# Chapter 4: Newton s Second Law F = m a. F = m a (4.2)

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1 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 1 Chapter 4: Newton s Second Law F = m a First Law: The Law of Inertia An object at rest will remain at rest unless, until acted upon by an external force. An object moving at constant velocity will continue to move at constant velocity unless, until acted upon by an external force. These two statements are the same when one considers that whether or not an object has velocity depends upon one s frame of reference. Second Law: Relation between Force and Acceleration An object will experience an acceleration a in direct proportion to the force F exerted on the object. The constant of the proportionality is the object s mass m. F = m a (4.2) If there is no force then there must be no acceleration. If there is no acceleration then there must be no force. If there is force then there must be acceleration. If there is acceleration then there must be a force. Third Law: Action and Reaction Forces Every (action) force which exists has an equal an opposite (reaction) force, but the action-reaction forces NEVER act on the same body. A force F AB is exerted on body A by body B. By Newton s Third Law there must also be a force F BA which is exerted on body B by body A. F AB = F BA (4.6) It takes two to tango could be just another way of stating Newton s Third Law. In other words, all forces are the result of two bodies (particles) acting on one another.

2 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 2 CHAPTER 4: Newton s Second Law of Motion The fundamental equation of mechanics is Newton s Second Law of Motion: F = ma (4.2) A FORCE acting on an object with mass m will produce an acceleration a. Note that this is a vector equation, so it actually represents three separate equations for the X, Y, and Z components of the force and the acceleration. More than one force acting on an object If there is more than one force acting on an object, the left hand side of the Newton s second law is simply replaced by the vector sum of the forces acting on the body: Σ N i=1f i = ma (4.3a) = Σ N i=1f ix = ma x Σ N i=1f iy = ma y Σ N i=1f iz = ma z (4.3b) It is very important that you realize that this equation applies to the forces acting on the object. The most difficult thing for most students is to recognize all, and only all, the forces which act on a particular object. Sometimes students will leave out certain forces, and other times students will include forces which are not acting on the object in question. The secret is to focus your attention on the object in question. ACCELERATED MOTION Accelerated motion occurs when the left hand side of Eq. 4.2 is not zero. Then the object must have an acceleration. Many of the problems you will have to work out will involved computing the acceleration of an object when the object experiences certain forces. Typical cases will include the force of gravity (weight), the normal forces exerted by supporting walls and floors, and the static or kinetic frictional forces.

3 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 3 Applications of Newton s Laws of Motion While the three Newton s Laws of Motion look extremely simple at first sight (and really are deep down), there are a wide variety of problems to which they can be applied. And, at first glance, the solutions to those problems will likely be difficult for you. There are two types of problems: Static Equilibrium and Accelerated Motion. Both of these problems are dealt with in Chapter 4. Static Equilibrium This is the case of Newton s second law where there is no net force on an object. Typically the object is at rest in the Earth s frame of reference. ΣF i = 0 = ΣF ix = 0 ΣF iy = 0 = the sum of the Forces acting Right = the sum of the Forces acting Left = the sum of the Forces acting Up = the sum of the forces acting Down Steps in Solving Statics Problems The Free Body Approach Generally you will be confronted with one or more objects on which are exerted certain forces. Usually there will be the weight forces, and the objects will exert forces on one another. You will be asked to solve for one or more unknown forces. You should then follow a procedure call the Free Body Approach, explained on the next page

4 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 4 The Free Body Approach to STATIC (EQUILIBRIUM) Mechanics Problems 1) Isolate the object(s) of interest. 2) Identify and draw all the forces acting on the object(s). This is called a free body diagram. 3) If there is more than one object, make sure you understand which forces are acting on which objects. 4) For each object, resolve the forces into their rectangular components. 5) Apply the Newton s Second Law equations ΣF ix = 0 and to the separate object(s). ΣF iy = 0 6) Solve for the unknown force(s). The Free Body Approach to NON-EQUILIBRIUM Mechanics Problems A non-equilibrium problem has accelerated motion. One can also do a free-body approach. The only difference is in step 5) above. For the mass m of each free body, we will have Newton s Second Law as ΣF ix = ma x and ΣF iy = ma y

5 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 5 Worked Example in STATIC EQUILIBRIUM A traffic light weighing 100 N hangs from a cable which in turn is tied to two other cables fastened to an overhead support as shown in the figure on page 122. The upper two cables make angles of 37 o and 53 o with the horizontal. Find the tensions in the three cables. Solution First construct the diagram of the physical set up, and then isolate the objects of interest. First there is the traffic light, and second there is the knot where the three cables are connected. (These are knotty problems; there will often be a knot which is at rest while subject to three or more tensions.) From the diagram (see Fig on page 122) we immediately deduce the magnitude of T 3 = 100 N. Then we can proceed to the free body diagram of the knot. We know that the vector sum T 1 + T 2 + T 3 = 0, so we can write down the usual table for the analytic addition of vectors: Force Magnitude Angle X Comp. Y Comp. (N) (deg.) (N) (N) T 1 T T 1 cos 143 o T 1 sin 143 o T 2 T 2 53 T 2 cos 53 o T 2 sin 53 o T ΣF x = 0 = T 1 cos 143 o + T 2 cos 53 o = 0 ΣF y = 0 = T 1 sin 143 o + T 2 sin 53 o 100 = 0 We have two equations in two unknowns (T 1 and T 2 ). From the first: T 2 = T 1 ( cos 143 o cos 53 o ) = 1.33T 1 Substitute this in the second equation to obtain T 1 sin 143 o T 1 sin 53 o 100 = 0 = T 1 = 60.0 N, and T 2 = 79.8 N

6 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 6 Accelerated Motion F = ma A extremely common example of the accelerated motion type of problem is given in Ex. 4.3 (page 123). A sled of mass m is placed on a frictionless hill (inclined plane) which is at an angle Θ with the horizontal. Find the acceleration of the mass down the hill. The forces acting on the block are: 1) The downward weight force W = mg exerted by gravity. 2) The normal force N exerted by the inclined plane, and perpendicular ( normal ) to its surface. You don t know the magnitude of the normal force initially, only its direction. Solution Draw the figure, and the free body diagram as shown above. In this example (and in all inclined plane problems) it is convenient to have the y axis perpendicular to the plane, and the x axis parallel to the plane. (Why is that convenient?). In that coordinate system the net component of the force in the y direction is 0. How can you be sure of that? So the two separate equations in 4.2 become: ΣF xi = mg sin θ = ma x ΣF yi = N mg cos θ = 0 There are two unknowns in these two equations: a x, and N, and each of these unknowns can be solved for immediately. From the first equation a x = g sin θ The acceleration down the plane is independent of the size of the mass m. All objects slide down frictionless inclined planes at the same acceleration which depends only on the size of the plane s inclination angle. From the second equation you can obtain the magnitude of the normal force N = mg cos θ

7 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 7 Newton s Second Law F = ma and Connected Objects An object of mass M is on a frictionless horizontal table. This object is connected by a massless string going over a pulley onto a second object m which is falling because of gravity? What is the acceleration of M, and what are the net forces acting on each of M and m. Free body diagrams It is necessary to draw a separate free body diagram for each mass. Then add up all the forces acting on each mass separately, and use Newton s second law in each case. For mass M the only force acting is the tension T in the connecting string. So by Newton s second law for M becomes F M = T = Ma For mass m there are two forces acting: the upward tension T and the downward weight force mg. So the Newton s second law equation for m becomes F m = mg T = ma Notice that the magnitude of the acceleration, on the right hand side of each equation, is the same in both cases. This is because the masses are connected by an inextensible string. There are two unknowns in these two equations: the magnitudes T and a. Since there are two equations, then it is possible to solve for these two unknowns. The simplest approach is just to add the two equations in order to eliminate the T unknown. You should obtain after adding mg = Ma + ma = a = = T = Ma = Mm M + m g m M + m g

8 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 8 Newton s Second Law and Static Friction Static friction is a Force parallel to the surface of contact between two objects, which acts on an object to prevent motion from occurring. Because static friction prevents the motion from occurring, the object remains stationary. The magnitude of the static friction will then be equal to the magnitude of the external force trying to making the motion occur (what about the direction of the static friction?). So as the external force is increasing, the static friction force must also increase. But this cannot continue indefinitely. There is a maximum value that the static friction can have for a given object on a given surface. That maximum is given by the equation f max s = µ s N where µ s is the coefficient of static friction, and N is the normal force of the surface against the object. Use of the Normal Force instead of the Weight Force Why can t we just simply say that N is equal to the weight of the object? It could be that the Normal Force is less than the Weight Force, N < W, if there is another force supporting part of the object and N > W is there is another force pressing down on the object. Also the normal force may even be horizontal instead of vertical, or at any angle 0 θ 90 o. (Example of a block on a blackboard!)

9 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 9 Static Friction Case 1 A force F 1 pushes horizontally against an object of mass M on a rough, horizontal surface. The object remains stationary. What is the maximum force of static friction? fs max = µ s N N = Mg = fs max = µ s Mg Case 1 A force F 1 pulls at an angle Θ against an object of mass M which is on a rough, horizontal surface. The object remains stationary. What is the maximum force F 1 which can be applied? f max s = µ s N N Mg The normal force of the surface, in this case, is not equal to the total weight vector. The reason is that part of the weight of the object is supported by the upward component of the applied force F 1. Vertical Force Equality: N + F 1 sin Θ = Mg = N = Mg F 1 sin Θ Now substitute for f max s Horizontal Force Equality: f max s µ s N = µ s (Mg F 1 sin Θ) = F 1 cos Θ = F 1 = = F 1 cos Θ µ s Mg cos Θ + sin Θ

10 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 10 Newton s Second Law and Kinetic Friction F = N F i = ma i=1 Kinetic Friction Kinetic Friction is the Force of friction which takes over once the object starts moving. The force of kinetic friction is given by a similar equation f k = µ k N Here we see that the kinetic friction force is always the same for a given normal force. No matter how fast the object is moving, and no matter whether it is accelerating or just moving at constant velocity, we still have the same force of kinetic friction opposing the direction of the motion. Since motion is actually occurring, this must mean that there is another force at least as big as, or bigger than, the force of friction.

11 Lecture 7: Newton s Laws and Their Applications 11 Worked Problem with KINETIC FRICTION A 3 kg block starts from rest at the top of a 30 o inclined plane slides down a distance of 2 m down the incline in 1.5 seconds. Find a) the acceleration of the block, b) the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the plane, c) the frictional force acting on the block, and d) the speed of the block after it has slid 2 m. First draw the figure and indicate all the forces acting on the block. The solution to parts a) and d) can be found immediately using the kinematics equations x(t) = x 0 + v x0 t a xt 2 and v x (t) = v x0 + a x t As usual in inclined plane problems, the x axis is down the plane, and the y axis is perpendicular to the plane. In this case x 0 = 0, v x0 = 0, and we are given that the block has moved 2 m after t = 1.5 seconds x(t = 1.5) = 2 = 1 2 a x(1.5) 2 = a x = v x (t = 1.5) = v x0 + a x (1.5) = 2.67 m/s = 1.78 m/s2 Now apply Newton s second law of motion to the x and the y directions x direction: F x = Mg sin θ f k = Ma x (the same a x as before) = f k = Mg sin θ Ma x = sin 30 o = 9.37 N y direction: F y = N Mg cos θ = 0 (because a y = 0) Substitute for the kinetic friction force f k = µ k N = µ k Mg cos θ which gives µ k = f k Mg cos θ = cos 30 o = Note that the parts a), b), c), and d) to the problem were not solved in the order in which they were asked. So be on guard.

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