F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s i n E n t e r p r i s e F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s ( S o-s ltiad t e D r i v e s ) a r e b e c o m i n g a n a t t r a c

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1 L i f e t i m e M a n a g e m e n t o f F l a-b s ah s e d S S D s U s i n g R e c o v e r-a y w a r e D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g S u n g j i n L e, e T a e j i n K i m, K y u n g h o, Kainmd J i h o n g K i m S c h o o l o f C o m p u t e r S c i e n c e a n d E n g i n e e r i n g S e o u l N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y S a m s u n g E l e c t r o n i c s 1 0 t h U S E N I X C o n f e r e n c e o n F i l e a n d S t o r a g e T e c h n o l o g i e s F e b r u a r y 1 7,

2 F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s i n E n t e r p r i s e F l a s h-b a s e d S S D s ( S o-s ltiad t e D r i v e s ) a r e b e c o m i n g a n a t t r a c t i v e s t o r a g e s o l u t i o n f o r e n t e r p r i s e s y s t e m < P C I e-b a s e d F l a s h A r r a y > < M L C -b a s e d S S D > T h e l i m i t e d l i f e t i m e c a u s e d b y p o o r w r i t e e n d u r a n c e i s a m a i n b a r r i e r f o r w i d e r a d o p t i o n o f S S D s i n t h e e n t e r p r i s e m a r k e t. 2

3 S S D L i f e t i m e T h e S S D l i f e t i m e i s d e t e r m i n e d m a bi y n tf wa oc t o r s : S S D l i f e t i m e ( d= a y s ) C a p a c i t y # o f P / E c y c l e s T h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f b y t e s t h a t c a n b e w r i t t e n t o t h e W r i t e t r a f f i c ( d a y W A) F T h e n u m b e r o f b y t e s w r i t t e n p e r d a y ( 1 ) S S D c a p a c i t y ( 2 ) N u m b e r o f p r o g r a m / e r a s e ( P / E ) c y c l e s ( 3 ) I n c o m i n g w r i t e t r a f f i c ( 4 ) W r i t e A m p l i f i c a t i o n F a c t o r ( W A F ) E f f i c i e n c y o f F T L a l g o r i t h m s 3

4 I n t e n s i v e W r i t e T r a f f i c E n t e r p r i s e s y s t e m s e x h i b i t h i g h w r i t e t r a f f B a n d w i d t h ( M B / s e c ) W r i t e n o t i n t e n s i v e ( e. g., M o b i l e p h o n e a n d D e s k t o p P C ) R e q u i r e d l i f e t i m e W r i t e i n t e n s i v e ( e. g., E n t e r p r i s e S e r v e r ) B a n d w i d t h ( M B / s e c ) C a n n o t g u a r a n t e e t h e r e q u i r e d l i f e t i m e 4 C a p a c i t y # o f P / E c y c l e s L i f e t i m e = W r i t e t r a f f i c ( d a y W A) F

5 D e c r e a s i n g P / E C y c l e s T h e n u m b e r o f P / E c y c l e s i s c o n t i n u o u s l y d e c r e a s i t h e s e m i c o n d u c t o r p r o c e s s i s -d os wc na l e d C a p a c i t y # o f P / E c y c l e s L i f e t i m e = W r i t e t r a f f i c ( d a y W A) F 5

6 E x i s t i n g L i f e t i-e m ne h a n c e m e n t S c h e m e s R e d u c e W A F O p t i m i z e g a r b a g e c o l l e c t i o n a l g o r i t h m s O p t i m i z e w e a-l r e v e l i n g a l g o r i t h m s U s e m o r e f i-g n er a i n e d m a p p i n g s c h e m e s R e d u c e i n c o m i n g w r i t e t r a f f i c U s e l o s s l e s s d a t a c o m p r e s s i o n U s e d a t a d e d u p l i c a t i o n A l l t h o s e a p p r o a c h e s i m p r o v e t h e o v e r a l l S S D l i f e b u t c a n n o t g u a r a n t e e t h e r e q u i r e d S S D l i f e t i m e! C a p a c i t y # o f P / E c y c l e s L i f e t i m e = W r i t e t r a f f i c ( d a y W A) F 6

7 S t a t i c T h r o t t l i n g ( E x i s t i n g A p p r o a c h L i m i t t h e m a x i m u m t h r o u g h p u t o f S S D s O r i g i n a l w r i t e t r a f f i c S t a t i c t h r o t t l i n g G u a r a n t e e t h e r e q u i r e d l i f e t i m e B a n d w i d t h ( M B / s e c ) R e q u i r e d L i f e t i m e D i s a d v a n t a g e s L i k e l y t o t h r o t t l e p e r f o r m a n c e u s e l e s s l y H i g h p e r f o r m a n c e p e n a l t y a n d h i g h r e s p o n s e t i m e v a r i a t i o n s U n d e r u t i l i z e t h e a v a i l a b l e e n d u r a n c e 7

8 O u r A p p r o a c h ( 1 ) : D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g T h r o t t l e S S D p e r f o r m a n c e d y n a m i c a l l y d e p e n d i n g o n T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a g i v e n w o r k l o a d T h e r e m a i n i n g S S D l i f e t i m e D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g A n S S D i s w o r n o u t B a n d w i d t h ( M B / s e c ) S t a t i c T h r o t t l i n g R e q u i r e d L i f e t i m e L e s s p e r f o r m a n c e p e n a l t y a n d r e s p o n s e t i m e v a r i a t i o n s F u l l y u t i l i z e t h e a v a i l a b l e e n d u r a n c e 8

9 O u r A p p r o a c h ( 2 ) : E x p l o i t S e-r l ef c o v e r y E f f e c t T h e e f f e c t i v e P / E c y c l e s a r e m u c h l a r g e r t h a n t h e n u m b e r d a t a s h e e t s d u e t o t h e r e c o v e r y e f f e c t R e c o v e r y-a w a r e D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g A n S S D i s w o r n o u t B a n d w i d t h ( M B / s e c ) D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g R e q u i r e d L i f e t i m e G u a r a n t e e t h e S S D l i f e t i m e w i t h l e s s t h r o t t l i n g o v e r h e a d s 9

10 C o n t r i b u t i o n P r o p o s e a n o v e l R E c o-a v ew ra yr e D Y n a m i c t h r o t t l i n g t e c h n i q u e, c a lrle ead D Y T h r o t t l e t h e ps es rd f o r m a n c e t o g u a r a n t e e t h e r e q u i r e d S S D l i f e t i m e E x p l o i t t h e -rs e cl of v e r y p r o p e r t y o f a f l a s h m e m o r y c e l l t l e s s e n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e p e n a l t y c a u s e d b y t h r o t t l i n g E v a l u a t e t h e p r o p o s e d R E A D Y t e c h n i q u e u s i n g r e a l - w o r l d e n t e r p r i s e t r a c e s G u a r a n t e e t h e r e q u i r e d S S D l i f e t i m e f o r a l l e v a l u a t e d A c h i e v e 4. 4 x h i g h e r r e s p o n s e s t i m e o v e r a s i m p l e s t a t i t h r o t t l i n g t e c h n i q u e 1 0

11 O u t l i n e I n t r o d u c t i o n M o t i v a t i o n R e c o v e r y-a w a r e D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g E v a l u a t i o n R e s u l t s C o n c l u s i o n 1 1

12 D e s i g n G o a l s o f R E A D Y D e s i g n g o a l : 1g u a r a n t e e t h e r e q u i r e d S S D l i f e t i m e T h r o t t l e t h e w r i t e t h r o u g h p u t o f S S D s b y a p p l y i n g t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y s t o w r i t e r e q u e s t s D e s i g n g o a l : 2m i n i m i z e a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e t i m e s D e t e r m i n e a t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y a s l o w a s p o s s i b l e s o t h a S S D i s c o m p l e t e l y w o r n o u t a t t h e r e q u i r e d l i f e t i m e D e s i g n g o a l 3 : m i n i m i z e r e s p o n s e t i m e v a r i a t i o n s D i s t r i b u t e a t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y a s e v e n l y a s p o s s i b l e o v e v e r y w r i t e r e q u e s t 1 2

13 O v e r a l l A r c h i t e c t u r e o f R E A D Y D e t e r m i n e t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y s E s t i m a t e h o w m a n y d a t a w i l l b e w r i t t e n T h r o t t l e T h r o t t l i n g D e l a y E s t i m a t ow R rr ei ct oe v ep re y r f Mo or dm ea ln c e P r e d i c t f u t u r e w r i t e d e m a n d s T h r o t t l i n g D e l a y W r i t e D e m a n d P r e d i c t o r E p o c h-c a p a c i t y R e g u l a t o r H o s t S y s t e m W r i t e H o s t I n t e r f a c e T h r o t t l i n g L a y e r W r i t e w / D e l a y F T L N A N D F l a s h C h i p s M o n i t o r i n g w r i t e d e m a n d s A p p l y t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y s S S D 1 3

14 W r i t e D e m a n d P r e d i c t o r T h e w r i t e t r a f f i c o f e n t e r p r i s e w o r k l o a d s i s l c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t i m e H o w t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e w r i t e t r a f f i c f o r t h r o t t E x p l o i t c y c l i c b e h a v i o r s o f e n t e r p r i s e a p p l i c a t i o n B a n d w i d t h ( M B / s e c ) T i m e 1 4

15 C y c l i c a l B e h a v i o r s o f E n t e r p r i s e W o r k l o a d s A s t r o n g c y c l i c a l b e h a v i o r i s f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d e n t e r p r i s e a p p l i c a t i o n s W h e n a c y c l i c p e r i o d i s s e t t o 3 0 W h me in n, a c y c l i c p e r i o d i s s e t t o 3 0 m i n, t h e w r i t e d e m a n d d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e w r i t e d e m a n d d i f f e r e n c e i s l e s s t h a3 n 0 % f o r 8 8 % p e r i o d s l e s s t h a2 n 0 % f o r 9 8 % p e r i o d s 1 5

16 F u t u r e W r i t e D e m a n d E s t i m a t i o n ( 1 ) D i v i d e t i m e i n t o e p o c h s w h i c h e x h i b i t s i m i l a r w r i t e d ( 2 ) E s t i m a t e t h e s i m i l a r a m o u n t o f d a t a w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e p o c h w i l l b e w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e n e x t e p o c h T h e s i m i l a r a m o u n t o f d a t a w i l l b e w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h -t e h i e p o c h B a n d w i d t h ( M B / s e c ) C y c l i c a l P e r i o d ( = E p o c h ) ( i-1 ) t h e p o c h i-t h e p o c h ( i + 1 ) t h e p o c h T i m e 1 6

17 O v e r a l l A r c h i t e c t u r e o f R E A D Y D e t e r m i n e t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y s T h r o t t l i n g D e l a y E s t i m a t o R r e c o v e r y M o d e l P r e d i c t f u t u r e w r i t e d e m a n d s T h r o t t l i n g D e l a y W r i t e D e m a n d P r e d i c t o r E p o c h-c a p a c i t y R e g u l a t o r H o s t S y s t e m M o n i t o r i n g p a s t w r i t e d e m a n d s A p p l y t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y s H o s t I n t e r f a c e T h r o t t l i n g L a y e r F T L N A N D F l a s h C h i p s S S D 1 7

18 T h r o t t l i n g D e l a y E s t i m a t o r D e t e r m i n e a t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y ( 1 ) T h e f u t u r e w r i t e d e m a n d f o r t h e n e x t W e p ao lc rh e a d y k n o w i t ( 2 ) T h e e p o c h c a p a c i t y T h e a m o u n t o f d a t a a l l o w e d t o b e w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e e p o c h E p o c h c a p a c i t y = # o f r e m a i n i n g P / E c y c l e s x # o f r e m a i n i n g e p o c h s S S D c a p a c i t y ( 1 ) F u t u r e W r i t e D e m a n d B a n d w i d t h P r e s e n t ( 2 ) E p o c h C a p a c i t y ( i-1 ) t h e p o c h i-t h e p o c h ( i + 1 ) t h e p o c h ( i + 2 ) t h e p o c h ( i + 3 ) t h e p o c h 1 8

19 C h a n g e T h r o t t l i n g D e l a y A t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y i s i n i t i a l l y s e t t o 0 a n d i s c h a n g e d a d t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h e p o c h. C a s e 1 : f u t u r e w r i t e d = e me ap no d c h c a p a c i t y D o n t c h a n g e a t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y C a s e 2 : f u t u r e w r i t e d > e me ap no d c h c a p a c i t y I n c r e a s e a t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y C a s e 3 : f u t u r e w r i t e d < e me ap no d c h c a p a c i t y D e c r e a s e a t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y ( 1 ) F u t u r e W r i t e D e m a n d B a n d w i d t h P r e s e n t ( 2 ) E p o c h C a p a c i t y ( i-1 ) t h e p o c h i-t h e p o c h ( i + 1 ) t h e p o c h ( i + 2 ) t h e p o c h ( i + 3 ) t h e p o c h 1 9

20 E x p l o i t E f f e c t i v e P / E C y c l e s P / E o p e r a t i o n s c a u s e d a m a g e t o N A N D f l a s h m e m o r y c e l l s T h i s d a m a g e i s p a r t i a l l y r e c o v e r e d d u r i n g t h e i d l e t i m e E f f e c t i v e P / E c y c l e s a r e l a r g e-s r e t h ap n / E p rc ey c l e s E p o c h c a p a c i t= y < # o f r e m a i n i n g P / E c x y c l e Ss S D c a p a c i t y # o f r e m a i n i n g e p o c h s # o f e f f e c t i v e r e m a i n i n g P / x E c y Sc Sl D e s c a p a c i t y # o f r e m a i n i n g e p o c h s 2 0

21 E f f e c t i v e P / E C y c l e s M o d e l i n g S e l f-r e c o v e r y e f f e c t v a l i d a t i o n f r o m r e a l m e a s u r e m e n t s R e c o v e r y R e c o v e r y E f f e c t i v e P / E c y c l e s m o d e l i n g < D a m a g e M o d e l > < S e l f-r e c o v e r y M o d e l > 2 1 < E f f e c t i v e P / E c y c l e s >

22 T h e E f f e c t i v e P / E C y c l e s T h e m a x i m u m P / E c y c l e s w i t h o u t t h e r e c o v e r y e f f e c t a r e 3 K T h e e f f e c t i v e P / E c y c l e s a r e g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d i n p r o p o t o t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i d l e t i m e. E f f e c t i v e P / E c y c l e s 2 2

23 O v e r a l l A r c h i t e c t u r e o f R E A D Y T h r o t t l e T h r o t t l i n g D e l a y E s t i m a t ow R rr ei ct oe v ep re y r f Mo or dm ea ln c e P r e d i c t f u t u r e w r i t e d e m a n d s T h r o t t l i n g D e l a y W r i t e D e m a n d P r e d i c t o r E p o c h-c a p a c i t y R e g u l a t o r H o s t S y s t e m M o n i t o r i n g p a s t w r i t e d e m a n d s A p p l y t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y s H o s t I n t e r f a c e T h r o t t l i n g L a y e r F T L N A N D F l a s h C h i p s S S D 2 3

24 E p o c h -C a p a c i t y R e g u l a t o r T h r o t t l e w r i t e p e r f o r m a n c e a s e v e n l y a s p o s s i b l e T o m i n i m i z e r e s p o n s e t i m e v a r i a t i o n s ( 1 ) A p p l y t h e s a m e t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y t o e v e r y p a g e w r i t e ( 2 ) I n c r e a s e a t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y l a t e r t o r-ue sc el d a i m t h e o v e r c a p a c i t y I n c r e a s e a t h r o t t l i n g d e l a y s l i g h t l y A p a g e w r i t e t o r e c l a i m t h e -uo sv e d r c a p a c i t y ( p a g e s i z e i s 83 2 K B K ) B d a t a h a s b e e n w r i t t e n R e q. A c k. 8 K B 8 K B 8 K B 8 K B 8 K8BK B T h r o t t l i n g d e l a y T h r o t t l i n g d e l a y T h r o t t l i n g d e l a y T h r o t t l i n g d e l a y T htrho rt ottl tiln ig n g d edlea ly a y E p o c h C a p a c i t y = 2 4 K B 2 4 T i m e

25 O u t l i n e I n t r o d u c t i o n M o t i v a t i o n R e c o v e r y-a w a r e D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g E v a l u a t i o n R e s u l t s C o n c l u s i o n 2 5

26 E x p e r i m e n t a l S e t t i n g U s e d t h e D i s k S-b i am s e d S S D s i m u l a t o r f o r e v a l u a t i o n s 2 0 n m 2-b i t M L C N A N D f l a s h m e m o r y w i t h 3 K P / E c y c l e s T h e t a r g e t S S D l i f e t i m e i s s e t t o 5 y e a r s E v a l u a t e d f o u r S S D c o n f i g u r a t i o n s N T : N o T h r o t t l i n g N o p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o t t l i n g ; N o l i f e t i m e g u a r a n t e e S T : S t a t i c T h r o t t l i n g D T : D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g w i t h o u t R e c o v e r y R E A D Y : R e c o v -A e rw a r e D y n a m i c T h r o t t l i n g 2 6

27 B e n c h m a r k s U s e d t h e t r a c e s f r o m -C Ma Sm Rb r i d g e a n d M- S P r o d u c t i o n b e n c h m a r k s 2 7

28 L i f e t i m e A n a l y s i s R e q u i r e d l i f e t i m e N T c a n n o t g u a r a n t e e t h e r e q u i r e d S S D l i f e t i m e ( e x c e p t f o r R E A D Y a c h i e v e s t h e l i fc el to is me e t o 5 y e a r s S T a n d D T e x h i b i t t h e l mi uf ce h t i lm oe n g e r t h a n 5 y e a r s 2 8

29 P e r f o r m a n c e A n a l y s i s N T e x h i b i t s t h e b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e a m o n g a l l t h e c o n f i g u r a t R E A D Y p e r f o r m b e t t e r t h a n S T a n d D T w h i l e g u a r a n t e e i n g t h r e q u i r e d l i f e t i m e 2 9

30 R e s p o n s e T i m e V a r i a t i o n s ( 1 ) R E A D Y s h o w s s h o r t e r r e s p o n s e t i m e s t h a n S T / D T. S T e x h i b i t s s i g n i f i c a n t r e s p o n s e t i m e v a r i a t i o n s. S t o p w r i t i n g i f i n c o m i n g w r i t e t r a f f i c i s h i g h e r t h a n t h r o u g h p u t 3 0

31 R e s p o n s e T i m e V a r i a t i o n s ( 2 ) T h e w r i t e t r a f f i c o f p r o j a n d m a p c h a n g e s g r e a t l y w i t h t i I t i s h a r d t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e w r i t e t r a f f i c. R E A D Y a n d D T e x h i b i t r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f l u c t u a t i o n o n r e s p o t i m e s, b u t i s m o r e s t a b l e t h a n S T 3 1

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