARSK: slowingdown f(v), MARSF: lumped with thermal 5
6 Sensitivity of stability to rotation motivates study of all components of E B drift frequency ω E (ψ) Decompose flow of species j into poloidal + toroidal components: satisfying Orbitaverage E B drift frequency: Bounce average: = E B drift velocity Ignoring centrifugal effects (ok in plasma edge), ω E reduces to: 1. parallel/toroidal 2. diamagnetic 3. poloidal F. Porcelli, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1 (1994) 470 measured measured or neoclassical theory Y.B. Kim, et al., Phys. Fluids B 3 (1991) 2050 Fluxsurface average: flux function measured reconstructions 6
7 NSTX edge v pol neoclassical (within factor of ~2) V pol 1/B trend B T = 0.34T consistent with neoclassical B T = 0.54T r/a = 0.6 r/a = 0.6 Measured v pol Separatrix neoclassical Largest deviation in core Separatrix Subsequent MARS calculations use neoclassical v pol, but v pol = 0 for r/a < 0.6 NSTX results: R. E. Bell, et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, (2010) Neoclassical: W. Houlberg, et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 3230 (1997) 7
8 n=1 EFC profiles show impurity C diamagnetic and poloidal rotation modify ω E τ A ~ 1% in edge potentially important n=1 RWM unstable (no n=1 EFC) t=470ms n=1 RWM stable (n=1 EFC) t=470ms Toroidal Tor + dia Tor + dia + pol Tor + dia + pol Toroidal Tor + dia C 6+ Toroidal rotation only: Toroidal + diamagnetic: Toroidal + diamagnetic + poloidal: ω E = Ω φc (ψ) ω E = Ω φc (ψ) ω *C ω E = u C B /F ω *C u θc B 2 /F Diamagnetic contribution to ω E τ A 0.5 to 1.0% Neoclassical v pol contribution to ω E τ A 0.2 to 0.4% 8
9 Inclusion of ω *C in ω E increases separation between stable and unstable ω E (ψ) and provides consistency w/ experiment Toroidal rotation only Calculated n=1 γτ wall Unstable rotation profile Stable rotation profile Stable Expt Expt Unstable Toroidal + diamagnetic Predictions inconsistent with experiment Stable Expt Expt Unstable Predictions consistent with experiment 9
10 Addition of v pol in ω E modifies marginal stability ω *C /ω *C (expt) = 1 u θ = 0 Calculated n=1 γτ wall Experimentally unstable profiles ω *C /ω *C (expt) = 1 u θ = neoclassical Expt Expt Experimentally stable profiles Expt Expt 10
11 Mode damping in last 10% of minor radius calculated to determine stability of RWM in n=1 EFC experiments Toroidal + diamagnetic ω E / ω E (expt) = 0.5 used so unstable modes can be identified and local damping computed Unstable rotation profile Stable rotation profile Local mode damping (δw Kimag ) V Higher core damping Lower edge damping Lower core damping Higher edge damping 11
12 Control of ω E (r) could play important role in RWM stabilization Toroidal + diamagnetic + poloidal n=1 EFC β N =5, q*=3.5 Stable Unstable t=470ms Separation between stable and unstable profiles typically small: Δ(ω E τ A ) 1% n=3 braking β N =4, q*=2.8 Unstable Stable n=3 EFC β N =4.5, q*= t=450ms Stable t=580ms Unstable Instability may correlate with ω E 0 occurring over most of edge region If true, provides insight into which conditions to avoid Need for fast RWM active feedback control remains
13 NSTX preparing for realtime rotation control Physics studies enabled: RWM & EF physics vs. rotation and β Transport dynamics vs. rotation shear Pedestal stability vs. edge rotation What is the optimal rotation profile for integrated plasma performance? Neutral Beams (TRANSP) Model Torque Profiles 3D Fields Plan: Use statespace controller based on momentum balance model Realtime chargeexchange for v φ Neutral beams provide torque 3D fields provide braking Vary toroidal mode number to vary magnetic braking profiles Use 2 nd Switching Power Amplifier for independent n=1,2,3 fields (2011) Goal: Test in 2012 Increasing Control Power Achievable Profiles For Various Values of Control Power K. Taira, C.W. Rowley, N.J. Kasdin, (PU), M. Podesta, E. Kolemen, R. Bell, D. Gates (PPPL), S. Sabbagh (CU) 13
14 Kinetic stability analysis using MARSK Comparison with experiment Selfconsistent vs. perturbative approach Modifications of RWM eigenfunction 14
15 MARSK consistent with EFC results and MARSF trends MARSK full kinetic δw K multiple modes can be present Mode identification and eigenvalue tracking more challenging Track roots by scanning fractions of experimental ω E and δw K : Experimentally unstable case stable unstable Experimentally stable case Kinetic Mode remains unstable even at high rotation β N =4.9 Kinetic Mode stabilized at low rotation and small fraction of δw K Fluid Fluid 15
16 Perturbative approach predicts unstable case to be stable inconsistent with selfconsistent treatment and experiment Perturbative approach uses marginally unstable fluid eigenfunction at zero rotation in limit of no kinetic dissipation For cases treated here, δw K can be >> δw and δw b Possibility that rotation/dissipation can modify eigenfunction & stability Experimentally unstable case Perturbative kinetic RWM stable for all rotation values Experimental rotation Experimental rotation 16
17 Perturbative approach results sensitive to β N (but remain inconsistent with experiment) Higher β N = 5.2 does not exhibit approach to marginal stability δw K does not approach 0 γτ w 1 Experimentally unstable case Experimental rotation Experimental rotation 17
18 MARSK selfconsistent calculations for stable case indicate modifications to eigenfunction begin to occur at low rotation Fluid Selfconsistent Experimentally stable Selfconsistent (SC) eigenfunction qualitatively similar to fluid eigenfunction in plasma core SC RWM x amplitude reduced at larger r/a Low ω E /ω E (expt) = 0.3%, δw K /δw K (expt) = 12% Reduced amplitude could reduce dissipation, stability 18
19 MARSK selfconsistent calculations indicate rotation and dissipation can strongly modify RWM eigenfunction Fluid Selfconsistent Experimentally unstable Selfconsistent (SC) eigenfunction shape differs from fluid eigenfunction in plasma core SC RWM x substantially different at larger r/a Moderate ω E /ω E (expt) = 22%, δw K /δw K (expt) = 37% Differences could be even larger at full rotation and δw K Does reduced edge x amplitude explain reduced stability? 19
20 At full rotation and kinetic effects in NSTX, MARSK indicates likely transition to 2 nd unstable eigenfunction Self consistent Self consistent Experimentally unstable SC RWM x at fraction of ω E and δw K Moderate ω E /ω E (expt) = 22%, δw K /δw K (expt) = 37% SC RWM x at full experimental ω E and δw K Eigenfunction shape substantially modified transition to 2 nd mode? 20
21 Summary Edge rotation (q 4, r/a 0.8) important for RWM Trends consistent with stability calculations using MARSF Stability quite sensitive to edge ω E profile Essential to include accurate edge p in E r profile Poloidal rotation can also influence marginal stability Rotation control could assist RWM stabilization (planned) MARSK (full kinetic) trends (stable/unstable) using selfconsistent approach consistent with experiment Perturbative treatment inconsistent overly stable Edge eigenfunction strongly modified by rotation/dissipation Reduction/modification of x reduces kinetic stabilization 21
22 Future work, remaining questions Future work: Collisions were not included in MARSK analysis shown Adding soon  will modify electron contribution to δw K, other? Need more systematic benchmarking of fluid and kinetic δw More complete comparisons to experiment: γ, ω, ξ Questions: Are differences between perturbative & SC unique to NSTX? What determines range of validity of perturbative approach? How large can δw K and dissipation be? What are effects of large ω E on dispersion? Is underlying singlefluid MHD treatment sufficient? Eigenfunctions, dissipation can be highly localized near rationals Is continuum damping computed accurately? 22
23 Backup
24 MARSF using marginally unstable ω E = Ω φc predicts n=1 RWM to be robustly unstable inconsistent with experiment Calculated n=1 γτ wall Using experimentally marginally unstable profiles C β =1 C β β N β N (nowall) β N (wall) β N (nowall) Expt γ depends only weakly on rotation γ increases with β N C β =0 ω *C /ω *C (expt) = 0, u θ = 0 24
25 MARSF using stable ω E = Ω φc profile predicts n=1 RWM to be unstable inconsistent with experiment Calculated n=1 γτ wall using experimentally stable profiles Expt n=1 RWM predicted to be unstable for β N > 4.6, but actual plasma operates stably at β N 5 ω *C /ω *C (expt) = 0, u θ = 0 25
26 Inclusion of v pol in ω E can sometimes modify marginal stability boundary example: wall position variation Calculated n=1 γτ wall experimentally stable profiles and b wall / a artificially increased 1.1 Expt Expt ω *C /ω *C (expt) = 1 u θ = 0 ω *C /ω *C (expt) = 1 u θ = neoclassical Increased wall distance lowers withwall limit to β N ~ 5.5 Case with u θ =0 has lower marginal stability limit β N ~ 5 26
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