Composite Materials 261 and 262

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1 Composite Materials 261 and 262 Stefan Hartmann 1 David Moncayo 2 1 DYNAmore GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany 2 Daimler AG, Sindelfingen, Germany 11. LS-DYNA Forum 2012, Oktober 2012, Ulm 1

2 Outline Introduction - failure mechanisms / modeling possibilities Material models 261 and 262 for intralaminar failure - *MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_PINHO - *MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_CAMANHO - summary and comparison Preliminary results - three point bending of flat specimen / three point bending of a hat profile / shear specimen / drop tower test Summary and Outlook 2

3 Introduction failure mechanisms in fiber reinforced composites 3

4 Introduction modeling possibilities intralaminar - element: layered (thin/thick) shells one solid element per ply - material: plasticity / damage models layered thin shell elements + numerical cheap (thickness does not influence the critical time step size) + combination of single layers to sub-laminates - no stresses in thickness dir. (no delamination) layered thick shell elements + 3D stress state + combination of single layers to sub-laminates - thickness influences the critical time step size interlaminar (delamination) - cohesive elements - tiebreak contacts solid elements + 3D stress state - one element for every single layer (no layering) numerical expensive stacked shells layered thin shell element cohesive element layered thin shell element 4

5 Introduction layered thin shell definition with *PART_COMPOSITE» no *SECTION_SHELL-keyword card needed» different material models allowed *PART_COMPOSITE Composite Lay up (Version 971) $ $ PID ELFORM SHRF NLOC MAREA HGID ADOPT $ MID1 THICK1 BETA MID2 THICK2 BETA $ MID3 THICK3 BETA MID4 THICK4 BETA Listing of integration points begins from the bottom IP 3 IP 2 IP

6 Material models for intralaminar failure *MAT_261: [1] *MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_ DAIMLER_PINHO *MAT_262: [2] *MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_ DAIMLER_CAMANHO (Development together with Daimler AG) [1] Pinho, S.T., Iannucci, L.; Robinson, P.: Physically-based failure models and criteria for laminated fiber-reinforced composites with emphasis on fiber kinking: Part I Development & Part II FE implementation, Composites: Part A 37, 2006 [2] Maimí, P., Camanho, P.P., Mayugo, J.A., Dávila, D.G.: A continuum damage model for composite laminates: Part I Constitutive model & Part II Computational implementation and validation, Mechanics of Materials 39,

7 *MAT_261 (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_PINHO): constitutive law ( ) ˆ σ = 1 d ɶ σ 4 damage parameter dmat; dmac; dkink ; da 4 failure criteria da dkink dmat dmac 7

8 *MAT_261 (*MAT_..._PINHO): fiber tension (maximum stress) f a σ a = = 1 X t fiber compression (3D-kinking model) (interaction, transformation to fracture plane - 3D) f kink 2 2 τt τ L + = 1 if σ m 0 b ST µ Tσ n SL µ Lσ n = σ n τt τ L + + = 1 if σ m > 0 b YT ST SL ɶ σ m + ɶ σ ψ ɶ σ m ɶ σ ψ b c b c σ n = + cos(2 φ) + ɶ σ m ψ sin(2 φ) b c 2 2 ɶ σ m ɶ σ ψ b c τt = sin(2 φ) + ɶ σ m ψ cos(2 φ) b c 2 τ = ɶ σ cos( φ) + ɶ σ sin( φ) L a b c a m m ψ m matrix failure: transverse tension (transformation to fracture plane) f mat σ n τ T τ L = + + = 1 Yt ST SL matrix failure: transverse compression/shear (Mohr-Coulomb: Puck/Schürmann) f mac 2 2 τ T τ L = + = 1 ST µ Tσ n SL µ Lσ n φ 0 : φ : fracture plane for pure compression fracture plane under general loading 8

9 *MAT_261 (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_PINHO): linear damage laws ˆ σ = (1 d )[ ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ ] a ˆ σ = (1 d )[ ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ ] kink ˆ σ = (1 d )[ ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ ] mat ˆ σ = (1 d )[ ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ, ɶ σ ] mac Γa, Γkink, Γb, ΓT, ΓL : σ 0 σ 0 ε Γ L 0 f d i = f 0 ( ) f ε ε ε ε ε ε ε fracture toughness from: CT, CC, 4-point bending, mode II interlaminar fracture (T,L) ε L : internal (characteristic) length for objectivity (localization!) 9

10 *MAT_261 (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_PINHO): in-plane shear behavior 1D plasticity formulation with combined isotropic/kinematic hardening coupled with linear damage model Nonlinearity defined via *DEFINE_CURVE 10

11 *MAT_262 (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_CAMANHO): constitutive relation 1 ε = H : σ σ = H : ε H 1 ν 21 ( 1 d1 ) E1 E2 ν12 1 = E ( 1 d ) E ( 1 d ) G failure criteria (LaRC03/04) 5 damage variables (, ); ( ); ( ); ( ); ( ) d r r d r d r d r d r σ d = d + d σ11 σ11 σ d = d + d σ σ σ 22 σ 22 damage activation functions F F F F = φ r = φ r = φ r = φ r

12 *MAT_262 (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_CAMANHO): failure surface (assembly of 4 sub-surfaces) 12

13 *MAT_262 (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_CAMANHO): fiber tension (maximum strain LaRC04 ) ɶ σ11 ν ɶ 12σ 12 φ 1 + = X T 2 fiber compression (LaRC03) (transformation to fracture plane - 2D) 2 m m ɶ σ 12 + µ ɶ Lσ 22 φ1 = S L matrix failure: transverse tension (LaRC04) (assumption: crack perpendicular to mid-surface) φ φ matrix failure: transverse compression/shear (LaRC04) (transformation to fracture plane) 2 2 ɶ σ ɶ σ ɶ σ = (1 g) + + ( ɶ σ 0) Y Y S T T L 12 L ɶ σ 22 S L φ2 2 ɶ σ + µ ɶ σ = ( < 0) 2 eff 2 τ L eff τ T = + S S T L m ɶ σ11 ɶ σ 22 C C ɶ σ12 = sin(2 ϕ ) + ɶ σ12 cos(2 ϕ ) 2 m ɶ σ11 + ɶ σ ɶ 22 σ11 ɶ σ 22 C C ɶ σ 22 = cos(2 ϕ ) ɶ σ12 sin(2 ϕ ) 2 2 (in-plane shear & transverse tension) (in-plane shear & small transverse compression) [ ] eff τ = ɶ σ cos( α ) sin( α ) µ cos( α ) cos( θ ) T T 0 eff τ L = cos( α0) ɶ σ 12 + µ ɶ Lσ 22 cos( α0)sin( θ ) 13

14 *MAT_262 (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_CAMANHO): evolution of threshold (internal) variables compression: tension: r { r φ } { φ } = max 1,, n+ 1 n n+ 1 1 /2 1 /2 1 /2 r = max 1, r, r, n+ 1 n n+ 1 n / /2+ 1 /2 1 + /2+ ( r [ 1 ] ) no damage due to crack (tension); crack closure evolution of damage variables ( d [ 0 1] ) ( ) d r (, ) (, ) E Eε ( r) = 1 m X G n X m n m bi-linear in fiber direction linear in transverse direction GXT, GXC, GYT, GYC, GSL fracture toughness from: CT, CC, DCB, -, 4-ENF l : internal (characteristic) length for objectivity (lokalization!) 14

15 *MAT_262 (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_CAMANHO): 1D elasto-plastic formulation with combined iso/kin hardening coupled to a linear damage evolution law σ 12 S L G SL l ε 12 15

16 *MAT_261 (Pinho) failure criterion may use 3D-stress state *MAT_262 (Camanho) failure criterion based on plane stress assumption maximum stress criterion fiber tension maximum strain criterion complex 3D-fiber kinking model, expensive search for controlling fracture plane fiber compression use constant fiber misalignment angle based on shear and longitudinal compressive strength matrix failure: transverse tension search for controlling fracture plane assume perpendicular fracture plane matrix failure: transverse compression/shear search for controlling fracture plane assume constant fracture plane angle (i.e. 53 ) 1D-plasticity model with combined (iso/kin) hardening based on *DEFINE_CURVE in-plane shear treatment 1D-plasticity model with combined (iso/kin) linear hardening damage evolution linear damage based on fracture toughness bi-/linear damage based on fracture toughness 16

17 Material Models in LS-DYNA (Intralaminar) *MAT_261: (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_PINHO) (together with Daimler AG) solid, shell, tshell (3,5) linear elastic orthotropic coupled failure criteria (plane stress) fracture plane: fiber tens./compr., matrix tens./compr. complex 3D fiber kinking model 1D plasticity formulation for in-plane shear linear damage evolution based on fracture toughness S.T. Pinho, L. Iannucci, P.Robinson: Physically-based failure models and criteria for laminated fibre-reinforced composites with emphasis on fibre kinking: Part I: Development & Part II: FE implementation, Composites: Part A 37 (2006) & *MAT_262: (*MAT_LAMINATED_FRACTURE_DAIMLER_CAMANHO) (together with Daimler AG) solid, shell, tshell (3,5) linear elastic orthotropic coupled failure criteria (plane stress) fracture plane 1D plasticity formulation for in-plane shear bi-linear damage evolution based on fracture toughness P. MaimÍ, P.P. Camanho, J.A. Mayugo, C.G. Dávila: A continuum damage model for composite laminates: Part I: Constitutive model & Part II: Computational implementation and validation, Mechanics of materials 39 (2007) &

18 Preliminary results three point bending of flat specimen single shell with a thickness of 4mm / carbon fibers in epoxy resin - [0 ] 5s (fibers in longitudinal direction of the plate) - [90 ] 5s (fibers in transverse direction of the plate) 18

19 Preliminary results three point bending of a hat profile single shell with a thickness of 2mm / carbon fibers in epoxy resin - [90 /0 /45 /-45 /0 /90 /-45 /45 /0 /90 ] Shell sublaminates Local failure Interfaces Local failure matrix failure 19

20 Preliminary results shear specimen single shell with a thickness of 2mm / carbon fibers in epoxy resin - [45 /-45 ] 3S Shear plasticity Experiment Simulation tensile test 20

21 Summary two continuum damage models implemented into LS-DYNA - advanced, coupled failure surfaces (transformation to fracture plane) - bi-linear/linear damage evolution laws (based on fracture toughness) - 1D elasto-plastic formulation for in-plane shear non-linearity preliminary results - material models able to represent general behavior, especially non-linearity in shear Outlook many detailed numerical studies necessary for further improvements - comparison and parameter studies with experiments - different element formulations and modeling techniques (stacked shells) Acknowledgement Thank for technical support to: Prof. Pedro Camanho, Dr. Pere Maimí & Dr. Silvestre Pinho 21

22 Thank you! 22

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