{io]xn C Ãn- yq v Hm^v amt\-pvsa v & ssivt\m-f-pn hmh- q, ] m-ºn, ]me- msv

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1 A ym-]-\hpw A y-b-\hpw -- hnzym n-i-fp-ssbpw c n-xm- -fp-ssbpw, A ym-]-i-cp-ssbpw ] v tum.-fw.-]n.-n-{µ-ti-j-c (ap Ub-d-IvS, F.-sF.-Sn.-tIm-gn-t m-sv, ap Uo AarX hniz-hn-zym-]otw, timb-º-øq ) C v tic-f-ønse ]Xn-\mdv ]Xn-t\gv hb- p GsXmcp hnzym nbpw (c- n-xm-hpw) B{K-ln- p- Xv Hcp s{]m^-j-w timtf-pn {]th-i\w In m-\m- Wv. AXn Øs saun-kn As - n F n-\o-b-dnwkv. ChnsS IqSn-bn-cn- p Ip n-i-fn Nne v am{xta Ah B{K-ln {_m nepw timtf-pnepw {]th-i\w In m km[y-x-bp- q. A m-ø-h H pw ZpxJn-t - -Xn-. ImcWw F n-\o-b-dnwkpw saun-kn-\p-a- msx Ip n-bpss A`n-cp-Nn- -\p-k-cn \nc-h[n timgvkp-iƒ Ct mƒ \ne-hn-ep- v. am{x-a-, F n-\o-b-dn-ßn-s\- ntbm {_m p-i-sf- - ntbm H pw Adnbm-sX-bmWv Cu B{K-l-߃ Dcp-Øn-cn-bp Xv. ]Tn p apt m p t]mip-tºmƒ am{xta Xm B{K-ln- Xv CXv Xs -bmtwm F v Adn-bm ] q. C n-hnss IqSnbn-cn- p- -Xn `qcn-`m-khpw s{]m^-j-w hnzym-`ym-k-sø- n Imcy-amb Adnhv t\sm-ø-h-cm-sw mwv Rm a\- n-em- p- -Xv. C v s]mxpsh I p-h-cp- Xv kviqƒ hnzym-`ym-k-øns GI Dt±iyw ]co ]m mhepw am v hmßepw am{x-am-sw- m-wv. Cu kao-]-\øns {][m\ t]mcmbva Adnhv t\sn, AXv kzmb-ø-am n Pohn-X-Øn D]-tbm-Kn- m-\p Xøm-sd-Sp v \S-Øp-I-sb {]my-an-i-amb e yw hnzym-`ym-k-øn \n pw tnm p t]mip p F -Xm-Wv. ]ªnIv ]co- -Iƒs mw 98% t]sc ]m m- pi IqSn snbvx-t mƒ [mcmfw am v hmßn H nepw Adnhv t\smø Hcp Xe-ap-dsb hm sø-sp- m C sø hnzym-`ymk \b-øn\v Ign- n- p- v. ]co- -bn H pw ]Tn- msx Xs \ am v In p-sa ÿnxn h m Ip n- Iƒ v ]Tn- m-\p D m-lhpw ]co- -Iƒ t\cn-sm-\p ss[cyhpw \jvs-s - Sp- p. ASpØ ImeØv s{]m^-j-w timtf-pp-i-fn tncp- -Xn \s m-cp hn`mkw Ip n-iƒ Cu KW-Øn s -h-cm-wv. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 1

2 tic-f-øn F n-\o-b-dnw-kn\p tncp Ip n-i-fn ix-am\w am{xta \mev h jw sim v timgvkv ]q Øn-bm n Un{Kn kºm-zn p t]mip- p- q. _m nbp- -h ]e ska-ã-dp-i-fn-embn txm p InS- p- p. CXns ImcWw At\z-jn p sn m a\- n-em-hpi \mw tic-f-sø- n ]d p \S- p hnzym-`ym-k-s -cpa hfsc s]m -bm-sw mwv kviqfp-i-fn F πkv t{kupw Db dm pw hmßn hcp Ip n-iƒ Ft Cßs\ txm p t]mip p? H m-asø ImcWw kzm{ib ioehpw At\z-jW _p nbpw \nt»jw \in- n v tnmzy-ßfpw DØ-c-ßfpw ImWmsX ]Tn p ]co ]mkm-ip coxn ]Øp ]{ p sim w ]cn-n-bn- -Xn-\ptijw Bi-b-sØ-fn- hpw k m-fl-i-xbpw Bh-iy-ap F n-\o-b-dnwkv ]T-\-coXn XnI pw A\y-ambn txm p- p F XmWv ]e Ip n-ifpw H mw h jsø hnj-bß-fpss ap n ]I p \n - m ImcWw. Pohn-X-Øn Hcn- epw txm mø Ip n-iƒ v CXv Hcp `oi-c-amb A\p-`-h-am-Wv. Ah Cu ÿnxn-hn-tijw t\cn-sp- Xv c p hn[-øn-em-wv. H v, BZy-ambn hcp txm hnsb Hcp sh p-hn-fn-bmbn kzoi-cn v Ah-\-hs ]cmpbw DS p hm Øp hn m\w t\sn apt -dp-i. c v, txm hn-bn \ncm-i-\mbn m n t]mimsx ho pw txm v txm hn Hcp ioeam n am p-i. Aß-s\-bp- -h-cmwv \mev sim w sim v ]Xn-\ pw Ccp-]Xpw _m v t] -dp-ambn tim-tf-pp-i-fn ASn p InS- p- -Xv. Cu ÿnxn hnti-j-øn\p Hcp ImcWw hnnn-{x-amb bqwn-th-gvkn n \nb-aß-fm-wv. F{X hnjbw txm mepw Ah-km\ h jw hsc Ib-dn-t m-im bmsxmcp XS- hp-an-. hnhcw amxm-]n-xm- sf Adn-bn- p Nne ÿm]-\-ß-fp- v. ]s `qcn-] w c n-xm- fpw Cu hnj-b-øn A -cm-wv. AXp-sIm v a sf F n-\o-b-dnwkv timtf-pn Ab-bv p amxm-]n-xm- ƒ ]Tn-t - p ]mtw H v: Ip n skj-\ ]co- -Iƒ pw bqwn-th-gvkn n ]co- pw hmßp am s {X? ]mkm-bn- pt m? Cs - n F mwv ImcWw? F o Imcy-߃ \nc- -c-ambn At\z-jn p Xr]vXn-s -ts- -Xp- v. CXn\p timtf-p-[n-im-cn-i-fp-tsbpw ]Tn- n- p A[ym-]-I-cp-tSbpw klmbw txsm-hp- -Xm-Wv. F n-\o-b-dnwkv timtf-pn txm p InS- p- -h-sc mw Xs ""asn-b ae Npa- p '' h -Øn s -h-cm-wv. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 2

3 F n-\o-b-dnwkv hnj-b-ß-fn ]expw Ncn{Xw t]mse X\nsb ho n-en-cp v ]Tn- m-hp- -h-b-. am{x-a-, Ah-bn ]expw C\n ]Tn- m t]mip hnj-b- Øns ASn-Ø-d-bm-bn-cn- pw. ]co Ign- m ad- p-i-f-bm ] n-. m n t]mbn-cp v ÿnc-ambn F m Znh-khpw Iptd-s»-bmbn ]Tn p kzmb-ø-am-t - -hbmwv GXm-s m hnj-b-ß-fpw. ]co- v Xte-Zn-hkw Hcp-an- v hmbn p a\- n-em- m\pw {]tbm-kn- m\pw ] nb hnj-b-ß-f CXv. Hcp ap hncn-bn- m Bh-iyamb NqSv aq mgv sim v {ItaW simsp-ømte ap hncn-bq. AtX NqSv ]Øv an\p v sim v simsp-øm ap hncn-bp-i-b- snøp-i, ]co- v Xte-Zn-hkw am{xw ]Tn- p hnzym n-iƒ Cu XXzw a\- n-em-t - n-bn-cn- p- p. `mkyw sim v ]co IS p IqSn-bm t]mepw hnj-b-øn-ep hnhcw h - q-py-am-bn-cn- pw. AXp-sIm v F n-\o-b-dnwkv hnzym n-iƒ m n t]mim-xn-cn- p- Xv hfsc A]-I-S-I-c-am- Wv. Hcp ska-ã-dn ]Tn-t - p A p hnj-b-ß-fnepw Assk sa v, m v ssãv, Iznkv F nh \S- p-sim- n-cn- pw. CXn\p ]pd-sa-bmwv {]mœn- m p- Ifpw AXv kw_- n tpmen-i-fpw, i\n-bm-gv bpw Rmb-dm-gv bpw snbvxp Xo t - p ]Wn-Iƒ [mcm-f-ap- m-ipw. CXn-s\m pw Xøm-dm-ImsX kn\n-abpw ]m pw IqØp-ambn PohnXw Bkz-Zn p I-gn-b-W-sa- p- -h Ffp- -ap a p hnj-b-߃ h Xpw Xnc-s -Sp- p-i-bmhpw \ -Xv. amxm-]n-xm- ƒ IjvS-s - p- m- nb ]Ww shdpsx If-tb- -t m. Chn-sS-bmWv A -S- -Øns N - q- n \n v {]h Øn- m am{xta \s mcp s{]m^-j-w hnzym n-bm-im ] q. Ah-\-h k -cn- p hgn-i-fpw, Xnc-s -Sp- p Iq p-imcpw Gsd {]m[m-\y-a ln- p- p. [mcmfw ]Ww, IW p tnmzn- mø c n-xm- ƒ, ]Tn- m-\p D m-l-an- mbva \nc- -c-amb txm hn F n-h-sb mw Ip nsb A -S- -cm-ln-xy-øns am - Øn-te v X n-hn-sp- p. A[ym-]-I v tcmk-\n Wbw kmam\yw Ffp- -am- p- Xv hnzym n-i-fpss lmp ] n-i-bm-wv. m n hcm-ø-hsc {]txyiw {i n- m, AXns ImcWw At\z-jn- m sns -Øp- Xv ]e-t mgpw azy-]m-\-ønepw I mhn-ep-am-bn-cn- pw. Cu hnhcw c n-xm- sf Adn-bn- m In p {]Xn-I-cWw ckic-am-wv. hnhcw Adn-bn A[ym-]-Is\ {]Xn- q- n-em- m-\p {ia-amwv s]mxpsh I p-h-cp- -Xv. h jm-h-km\w ]ø\v ]co- -sb-gp-xm-\p lmp-cn-s v ImWp-tºmƒ \m n I a{ n-am Fw.-F.-F.-am XpS-ßnb cmjv{so-b- msc Cd n {]n kn- - F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 3

4 ens\ hcn p si m-\p {ia-amwv ]e-t mgpw c n-xm- ƒ snøp- -Xv. ]øs\ t\scbm- n-sb-sp- m-\p {ia-ß-sfm pw ]Xn-hn-. ]p{x-hm- eyw sim v Ipew apsn [rx-cm-jv{s-cmwv C m-cy-øn amxm-]n-xm- -fpss Kpcp-\m-Y. Xs ]p{xs /]p{xn-bpss ]cn-an-xn-iƒ a\- n-em- m-ø-xmwv amxm-]n-xm- -fpss {][m\ {]iv\w. sndp w apx v KWn-Xim-kv{X-Øn A`n-cpNn ImWn- p Ip n-iƒ am{xta F n-\o-b-dnwkv ]T-\-Øn tim`n- q. A m-ø-h v ]s m pw {]th-i\w In n- m-bn-cp- p. C -X ÿnxn, _kv tãm v txmdpw F n- \o-b-dnwkv timtf-pv, ko p-iƒ \nd- m Ip n-isf In mø Ah-ÿ. amt\-pvsa p- Iƒ v aps- nb aqe-[\w Xncn p ]nsn- m-\p hy{kx, \ne-hmcw Im n ]d-øns m m HØmi snøp k m kwhn-[m-\-߃, F n-\o-b-dnwkv timtf-pn Ib-dn- - n-bm ]ns Db iº-f-ap tpmen Dd-s v hniz-kn- p hnzym n- Ifpw c n-xm- fpw, ]ns ]Tn- ns KpW-\n-e-hm-c-Øn-s\ p {]k n? CØcw samøw ]cn-ÿnxn IW- n-se-sp-øp-sim v KpW-\n-e-hmcw Dd p hcp-tø- p `mcn Npa-Xe A[ym-]-I-cp-tS-XmWv. Cu Xncn- -dn-hn \n p-f-hm- Ip {]Xn-tcm[ i n sim p am{xta \ne-hmcw \ne-\n Øm-\m-Iq. m n hcp- -h\pw hcm-ø-h\pw lmp simsp- m-\pw, ]Tn- p- -h\pw, ]Tn- m-ø-h\pw skj- W am v simsp- m-\pw, Ir{Xn-a-ambn hnp-b-i-x-am\w Db Øm\pw hnzym n-ifn \n pw amt\-pvsa n \n pw hcp kω- ±-ßsf sndpøp ]md-t]mse Dd p \n p- -h v am{xta ]n m-eøv \ A[ym-]-I-cm-hm ] q. m n ]Tn- n- pi am{x-a-, ]Tn- n Imcy-߃ ]Tnt m F v ]cn-tim-[n- p-ibpw Cs - n th {]Xn-hn-[n-Iƒ FSp- p-ibpw sntø- Xv A[ym-]-Is IS-a-bm-Wv. CXv ^e- {]-Z-ambn snøm hnzym n-bpss kl-i-cww IqSntb Xocq. ]T\ Imcy-ß-fn A[ym-]-I-\p-ambn kl-i-cn- m G hpw sshapjyw Im p- -h-cmwv tic-f-ønse Ip n-iƒ. m nse tnmzy-߃ v Bcpw DØcw ]d-bn-. Adn-bp- -h t]mepw, kl-]m-tn-i-fpss kω ±-am-wn-xn\p ImcWw. Xms\mcp "]Tn- nãv' BsW v a p- -h ]d- mtem F -XmWv `bw. Cu at\m-`mhw ImcWw m n Imcy-amb N -I-sfm pw \S- m-dn-. ]T-\-Øns hnhn[ L -ß-fn-eqsS IS- p-t]m-imsx Kl-\amb Hcp hnj-bhpw kzmb-ø-am- m-\m-in-. 1. ]cnnbw F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 4

5 (Familiarity), 2. Hm Ω-i n (Memory and reproduction), 3. A]-{K-Y\w (Analysis) 4. kwtbm-p\w (Synthesis), 5. k K-i n (Creativity) F o L -ß-fn-eqsS IS- pt]m-im eivn mkv am{xw t]mcm. \nc- cw N snbvxpw tnmzyw snbvxpw thww Kl-\-amb hnj-b-߃ ]Tn- m. mkn \n v bmsxmcp sh p-hn-fnbpw t\cn-smø A[ym-]-I Xm ] p ]Tn ImesØ a t\m p-i-fpw, Aßm-Snbn In p \ne-hm-c-an- mø ]pkvx-i-ßfpw D]-tbm-Kn p m n Fs m-s tbm Im n- q- p- p. AXn\p \mw A[ym-]\w F v t]cv ]d-bp- p. hnzym n-bpss k K i n p \o n-sh- n- p t{]mpœv h v t]mepw kzbw snømsx Aßm-Sn-bn \n v hmßn k_van v snøp hnzym n-ifpw AXv kzoi-cn- p A[ym-]-Icpw D v \ΩpsS \m n CXn-s\-Xnsc k hcpw DW hpw Pm{K-Xbpw ]pe Øn-bm am{xta \ap v ASpØ Xe-ap-dsb c n- m Ign-bq. kzman hnth-im-\-µ\v G hpw {]nb-s D]-\n-jZv hmiyw D -cn- p-sim v Cu tej\w D]-kw-l-cn- -s. DØn-jvT-X, Pm{KX {]m]y hcm- n-t_m-[-x, pcky [mcm \ninxm Zpc-Xybm Zp Kw ]Y-kvXXv Ihtbm hz- n.... F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 5

6 F n\obdnwkv D]cn]T\ km[yxiƒ C ybnepw hntziøpw F n\obdnwkn\p tijw F v? \h_ncpz[mcnisf hebv p Cu tnmzyøn\v DØc߃ ]exps nepw IrXyam-b [m-c-w ]-e pw D- m-bn-s m- - W-sa- n. hnikzc cmpysa \nebn C ysb kw_ n nstømfw F n\obdnwkn\pff {]m[m\yw hfsctbsdbmwv. _lp. ap C y {]knu v {io. tum. A_vZpƒ Iemw I ëhnj 2020í F kz]v\ønte pff {]bmwøn `mcxønse Hmtcm F n\obdnwkv _ncpz[mcnbpssbpw ] v hf-sc hn-e-s - -XmWv. tihesamcp _ncpzsa \nebn F n\obdnwkn\pff {]m[m\yw Hcp]mSps nepw XpS pff D]cn]T\߃ krjvsn p Ahkcßfpw Ahbv p mip {]m[m\yhpw Ffp Øn Duln mhp txbpffp. \h_ncpz[mcnbmb Hcp F n\ob v kzm`mhniambpw kaqløn Xmsg ]dbp aq p hn`mkßfn FsX nepsam n FØnt cm\pff km yxifmwv s]mxphmbn ImWs SmdpffXv. 1. hyhkmb taje / tkh\ taje 2. KthjWw / A ym]\w 3. amt\-pv-sa v taje ta d hbn KthjWw, A ym]\w, amt\-pv-sa v taje F nh mhiyamb ]cn m\w F n\obdnwkn\p tijapff D]cn ]T\ØneqsS am{xta km[n pibpffq. C ybnse F n\obdnwkv hnzym niƒ mbn C ybv IØpw ]pdøpambpff D]cn ]T\Øn s A\ km yxifnte v shfn w hoip XmWv Cu tej\w. F n\obdnwkv _ncpz[mcnifpss D]cn]T\Øn\mbn Hcp]mSv AhkcßfpsS hmxmb\߃ Xpd ncn p p v. GsX nepw Hcp {]txyihnjbøn BgØnepff ]T\Øn\pw KthjWØn\pw B{Kln p hnzym niƒ IqSpXepw Fw.sSIv / Fw.Fkv timgvkpifmwv D]cn]T\Øn\mbn Xncs Spt Xv. c p h jw \o p \n p Fw.sSIv timgvkn GsX nepw sf ni hnjbøn Kl\amb Adnhv kºmzn mw. Fw.Fkv timgvkv kab_ nxa. H c apx aq c h jw hsc F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 6

7 \o p\n mhp Cu timgvkv KthjW X ccmb hnzym niƒ mwv IqSpX {]tbmp\icw. C ybn {]ikvx ÿm]\ßfmb IIT Ifpw IISC bpw Dƒs ss Hcp]mSp bqwnthgvkn nifn Fw.sSIv. timgvkv \nehnep v. Fw.Fkv timgvkv {][m\ambpw IISC, IIT a{zmkv, IIT U ln F o ÿm]\ßfnemwv \nehnepffxv. Fw.sSIv, Fw.Fkv timgvkpifnte pff Nhn p]snbmwv tk v ]co. IIT IfpsS ta t\m ØnemWv tk v ]co \SØp Xv. D]cn]T\Øn\pff Ahkcw IqSmsX ONGC, IOCL, BPCL, HPCL, NTPC XpSßnb Hcp]mSp s]m-xp-taje ÿm]\ßfn sxmgnehkcßfpw tk v ]co bneqss e`n p p. aq mw h jw apx \nc camb {]bxv\øneqss tk v ]co bn Db dm v Icÿam mhp txbpffq. F m h jhpw s^{_phcn amkønemwv tk v ]co \SØmdpffXv. _ncpz ]T\Øn\ptijw ITn-\amb kzbw ]T\ØneqsSbpw tim nwkneqssbpw Db kvtim t\sp [mcmfw hnzym nifpw C ybnep v. _ncpzm\ c _ncpzøn\ptijw {]ikvx ÿm]\ßfn KthjWw ]q Ønbm p hnzym niƒ v ti{µ Kh sa ns Iognepff ISRO, NAL, DRDO XpSßnb KthjW ÿm]\ßfnepw IIT, IISC, hnhn[ F n\obdnwkv timtfppiƒ, bqwnthgvkn niƒ XpSßnb hnzym`ymk ÿm]\ ßfnepw [mcmfw KthjW / sxmgn km[yxiƒ \ne\n p p. amt\pvsa v cwkøv anihpsxfnbn m B{Kln p hnzym niƒ v G hpw tbmpn D]cn]T\amWv Fw._n.F. C ybn sf. sf. Fw Dƒ ss Hcp]mSp timtfppifn Fw._n.F timgvkv D v. D X\nehmcw ]pe Øp timtfppiƒ CAT ]co bpss ASnÿm\ØnemWv MBA {]thi\w \SØp Xv. CAT ]co bpss kvtimdns\m w C hyqhnse s] t^m sa kpw hfsc {][m\amwv. ct m aqt m h jsø {]h Øn ]cnnbøn\ptijw Fw. _n. F p ]Tn p XmWv IqSpX A`nImayw. aƒ n\mjw Iº\nIfn amt\pvsa v tpmeniƒ B{Kln p hnzym niƒ Fw. _n. F timgvkv snøp Xv \ mbncn pw. lyqa dntkmgvk v, am nwkv, skbn kv, UnPn am nwkv, ^n\m kv XpSßn ]ehnjbßfnepw Fw. _n. F timgvkv snøm\mipw. CAT ]co p]pdta Nne bqwnthgvkn niƒ AUvanj\mbn XAT, XNAP, CMAT XpSßnb ]co Ifnse kvtimdpw ]cnkwn mdp v. C y p]pdøpw F n\obdnwkv hnzym niƒ v D]cn]T\Øn\v Ht sd Ahkcßfp v. hntziøv Fw.sSIv /Fw.Fkv ]T\Øn\v B{Kln p hnzym niƒ F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 7

8 Db A mzan v \nehmcøns\m w GRE, TOEFL, IELTS F o ]co Ifn IqSn anihp sxfnbnt Xp v. `qcn`mkw hnzym nifpw bp Fkv, bp. si, Im\U, Bkvt{Senb F o cmpyßfmwv D]cn]T\Øn\mbn Xncs Sp mdv. bp.f-kn Hmtcm A yb\ h jhpw BKk v amktømspiqsn XpS-ßp- -Xmbn- mwv ImW-s -Sm-dp Xv. GRE/ TOEFL, ]co- -I-fn-se anihv ASn-ÿm-\-am- n-bmwv hnzym nisf A`napJØn\v Xncs Sp mdv. ap Imeßfnse IW piƒ ]cntim[n pibmsw n GRE kvtim IqSp-Xepw TOEFL kvtim IqSp-Xepw hnzym niƒ ChntS pff AUvanj\v t\ts Xmbn p v. AUvanj e`n Xn\ptijw tim-tf-pv \n- -bn- p \n nx _m v _me kv XpIbpsS hnhc߃ IqSn Kh sa nte v ka n Ww. A w NnethdnbXmsW nepw ]T\tØmsS w tpmeniqsn snømsa pffxpsim v kmºøniamb _p nap piƒ hnzym niƒ v Hgn-hm- m I-gn-bp- -XmWv. ]ehn[ønepff kvtimf jn pifpw kmºøni klmbßfpw kvt]m k jn pifpw \nehmcw ]pe Øp bqwnthgvkn niƒ hnzym niƒ mbn \evip p v. bp.si-.bnse _ncpzm\ c _ncpz timgvkpiƒ sk]vxwº / HIvtSm_ amktømspiqsnbmwv s]mxpsh Bcw`n mdpffxv. TOEFL / IELTS aptj\bpff Xncs Sp v coxnbmwv ChnsS I phcmdpffxv. {]h Øn ]cnnbw ChnSßfnte pff AUvanj Ffp am p Xn\v klmbn mdp v. hnzym niƒ XßfpsS A ym]i aptj\tbm at m ip]m iiøpiƒ D]tbmKn p Xv A`nImayamWv. Atacn bqwnthgvkn nifpambn XmcXays SpØnbm Nneshmc w IpdhmWv ChnsS. ]T\tØmsS w tpmensb Xv ChnsSbpw ImWs Sp Hcp ÿnxn hntijamwv. P\kwJybnse Ipdhv ImcWw a pff cmpyßfnse hnzym nisf hym]iambn BI jn p Hcp coxnbmwv bqtdm nepw Hmkvt{Senbbnepw a pw ImWmdpffXv. a p cmpyßsf At] n v Nnehp Ipd Xpw F m \nehmcw DffXpamb ]e bqwnthgvkn nifpw Im\Ubnepw Hmkvt{Senbbnepw D v F Xv ]e pw A mxamwv. TOEFL ASn-ÿm-\-am- n-bmwv AUvanj. bp Fkv bp si, bqtdm y cmpy߃ pw ]pdsa Gjy cmpyßfmb knwk q, Xmbvhm, ssn\ apxemb cmpyßfpw hntzihnzym niƒ mbn D]cn]T\Øns hnlmb piƒ Xpd nsp p v. knwk qcnse NTU (Ninyang Technical University) temi{]ivkvxamwv. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 8

9 apifn ]d ]co Ifn anihp sxfnbn m ] møhcpw IqSqX kabw Bhiyamb D]cn]T\Ønt\mSv Xm ]cyw C møhcpamb hnzym niƒ v GsX nepw {lkzime sxmgne[njvtnx timgvkpiƒ Xncs Sp mw. hnzym nifpss Adnhpw hyhkmb tajeifpss Bhiyhpw XΩnepff A cw Ipd m Cu {lkzime timgvkpiƒ klmbicamwv. Embedded Technology, Piping Engineering, Robotics, Quality Controller XpSßn Hmtcm {_m nse hnzym niƒ pw hnhn[xcw timgvkpiƒ Xncs Sp mhp XmWv.... F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 9

10 F n-\o-b-dnwkv {]th-i\w Xm ]-cy-hpw, A`n-cp-Nnbpw hne-bn-cp-ø-ww tum.-sn.-]n.-tk-xp-am-[-h (A- m-z-aniv I kƒ v& Ub-d-IvS Hm^v F s{]-w jn v ticfm sh -ds-\dn B v B\n-a kb kkv bqwn-th-gvkn- n, Xr»q ) ASp-ØbnsS tic-f-øn F n-\o-b-dnwkv {]th-i\ ]co m dm v enãn Dƒs -Sm 10 am v thw-sa \n_- -\-am n Hcp tnmzy-øn\v icn-bp-ø-c-sa-gp- Xn-bm axn-sb Xocp-am\w hnhm-z-am-b-txmss Kh sa v ths - p-shs - nepw {]th-i-\ ]-co- bv v At]- n- p c n-xm- fpw hnzym n-ifpw \nc-h[n Imcy-ßfdn-tb- -Xp- v. tic-f-ønse kzm{ib F n-\o-b-dnwkv timtf-pp-i-fn-e-s w C v e[niw _n.-ssiv ko p-i-fp- v. kb kv hnj-b-ß-fn Un{Kn v {]th-i\w e`n- p- -Xn-t\- mƒ Ffp- -amwv C v _n.-ss- n\v AUvan-j t\spi F Xv. tic-f-ønse Nne kzm{ib F n-\o-b-dnwkv timtf-pp-i-fn hnpb ix-am\w 30% Xmsg-bmWv. KpW-\n-e-hm-c-ap A ym-]-i-cpss FÆhpw Ipd-hm-Wv. timgvkv sxc-s -Sp- p- -Xn\v apºv hnzym n-i-fpss A`n-cp-Nn, at\m-`mhw, Xm ]cyw F nh {]txyiw hne-bn-cp-ø-ww. C v F n-\o-b-dnwkv timtf-pp- I-fn \n pw timgvkv ]q Øn-bm- msx simgn- p-t]m-ip hnzym n-i-fpss FÆw h n p hcn-i-bm-wv. c n-xm- -fpss Xm ]cyw am{xw hne-bn-cpøn a sf F n-\o-b-dnw-kn\v tn -cp-xv. aq v h jw _n.-ss- ns timgvkp-i-sfm pw ]m m- Im-Xn-cn- p-tºm-gmwv c n-xmhv a sf a p timgvkp-i-fn-te v tn m Xm ]- cy-s -Sp- -Xv. At m-gmwv hnzym n-bpss Xm ]cyw hne-bn-cp-øp- -Xv. ]n o-smwv kmº-øni kab \jvs߃ c n-xm- ƒ a\- n-em- p- -Xv. h o-em-im-\pw, A ym-]-i-\m-im\pw Xm ]-cy-ap hnzym n-isf F n- \o-b-dnw-kn\v tn p-tºmƒ CXv hnzym n-i-fpss A`n-cp-Nn- n-w-ßnb timgvks v c n-xm- ƒ Adn-bp- n-. IW- n-epw, ^nkn-ivknepw ani-hp hnzym- n- Isf am{xsa F n-\o-b-dnw-kn\v tn m-hq. π vsphn\v c p XhW FgpXn ^nknivkv ]mkmbn F n-\o-b-dnw-kn\v tn hnzym n c p h j-øn-\p-tijw F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 10

11 _n.-_n.-f. bv v tncp- p. ImcWw as m- p-a-. F n-\o-b-dnwkv ]T\w icm-i-cn- mc\v A{X Ffp- -a-. hnzym n-bpss A`n-cp-Nn, Xm ]-cyw, at\m-`mhw, {]Xn-_- X, Ignhv, Ign-hp-tI-Sp-Iƒ, km[yx F nh hne-bn-cpøn am{xsa F n-\ob-dnwkv timgvkp- Iƒ v At]- n- m-hq. C y-bn \n v ]Tn- n-d-ßp F n-\o-b-dnwkv _ncp-z-[mcn-i-fn 68% hpw Adnhv, {]h Ø-\-an-Ih,v Cw ojv {]mhowyw, sxmgn e`yxm \nc v F n-h-bn ]nd-in-em-sw Atkm-kn-tb v tnwt_gvkv Hm^v timtagvkv B v C Ukv{Sn (ASSOCHAM) bpss Is -Ø-ep-Iƒ kwÿm-\sø F n-\o-bdnwkv hnzym n-iƒ hne-bn-cp-tø- -Xp- v. BtKm-f-X-e-Øn C y F n-\ob am-cpss {]mxn-\n[yw 15% amwv. CXv 2020 HmsS 25% am m-\mwv e y-an- n-cp- p- -Xv. Adn-hpw, {]h Ø\ anihpw ani sxmgn e`yxm \nc- p-ap F n-\o-bdnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ mwv Gsd sxmgn km[y-xbp -Xv. AXn-\m Imº v C hyq-hn ani {]I-S\w ImgvN-sh-bv m hnzym n-iƒ Xøm-sd-Sp- -Ww. A - ns {]XoIamb-, a -fpss A`n-cp-Nn-bpw, Xm ]-cyhpw e y-an- mbn-cn- Ww hnzym n-isf F n-\o-b-dnwkv timgvkn\v tn t Xv F Imcyw c n-xm- ƒ {]txyiw Hm t - -Xm-Wv. tkh\ taj-e- apt dp- p kmº-øni k s -bn Im jni taje e y-an 4.4% hf m \nc- n \n pw 1.1% ambn Ipd- n- p- v. hyh-kmb taje ap h jßsf At]- n v 0.1 ix-am-\-øn \n pw 2.1 ix-am\w hf ssih-cn- n- p v. F m tkh\ taj-e-bn 9.1% Øn \n pw 10.6 ix-am-\-ambn h n- n- p- v. tkh\ taje a p taj-e-isf ]n - n-s m v 60% hf ssih-cn- n- p- v. tkh-\ -ta-je-bn-emwv C\n hcm-\n-cn- p sxmgn-ep-i-tf-sd-bpw. kz v `mc-xv, sabv v C C y, UnPn- C y, kv n C y F o Kh sa ns {]Jym-]nX ] -Xn-Iƒ A\p-k-cn- mwv _P- n hnzym-`ymk sxmgn taj-e-iƒ v {]m[m\yw \ In-bn-cn- p- -Xv. Xpd-ap-J-߃ hmwn-py-h-xv -cn- p- Xpw, {]Xn-tcm-[w, knhn Ghn-tb-j taj-e-i-fn hntzi \nt ]w A\p-h-Zn- p- Xpw Cu cwkøv IqSp-X sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ cq]-s -Sp-Øn-sb-Sp- m klm-bn- pw. sabv v C C y-bpss ë`mk-ambn ta kqnn- n taj-e-i-fn kq va, sndp-in-s, CS-Øcw hyh-km-b-߃ i n-s -Spw. `uxni kuicy hni-k-\-øn\v timsn-tbmfw cq] \o n sh n- p- v. Cu taj-e-bn s{]mpivsv amt\-pvsa v, C {^m-kv{s-ivn amt\-pvsa- v F n-hbv v 20% tømfw A[nI sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ cq-]-s -Sm klm-bn- pw. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 11

12 sxmgn kwcw-`-i-xzw (F {]-W jn v) C v Gsd hn]p-e-s p hcp- p. kwcw-`ixz hni-k-\-øn-\mbn ssivt\m-fpn _nkn-\ v C Iyp-t_- -dp-iƒ, Ãm v Iº-\n-Iƒ, C -th-j - -C Ip-t_-j sk -dp-iƒ F nh XpS-ßp-hm-\p _P v \n t±-i-߃ A`y-kvX-hn-Zy-cmb bphxo bphm- ƒ v ani sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ {]Zm\w snøpw. Kth-j-Ww, temtim-øc \ne-hm-c-øn-ep ssivt\m-fpn l p-iƒ F n-hbv p {]m[m\yw cmpysø ani ssivt\m-]m p-isf i n-s -Sp-Øp- -txmssm w IqSp-X sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ krjvsn- pw. F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, amt\-pvsa v, Irjn, A\p-_ _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ F n-h v ani kwcw-`-߃ XpS-ßm CXv hgn-sbmcp pw. BtKm-f-X-e-Øn Im _-Wns Afhv Ipd v ]mc-º-tcy-xc Du -Øn\v Du \ Im-\p \o w Gsd kzmk-xm l-am-wv. Im _ ]pd-øp-hn-sp- -Xn C y-bpss ip]m i snbvx txmxv 0.6% amwv. kutcm ] -Xn-Iƒ, Im n \n pw sshzypxn DXv]m-Zn- n- p bqwn- p-iƒ F nh F\ Pn amt\-pvsa v taje-bn IqSp-X sxmgn-ep-iƒ krjvsn- m klm-bn- pw. kv n C y-bpss ë `mk-ambn sxmgn ss\]pwy hni-k\-øn\v (kv n suh-e-]vsa v) IqSp-X XpI hi-bn-cpøn-bn- p- v. ASp-Ø-bnsS \S-Ønb Atkm- m-ans ]T\ dnt m n C y-bn \n v ]Tn- n-d-ßp _ncp-z-[m-cn-i-fn 67%hpw sxmgn ss\]p-wyw, Bib hn\n-a-bw, Cw ojv {]mhowyw F n-h-bn ]nd-in-emsw v hne-bn-cp-øn-bn-cp- p. kmt -XnI taj-e-bn sxmgn kwcw-`-ixzw t{]m m-ln- n- m-\p-x-ip sndp-ins, CS-Øcw hyh-kmb taj-e-i-fn sxmgn-e-h-kc߃ Dd- p-h-cp-øm- klmbn- p ap{z (MUDRA), kwcw-`-ixz t{]m m-l-\-øn-\m-bp GI-Pm-eI t]m F nh ani e yw ssih-cn- m-\p-x-ip ] -Xn-I-fm-Wv. CS-Øcw IpSpw-_-ßsf e y-an- p hnzym niƒ m-bp sf.-sn. hnzym-`ymk taj-e-bnse {][m\a{ n hnzym-e van ] -Xn, 31 skivs kv n Iu kn-ep-iƒ F nh sxmgn e`yxm \nc v Db Øm kmlm-bn- pw. \mj-w C Ãn- yq v t^m kv]o v B v lnb-dnwkv tziob k -I-em-im-e-bmbn Db Øn-bXv HmUn-tbm-f-Pn, kv]o v emwtkzpv ]mtøm-fpn F n-h-bn IqSp-X sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ Dd p hcp-øpw. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 12

13 UnPn- C y-bpss ë `mk-ambn C -K-th kv, sf.sn., hnzym-`ymkw F nhbv v {]m[m\yw \ In-bn- p- v. C t{k Uv FUyp-t -j B v sse^v kv n Uh-e-]vsa v, Hcp IpSpw-_-Ønse Hcmƒ v sxmgn F n-hbpw {]h Ø\ a-ambm IqSp-X sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ Dd p hcp-øpw. hnzym-`ymk taj-ebv v timsn cq]-bmwv _P- n \o n sh n-cn- p- -Xv. Sqdnkw, tlmkv]n- m-en n taj-e-i-fn tkh\ \nip-xn-bn-ep h -\hv IqSp-X sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ krjvsn- p-hm klm-bn- pw. tziob Im jni hn]wn krjvsn- p-hm-\p Xocp-am\w A{Kn _nkn-kn-\ v timgvkp-iƒ v Icp-tØ-Ipw. amdp bpk-øn kvam v sxmgn-ep-ifpw timgvkp-ifpw cq]s -Sp-tºmƒ tkh\ taj-e-bv n-w-ßnb timgvkp-iƒ Is -Øm hnzym n-iƒ {ian-t - -Xm-Wv. Ime-Øn-s\mØ ]pø timgvkp-iƒ cmpyøv tkh\ taje Icp-Øm n p hcp-tºmƒ Im jn-i, hyh-kmb tajeisf A]- n v tkh\ taj-e-bn 69% tømfw A[nI sxmgn-e-h-k-c-ßfmwv cq]-s p hcp- -Xv. CtXm-sSm w Im jni _nkn-\ v kwcw-`-߃ n-w-ßnb tkh\ taj-e-bp-ambn _ -s timgvkp-iƒ v {]k- n-tbdn hcp- p. sf.-sn. Im jni taj-e-bp-ambn ka-\z-bn- n- p A{Kn C ^ am- n-ivkv, A{Kn _nkn- \ v amt\-pvsa v, kssπ snbn amt\-pvsa v, dos -bn, tempn-ãnivkv amt\- Pvsa v, ^n\m jy A\m-en-kn-kv, amt\-pvsa v I kƒ v, BIvNzdn, tkmjy, samss_, uuv Iw]yq- nw-kv, C -sim-tagvkv timgvkp-iƒ v km[y-x-tbsd-bm-wv. Xan-gv\mSv Im jni k -I-em-ime \S-Øp _n.-ss v A{Kn C ^ am- n- Ivkv, C y C Ãn- yq v Hm^v amt\-pvsa v sim s m-ø-bpw, C y C Ãn- yq v Hm^v ssivt\m-fpn Jc-Kv]q-cpw, sim -Ø-bnse C y Ãm n-ãn- C Ãn- yq pw tn v \S-Øp t]mãv {KmUp-th v Untπma C _nkn-\ v A\-en- n-ivkv, ticf Im jni k -I-em-im-e-bpw, sslz-c-_m-znse \mj-w C Ãn- yq v Hm^v FIvkv j amt\-pvsa pw \S-Øp A{Kn-_n-kn-\ v amt\-pvsa v timgvkp-iƒ F nh ani timgvkp-i-fm-wv. sim n imkv{x kmt -XnI k -I-em-im-e, \mj- W bqwn-th-gvkn n Hm^v tem F nhbpss C -e-ivnz t{]m n tem, C -e- IvNz t{]m n ssd vkv _ncp-zm-\- c timgvkp-iƒ, sslz-c-_m-znse knw_-tbmkv tem kviqƒ \S-Øp C -t{k- Uv _n. _n. F., F. F. _n. t{]m{kmw, lcnbm-\-bnse \mj-w C Ãn- yq v Hm^v ^puv ssivt\m-fpn B v F {]-W jn v F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 13

14 amt\-pvsa v \S-Øp ^puv ssivt\m-f-pn, ë A`n-cp-Nn ` y-kw-kv -cww F nhbnse _n.ss- v, Fw.sS v t{]m{kmapiƒ, sf.-sf.-fw. _mw q KqKn-fp-ambn tn v \S-Øp Um m am - nwkv timgvkp-iƒ F nh Gsd sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ Dd p hcp-øpw. \mj-w sk t^m IΩyq-Wn- -_nƒ Unkokv \S-Øp ]ªn v sl - Ønse MPH t{]m{kmw, Pn Um kviqƒ Hm^v ]ªnIv t]mfnknbpss ]ªnIv t]mfnkn-bnse _ncp-zm-\- c t{]m{kmw, awn- m bqwn-th-gvkn- n-bpss Pntbm s]mfn- nivkv, kxy-pn-øv td ^nenw B v ssen-hn-j C Ãn- yq- ns A\n-ta-j, ^nenw s{]mu- F n-h-bnep _ncp-zm-\- c Untπma timgvkp-ifpw, tempn-ãn-ivkv, kssπ snbn, dos -bn amt\-pvsa v timgvkp-ifpw F nh cmpy-øn-\-iøpw ]pdøpw anihm sxmgn e`yx Dd p hcp-øpw. _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ v Du -ta-j-e-bn Ah-k-c-ß-tfsd. P\-kwJym h -\-hn-\m-\p-]m-xn-i-ambn cmpyøv Du t m-ev]m-z-\-øn\v km[yxtb-dn hcp- p. {Ko F\ Pn-bn-epƒs -SpØn kutcm w, Im v, Pe-ssh- ZypXn, sspthm taj-e-iƒ Icp-Øm n p hcp- p. CtXm-sSm w sxmgn taj-e-i-fnepw h h -\-hmwv {]Xo- n- p- -Xv. sxmgn taj-e-bn {Ko F\ Pn hgn Bbn-c- -W- n\v sxmgn-e-h-k-c-ß-fmwv hcm-\n-cn- p- -Xv. BtKmf \nt ]w kutcm - taj-ebn 25 _n y Ata-cn- tumfdmwv. 100 Hmfw BtKmf Iº-\n-Iƒ ]mc-ºtcy-x-c Du t m-ev]m-z\ taj-ebn-te v IS- m-\m-{k-ln- p- p. Ipd DXv]m-Z-\-s -ehv, Imem-hÿm hyxn-bm- \w, h n p hcp BtKm-f-Xm]w F nh hni-kzc cmpy-ßsf lcn-txm Ønte v tnt dm t{]cn- n- p-h-cp- p. hcpwime-ß-fn kutcm w, Im n \n p- sshzypxn Dev]m-Z\w F nh v km[y-x-tb-sd-bm-wv. F n-\o-b-dnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ v t^mt mthmƒ m-bn v sk p-iƒ, tkmfm ]m\-ep-iƒ, {KnUv knãw, sshzypxn hnx-cww XpS-ßnb taj-e-i-fn {]h Øn- mw. {]kvxpx taj-e-ifn ]pø km-t -XnI hnzy-iƒ pw, \qx\ Bi-b߃ pw {]k- n-bp- v. \nc-h[n k -I-em-im-e-Iƒ Du -ta-j-e-bv n-w-ßnb _ncpz, _ncp-zm-\- c timgvkp-iƒ cq]-i \ snbvxp hcp- p. TERI bqwn-thgvkn n CXn-s\mcp sxfn-hm-wv. Imº v tπkvsa pw Cu cwk-øp v. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 14

15 _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ mbn F\ Pn taj-e-bn \nc-h[n timgvkp-i-fp- v. F\ Pn Fw.-_n.-F, sa o-cn-bn amt\-pvsa v, kssπ snbn amt\-pvsa v F n-h-bn \nch[n timgvkp-i-fp- v. U ln sf.-sf.-sn. bn Du taj-e-bn Fw.-sSIv F\ Pn ÃUo-kv, F\ Pn B v F hn-tdm sa v amt\-pvsa v F o timgvkp-i-fp- v. sh q C Ãn- yq v Hm^v ssivt\m-f-pn-bn-epw, t`m mense cmpohv Km n hniz hnzyme-b-ønepw CXp-ambn _ -s timgvkp-i-fp- v. Du t m-ev]m-z\ taj-e-bn cmpyøv 50 Hmfw h InS k m ] -Xn-I-fp- v. Cu cwk-øv Gsd Kth-j-W- Øn\v km[y-x-bp- v. sf.-sf.-sn. dq s, ] m-_nse k ±m kzc knwkv \mj- W C Ãn- yq v F n-h-bn Im n \n p sshzypxn Dev]m-Z-\w, sspthm w F n-h-bn Kth-jWw \S-Ømw. Du tajebn DtZym-Km n-isf dn{iq v snøp \nc-h[n Iº-\n-I-fp- v. Sm m ]h tkmfm, tamk _sb tkmfm, kpkvtem, dne-b kv C y, ]n.-f.-pn. ]h, mtkm ksã-bn-\-_nƒ o ssiv skmeyq-j kv, sss -m, Fw.- hn. tkmfm knãw-kv, epan-\ v ]h ss- v, {]oan-b tkmfm knãw, sims v Du w F n-h- Chbn Nne-Xm-Wv. kwcw-`ixz taj-e-bn Du t m-ev]m-z\-øn\v {]k- n-tb-dp- p. cmpyøv {]Xn-io j sshzypxn D]-t`mKw awn- q-dn 800 Intemhm vkmwv. temiønxv icm-icn 2500 Intem-hmSv pw HmsS CXv 3000 Intem-hm-Svkm- m-\mwv e y-an- n-cn- p- -Xv. cmpy-sø Du -\bw, sxmgn e`yx, Ipd- -sn-ehv, ÿew, sh w F n-h-bpss e`yx F nh e y-an- mwv {]h Øn- p- -Xv. I -cn, Im v, kutcm w F n-h-bn \n p sshzypxn Dev]m-Z-\- Øn\v Xmc-X-tay\ snehv Ipd-hm-Wv. ssphm-h-in-jvs-ß-fn \n pw sshzypxn Dev]m- Z-n- n- mw. cmpyøv {]Xn-h jw 200 Zi-e w S sshzypxn Im jn-im-h-in-jvs-߃ DXv]m-Zn- n- p- -Xm-bmWv IW- v. Hcp en FÆ v ]I-c-ambn Intem{Kmw ssphm-h-in-jvs-߃ Du t m-ev]m-z-\-øn\v D]-tbm-Kn- mw. Du t m-ev]m-z\ taje-bn cmpyøv ssl{_nuv lyqh-_nƒ Du tamu-ep-i-fp- v. Cu cwkøv \nch[n kwtbm-pnx tamu-ep-i-fp-ap v.... F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 15

16 F n-\o-b-dnwkv taj-e-i-fnse sxmgn km[y-x-i-fpw, {]Xo- -Ifpw am\y-amb Hcp sxmgn F Xv GsXmcp _ncp-z-[m-cn-bp-tsbpw G hpw henb e yhpw kz]v\-hp-amwv. imkv{x kmt -XnI cwkøv C v BtKm-f-X-e-Øn Xs h IpXn- mwv kw`-hn- p-sim- n-cn- p- -Xv. Cu apt - -Øn-eqsS \h F n-\o-bdnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ v temi-sa-ºmspw sxmgn km[y-x-bpss A\- -amb hmx-b- \-ß-fmWv Xpd- p-in- n-bn-cn- p- -Xv. temi-ønse Xs h i n-i-fn-sem- m-bn, AXn-thKw ]cn-w-an- p-sim- n-cn- p C ysb kw_- n- n-s-tømfhp-w ÿnxn as m- -. icn-bmb Adnhpw Ign-hp-ap \h-_n-cp-z-[m-cn v FÆ-a Ah-k-c-ß-fmWv sxmgn cwkøv D -sx ncns C v sndp- - m n-s-bn sxmgn-en- mbva h n- -h-cp p F v ]d-b-s -Sp- Xv Hcp hntcm-[m-`m-k-am-wv. AXn-\qX-\hpw k o Æhp-amb kmt -Xn-I-hn-Zy-Iƒ A\p-kyqXw IS- p-h- p-sim- n-cn- p sxmgn cwk- Øn\v DX-Ip- -co-xn-bn Adn-hpw, {]h Øn-]-cn-N-b-hp-ap F n-\o-b amsc kw`mh\ snøp- -Xn, hfsc sshin-am{xw am -߃ kzoi-cn- p \ΩpsS hnzym-`ymk k{º-zmbw ]cm-p-b-s -Sp- -XmWv CXn\p {][m-\-im-c-ww. sxmgn cwk-øp- m-ip Hmtcm ]ptcm-k-xnbpw A -t mƒ a\- n-em- n, AXv F mtwm Bh-iy-s -Sp- Xv B tbmky-x-i-sfms t\sn-sb-sp- p-hm F n- \o-b-dnwkv ]T-\-Øns XpS w apx Xs Hcp hy -amb ] -Xn-tbm-Spw, e ytømspw IqsS ]T\w ]q Øn-bm- p Hcp hnzym n v Xs sxmgn-se kz]v\w km m-xvi-cn- p- -Xn\v bmsxm pw XS- -am-hp- n F -XmWv bmym yw. F n- \ob-dnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn-i-fpss sxmgn taj-e-isf Xmsg-]-d-bp coxn-bn hnim-eambn Xcw Xncn- mw. 1. sf.-sn. taje (C t^m ta-j ssivt\m-fpn) 2. sf.-sn. CXc taje 1. sf.-sn. taje (C t^m ta-j ssivt\m-fpn) ti{µ GP kn-bmb NASSCOM 2013 \S-Ønb k t -{]-Imcw C y-bpss GDP bpss 16% hpw sf.-sn. taj-e-bpss kw`m-h-\-bm-wv. hnh-c-km-t -XnI taj-ebn Ct m-gp hº sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ v ta -d IW v Hcp DØ-a-ZrjvSm- -am-wv. kzim-cy-ta-je arko-b-amb B[n-]Xyw ssibm-fp cwk-amwv C y F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 16

17 sf.-sn. taj-e. \mj-w C t^m am- niv sk t]mep Npcp-ßnb ÿm]-\-ßfmwv s]mxp-ta-j-e-bn C y sf.-sn. cwkøp {]h Øn- p- -Xv. sf.-sn. k o-k-kv, _nkn-\ v t{]mk v Hu vtkm-gvknwkv XpS-ßnb {]h Ø\ taj-e-i-fn-embn sxmgn km[y-x-bpss Hcp temiw Xs \h-_n-cp-z-[mcn-iƒ mbn sf.-sn. cwkw Hcp- n-bn-cn- p- p. C y-bnse H p-an sf.-sn. Iº-\n- Ifpw A m-cmjv{s Iº-\n-Iƒ AYhm aƒ n-\m-j-w Iº-\n-I-fm-b-Xn-\m AXXp Iº-\n-I-fpsS hntz-i-cm-py-øp imji-fn hfsc Db thx-\-øn tpmen snøp- -Xn-\p [mcmfw Ah-k-c-ßfpw Ah-bnse Poh-\- m v e`n- p- p. DZm: C t^m-kn-kv, Sn.-kn.-F-kv., hnt{]m, F v.-kn.-f CXp IqSmsX ssat{im tkm^v v, su, C t]mep At\Iw hntz-i-i-º-\n- Ifpw FÆ-a sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ Xpd n p-sim v \ΩpsS sf.-sn. cwk-øn Icp- Øp-]-I-cp- p. \n -±n- -tbm-ky-x-i-fp F m hn`mkw F n-\o-b-dnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn- Iƒ pw sf.-sn. tpmen-iƒ XnI pw {]m]y-am-wv. 2. sf.-sn. CXc taje C y kº-zvhy-h-ÿ-bn s]mxp-ta-j-ebpw kzim-cy-ta-j-ebpw Xpey-]- m-fnøw ssibm-fp- -XmWv sf.-sn. CXc taj-e. hnt\m-zw, hnzym-`ym-kw, _m nmv B Uv ^n\m kv, ssen-i-ωyq-wn-t -j, sshzy-im-kv{xw, ssivã-bn, aoun-b, Sqdn-kw, KXm-K-Xw, apx _ln-cm-imi Kth-jWw hsc A\- -ambn \o p-in-s- p sf.-sn. CXc taje F n-\o-b am mbn Ah-cpsS A`n-cp-Nn- pw, Ign-hn\pw, _ncp-z-tbm-kyx ({_m- v) pw A\p-k-cn v CjvS-ap sxmgn-ep-iƒ sxc-s -Sp- p- -txm-ssm w AXv kzim-cy-ta-j-e-tbm, s]mxp-ta-j-etbm Bhp- -Xn-\p kzm{ yw IqSn \ Ip- p. DZm: sf.-sn. CX-c-ta-Je s]mxp-ta-je Iº-\n-Iƒ kzim-cy-ta-je Iº-\n-Iƒ Banking State Bank of India HDFC Punjab National Bank ICICI Insurance LIC Birla TATA Telecommunication BSNL Airtel Idea Petroleum Indian Oil Reliance Tourism ITDC Taj Group F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 17

18 ]Xn-\mev tzi-km IrX _m p-iƒ mbn \S-Ø-s -Sp s]mxp-{]-th-i\ ]co- -bmb sf.-_n.-]n.-f-kv. hnp-bn- p- -h-cn _lp-`q-cn-`m-khpw F n-\o-b-dnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn-i-fm-sw- mwv kao-]-ime k t -Iƒ kqnn- n- p- -Xv. AXp-t]mse ap ]v F n-\o-b am IS- p-sn- p- -Xn\pw, Ahsc kzoi-cn- p- -Xn\pw, asn-im- Wn- n-cp [mcmfw taj-e-iƒ C v Ah mbn Ah-k-c-ß-sfm-cp n ImØn-cn- p- p. \h-_n-cp-z-[m-cn-i-fn \n v B[p-\nI sxmgn taj-e-bpss {]Xo F n-\o-b-dnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ v th {X sxmgn-ep-iƒ e`n- p- n- F ]cmxn hfsc hym]-i-ambn Db-cp-tºmƒ Xs, sshz-kvzy-ap sxmgn-em-fn-isf e`n- m-ø-xn-\m B[p-\nI sxmgn cwkw ISpØ {]Xn-k n t\cn-sp Ahÿ C v \ne-\n p- p. Cu sshcp- ym-fl-i-amb {]Xn-`m-ksØ A]-{K-Yn- p-tºmƒ a\- n-em-hpi B[p-\nI hnzym-`ym-k-cw-khpw sxmgn cw-khpw XΩn henb A cw \ne-\n p- p F -Xm-Wv. sxmgn cwksø kmt -XnI hnzy-i-fpss h Ip-Xn- n\pw Bh-iy- X-Iƒ pw A\p-k-cn- p Adnhpw Ignhpw ]pxp-x-e-apd F n-\o-b am-cn Ipd- p-h-cp- p. Cu Ipdhp adn-i-s- p- -Xn-\mbn sxmgn cwkw G hpw A[nIw Bhiy-s -Sp Nne tbmky-x-iƒ Xmsg simsp-øn-cn- p- p. 1. A m-z-aniv \ne-hmcw kmam\yw t`z-s an ÿm]-\-ßfpw ]pxp-xmbn Xnc-s -Sp- -s - -h v 10, +2, _n.-ss v XpS-ßn-b-h v Npcp-ßn-bXv 60 ix-am-\-øn\p api-fn-se- nepw am v t\sn-bn-cn- -W-sa tbmkyx sh m-dp- v. IqSmsX F m hnj-b-ßfpw ]m m-bn-cn- p-ibpw thww. {]i-kvx-amb ÿm]-\-ß-fn Cu ix-am\w 70Dw 80Dw Hs BImdp- v. kmt -XnI hnzy-iƒ F{X ]ptcm-k-an- mepw F n-\o-b-dnwkv ASn-ÿm-\-X-Xz߃ AYhm t_knivkv amdp- n-. ASn-ÿm\ XXz-ß-fnse Ah-Kmlw A m-zaniv am v \ne-hm-c-øn {]Xn-^-en- p-sa- p- -Xm-Wv CXv IW- n-se-sp- m ÿm]- \-ßsf t{]cn- n- p- -Xv. AXn-\m Db Xpw ÿnc-x-bp- -Xp-amb Hcp A m-zaniv {]I-S\w Imgv -sh- m ]T\-Øns XpS w apx t hnzym n-iƒ {i nt - -Xp- v. 2. kmt -XnI Ah-Km-lhpw {]mtbm-kni _p nbpw F n-\o-b-dnwkv ]T-\-Øn-eqsS kzmb-ø-am- n-bn- p XXz-ßfpw kn m- ßfpw bym kml-n-cy-øn {]mh Øn-I-am- m Ign-bpI F p- -Xm-Wv, Hcp DtZym-Km n-bn \n v sxmgn taje {]Xo- n- p G hpw {][m\ tbmky-x- F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 18

19 I-fn-sem v. AtXm-sSm w sxmgn cwkøp IS- p-h- p-sim- n-cn- p \qx\ kmt - XnI hnzy-i-sf- p-dn- p Adnhpw {][m-\-am-wv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v Hcp knhn F n- \o-b v B cwksø \qx\ tkm^v vshb-dp-i-sf- p-dn {]mho-wyw, tpmen t\sp- -Xn\v XnI pw AXy- m-t]- n-x-am-wv. 3. ]mtty-xc Ign-hp-Iƒ (Soft Skils) ]T\ hnj-b-߃ pw Un{Kn- p-sa mw ]pd-ta, Hcp s{]m^-j-w-en-\p-th- p XnI pw {][m-\-s Nne ]mtty-xc Ign-hp-Iƒ Xmsg simsp-øn-cn- p- p. 1. lrzy-amb Bi-b-hn-\n-a-bw, kw`m-j-w-nm-xpcyw 2. BI j-i-amb hy n-xzhpw s]cp-am- hpw 3. Bfl-hn-izmkw 4. t\xr-]m-shw 5. kl-i-cw at\m-`mhw 6. {Inbm-flI Nn m-kxn 7. {]iv\-]-cn-lm-c-]m-shw 8. Xocp-am-\-ß-sf-Sp- m-\p tijn 9. ka-b-_- n-x-amb Imcy-߃ ]q Øn-bm- m-\p Ignhv 10. GXp kml-n-cy-hp-ambpw s]mcp-ø-s -Sm-\pw, kml-n-cy-øn-\-\p-k-cn v amdm\pw Ign-bpI 11. am\-kni kω ±-߃ AXn-Po-hn- pi 12. hy n-]-c-amb ASp pw Nn bpw A -S- hpw 13. kl-po-hn-i-tfm-sp klm-\p-`qxn ta -]d KpW-ß-sf mw Xs sxmgn A`n-ap-J-ß-fn Imcy-ambn hnebn-cp-ø-s -Sp-sa- -Xn-\m, Ch hni-kn- n- p- -Xn\v DtZym-Km n-iƒ Xo{h-]-cnio-e\w XpS-tc- Xv AXym-h-i-amWv. s]mxp-hmb dn{iq- nwkv k{º-zmbw _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ v H A`n-apJw am{xw hgn tpmen e`n- n-cp Imew C v C m-xm-bn Ign- p. kzim-cy-ta-j-e-bnepw s]mxp-ta-j-e-bn-ep-ap ÿm]-\-߃ At\Iw DtZym-Km n-i-fn \n v hnhn-[-l- -ß-fnepw coxn-bn-ep ]co- -W߃ v tij-amwv G hpw ani GXm\pw t]sc Xnc-s -Sp- p- Xv ÿm]-\- F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 19

20 ߃ v A\p-k-cn v Xnc-s -Sp v coxn-i-fn am w hcp-sa- nepw s]mxp-hmb Nne- L- -߃ CtXm-sSm w tn p- p. 1. tbmkyx ]cn-tim-[\ (Application Scrutiny) dn{iq- v-sa ns G hpw {]my-ani L -am-wn-xv. DtZym-Km n-iƒ am v ixam\w, {]mb-]-cn-[n, {]h -Øn-]-cnNbw, A[nItbmKy-X-Iƒ XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS ASnÿm-\-Øn ASpØ L -Øn-te v Xnc-s -Sp- -s -Sp p. DtZym-Km n-bpss _tbm- Um- -bnse hnh-c-w-ß-fpss ASn-ÿm-\-Øn-emWv ta -d L w \S- p-i. 2. A`n-cpNn ]co (Aptitude Test) \n ±njvs ASn-ÿm\ A`n-cp-Nn-bp- -hsc Is -Øp- -Xn, hen- -s -dp- at\y ÿm]-\-߃ C v k km[m-c-w-ambn Cu D]m[n Ah-ew-_n- p- p. A`n-cpNn ]co- -Iƒ, Fgp-Øp-]-co- -bmbpw Iºyq- h r-x-co-xn-bnepw \S-Ø-s -Sm-dp- v. \nan-j-߃ Iw aqey-\n Æbw km[y-am-b-xn-\m Iºyq- h Ir- X-co-Xn-bmWv an ÿm]-\-ßfpw C v Ah-ew-_n- p- -Xv. 30 an\n p apx aq p awn- q hsc-bp A`n-cpNn ]co- -I-fmWv km[m-c-w-bmbn I p-h-cp- -Xv. CXn H -hm- n DØcw Fgp-tX H_vP-Œohpw, hni-zo-i-cn-s -gp-tx Unkv{In-]v ohv tnmzy-ßfpw Dƒs m- n- n-cn- pw. A`n-cpNn ]co- -I-fn s]mxp-hn Xmsg simsp-øn-cn- p hn`m-k-øn s - Sp tnmzy-߃ hcm-dp- v. a. Quantitative Aptitude: ]q Æ-ambpw IW- ns\ Bkv]-Z-am- n-bp tnmzy߃, KWn-X im-kv-{x-øn-se {]m-howyw Cu hn`m-k-øn AXym-h-iy-am-Wv. b. Critical Reasoning: Hcp kml-n-cy-tam, kµ `tam, {]iv\-tam, A]-{K-Yn v AXn-s\mcp DØcw AYhm ]cn-lmcw ImWp coxn. c. Verbal Skills : Cw ojv `mj {]mhowyw Af- p- -Xn-\p tnmzy-߃. d. General Knowledge: s]mxp-hn- m\w ]cn-tim-[n- p- -Xn-\p tnmzy-߃. e. Computer Knowledge: Iºyq- A`n-cp-Nnbpw Adnhpw ]co- n- p- -Xn-\p tnmzy-߃. 3. {Kq v UnkvI-j A`n-cpNn ]co ]m m-ip DtZym-Km n-isf 10 apx ]Xn-\- p-t] hsc AS-ßp sndp kw-l-ß-fm- n, s]mxp-hmb Hcp hnj-b-øn ta N \S- Øp-hm Bh-iy-s -Sp coxn-bm-wnxv. 15 ap-x 20 an-\n- p-h-sc-bmwv Hcp {Kq n\v A\p-h-Zn- p ka-bw. DtZym-Km n-i-fpss Bi-b-hn-\n-a-b-Nm-Xp-cyw, A]-{K-Y-\-]m-S-hw, {]Xn-I-c- W-ti-jn, kl-i-cw at\m-`m-hw, t\xr-]mshw XpS-ßnb Imcy-߃ CXn-eqsS ]cntim-[n- p- p. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 20

21 4. A`n-ap-J-]-co (Personal Interview) {Kq v UnkvI-j-\n ani {]I-S\w Imgv -sh- p DtZym-Km n-i-fn \n v Xnc-s -Sp- -s -Sp DtZym-Km n, ÿm]-\-øns DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-s Bfp- I-fpsS Hcp kan-xn- p-ap-ºn A`n-apJ]co bv v lmp-cm-ti- n-hcpw. km[m-c-wbmbn c v L -ß-fmWv A`n-ap-J-]-co- -bn D m-hp-i. a. ssiv\n- C hyq ]q Æ-ambpw ]mty-hn-j-b-ß-tfbpw a p kmt -XnI Imcy-ß-tfbpw Bkv]- Z-am- n-bp tnmzy-ß-fp-amwv Cu L -Øn D m-hp-i. b. lyqa dntkm-gvkkv C hyq hy n-]-c-amb tnmzy-ß-fmhpw Cu L -Øn D m-hp-i. DZm: \n߃ F p-sim v Cu Iº\n sxc-s -SpØp? Hcp DtZym-Km nsb ]q Æ-ambn a\- n-em- m DX-Ip- -XmWv Cu L w. hy -amb Xøm-sd-Sp pw ]cn-io-e-\hpw Cu L w hnp-b-i-c-ambn ]q Øn-bm- p- - Xn\v DtZym-Km n-iƒ v Bfl-hn-izmkw \ Ip- p. Hcp DtZym-Km nsb Xnc-s -Sp- twm th tbm F v Xocp-am\w ÿm]- \-߃ ssis m- p- Xv Cu L -Øn-em-Wv. Cu L -Øn Xnc-s -Sp- -s -Sp- DtZym-Km n-iƒ v tpm-en D-d- p-\ -In-s m- p- Hm-^ se- t\-cnt m C sabn hgntbm \ -Ip p. [mcmfw {]Xn-_- -ßfpw sh p-hn-fn-ifpw Ds - nepw, XpS w apx Nn bmb ]T\hpw IrXy-amb ]cn-io-e-\-hpw, A W at\m-`m-h-h-pap bph-x-e-ap-d v F n-\o-b-dnwkv taje tim`-\-amb Hcp `mhn-bmwv Icp-Xn-sh- n- p- -sx v \n w- ibw ]d-bmw.... F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 21

22 CHANGING FACE OF TECHNOLOGY {io.-k-t mjv kn Ipdp v (No^v FIvkn-Iyq- ohv Hm^o-k, sf.-kn.-sn.-a- m-zan Hm^v tic-f) Often we hear that we live in a fast growing and rapidly changing world. If one takes a moment and tries to understand one reason for these fast-paced changes in the world, it becomes clear that these are powered by the advancements in Technology. Gone are the days when one needs to wait for a week to get an information sent from the other side (as technologist call it, the snail mail). Worlds biggest retail store Amazon doesn t have a single retail outlet in the world. Random sampling of data to analyse population behaviour can be replaced by analysis of a full population using advanced analytics. The unmanned drones that used to be a creation of a fiction writer are now in action for both military and civil purposes. In the early 60s Technology was limited to academic purposes and defence activities, where as now common citizens of the world use technology massively. The number of services delivered using technology has increased multi-fold. This has led to creation of a whole lot of career opportunities for students having skills in Technology area. From an Information and Communication Technology perspective, the opportunities are very wide. Students graduating from Computer Science, IT, Electronics& Communication Engineering stream and any stream of Engineering with supplementary subjects relating to Technical concepts of Technology tools can fulfil their career options by choosing the interesting world of Information Technology. Technology Stack It is important for the aspiring students to understand at a high level the various stacks of a Typical ICT system. The diagram attached below provide a conceptual view of the technology stack used in ICT systems. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 22

23 An integrated set of Hardware, networks, system software, application software and I/O devices make up an ICT System. Presence of I/O layer, number of application software, system software, types of hardware and the kinds of network connectivity are dependent on a number of parameters and the Business requirements. OS & Systems Software Hard Ware Level The above technology layers are used to create Engineering and Business applications and products, which enable the users to experience technology supported business / citizen services. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 23

24 Career opportunities in Technology domains Career opportunities are varied across the stack of Technology and it is offered to students from Fresh graduates to people with experience. Some of the career roles available to individuals, and a typical career growth opportunities for students choosing ICT industry, are depicted in the following diagram. As fresh graduates, one would typically get trained on ICT skills (or expect students to possess Industry Skills) and get deployed into junior roles such as programmers, Junior analysts, Testers, network executive, technical support executive etc. As individuals gain experience and as they demonstrate their ability to understand specific areas of technology, they get deployed into various high-end roles. Typically in 5-8 years, the employee gets an opportunity to lead teams and in a period of 8-15 years they get to manage large projects and teams as well. Beyond 15 years of experience, People will move into Middle and Senior management roles F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 24

25 hnhn[ F n-\o-b-dnwkv hn`m-k-ßfpw km[y-x-ifpw tum.-fkv.-]n.-kp-{_- -Wy ({]n kn-, {io]xn C Ãn- yq v Hm^v amt\-pvsa v & ssivt\m-fpn) imkv{x kmt -XnI Xe-Øn-ep ]cn- m\w am\-h-cm-in v D]-bp- -am- p coxn-bn-ep hnhn-[- Xcw b{ -ß-fpw, si ns kap- -b-ß-fp, Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIv D]-I-c-W-ßfpw cq] I ]\ snøp hy n-bmwv F n-\o-b. F n-\o-b-dnwkv hn`m-ksø {][m-\-ambpw tim {_m- piƒ, AsseUv {_m- piƒ F n-ßs\ c mbn Xcw Xncn- mw. ]c-º-cm-k-x-amb F n-\o-b-dnwkv {_m p- I-fmb sa m-\n- F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, knhn F n-\o-b-dnwkv, Ce-Iv{Sn- F n- \o-b-dnwkv F n-h-bm-wv {][m-\-ambpw tim {_m- piƒ F -dn-b-s -Sp- -Xv. ta ]- d- n- p tim {_m p-i-fn \n pw Dcp-Øn-cn- n- p Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv B Uv IΩyq-Wn-t -j, Iºyq- kb kv, C t^m ta-j ssivt\m-f-pn, _tbmsaun- F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, _tbm ssivt\m-f-pn, Hmt m samss_ F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, Fbtdm-t\m- n- F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv B Uv C kv{sp-sa-t -j F n- \o-b-dnwkv F n-h-ifpw {][m-\-s {_m p-i-fm-wv. {][m-\-s {_m p-isf Ipdn- p Hcp elp hnh-cww Xmsg simsp-øncn- p- p. sa m-\n- - F n-\o-b-dnwkv kmt -XnI cwksø ]pcm-x-\-amb hn`m-k-ß-fn H mwv sa m-\n- F n-\o-b-dnw-kv. Ime-L- -Øn-\-\p-k-cn v ]pxnb D]-hn-`m-K-߃ ]nd-hn-sb-sp-sø- nepw {]mtbm-kni hn m-\-øn\v {]m[m\yw I ]n- p ASn-ÿm\ hn`m-k-amwv sa m-\n- F n-\o-b-dnw-kv. Bb-Xn-\m sa m-\n- hn`mkw Cu Ime-L- - Ønepw hf-sc-b-[niw {]k- n-bm n- p- p. temi-ønse G hpw henb I -ep-i-fn-sem- mwv simf-k v Hm^v Z ko. Hmbn dn p-i-fpw, anen- dn dum-dp-i-fpw, F n-\v, henb I -ep-iƒ t]mepw CXneqsS {Sm kvt]m v snø-s -Sp- p. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 25

26 sa m-\n- F n-\o-b-dnwkv hn`m-k-øn Iogn ]Tn- p hnzym n- Iƒ v, Unssk-\nw-Kv, am\p-^m-ivn-dnw-kv, Hm -td-j kv B Uv sabn -\ kv, Du t m-ev]m-z-\w, sa o-cn-b kns\ Ipdn- p ]T\w F n-h-i-fn {]mho-wyhpw {]mtbm-kni ]cn- m-\hpw t\sp-hm Ign-bpw. Bb-Xp-sIm v amx-am- n-ivknepw ^nkn-ivknepw sian-kv{sn-bnepw A`n-cp-Nn-bp GsXmcp hnzym n pw sa m-\n- F n-\o-b-dnwkv sxc-s -Sp- mw. {]mtbm-kni ]cn m\w ]I-cp hnhn-t[m-t±y-i-ß-fmb \nc-h[n hnj-b߃ sa m-\n F n-\o-b-dnw-kn ]Tn- m-\p- v. Ah-sb- p-dn p Adnhv hnzym n-iƒ v sa m-\n- F n-\o-b-dnwkv sxc-s -Sp- m klm-b-i-c-am-ip- -Xm-Wv. AXn-\m Ah-bn NneXv NphsS tn p- p. {][m\ hnj-b-߃ Design & Analysis Production & Manufacturing Thermal Engineering Mechanics Casting & Joining Thermodynamics Mechanics of Solids Metal Cutting & Forming Fluid Machinery Mechanics of Fluids Computer Integrated Heat & Mass Transfer A\p-_- -hn-j-b-߃ Manufacturing Machine Design Operations Research I C Engines & Gas Turbines Theory of Machines Tools Engineering & Design Power Plant Engineering Metallurgy and Operations Management Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Material Science Finite Element Methods Metrology & Instrumentation Compressible Fluid Flow & Rocket Propulsion sa m-\n- _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ v D X hnzym-`ymk taj-e-bmb Fw.-sS- v, Fw.-F-kv.-K-th-j-W-Øn\v {]m[m\yw \ Ip ]n.-f- v.-un, t]mãv tumiv -d s^t m-jn v F n-hbv pw km[y-x-iƒ hn]p-e-am-wv. sa m-\n- F n-\o-b-dnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn v C y-bnse Xs s]mxp-ta- J-e-bn-sebpw kzim-cy-ta-j-e-bn-tebpw tpmen km[y-x-iƒ A\- -am-wv. CXn-ep-]cn hntz-i-cm-py-ß-fnse FÆ-bp-ev]m-Z\ taj-e-bn sa m-\n- _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ Hgn p IqSm Ign-bmØ LS-I-am-Wv. AXp-sIm p Xs sa m-\n- F n-\o-b-dnwkv _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ v D sxmgn Ah-k-c-߃ AXn-hn-]p-e-am-Wv. sa m-\n- _ncp-z-[m-cn-isf dn{iq v snøp A\-h[n s]mxp-ta-je, kzimcy taje Iº-\n-I-fn \n pw Npcp w Nne Iº-\n-I-fpsS hnh-c-߃ NphsS tn p- p. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 26

27 s]mxp-ta-je Iº-\n-Iƒ IOCL ONGC HPCL BPCL NPCIL BARC DRDO Cochin Shipyard HAL NAL ISRO HMT etc. kzimcy Iº-\n-Iƒ TATA Reliance Worley Parsons L&T Petrofac Thermax Bosch Pricol Roots Automobile Companies like Tata, Hyundai, Maruti etc Appollo Tyres MRF knhn F n-\o-b-dnwkv ""Nmµvt_mdn'' cmp-ÿm-\n ÿnxn snøp Cu Pem-ibw ]pcm- X\ C y-bnse Hcp F n-\o-b-dnwkv hnkva-b-am-wv. F.-Un.10 mw \q m- n \n Ωn- -s - Cu Ipfw `q\n-c- n \n pw \qd-sn-tbmfw Xmtg p \ofp- p A[nIw I -S-hp-Iƒ 13 \ne- I-fn. \n ΩmW sshzkv yw sim pw AXp-ey-amb `wknsim pw C pw \sω hnkva-bn- n- p- p. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 27

28 "_q v Jeo^' B[p-\nI knhn F n-\ob-dnw-kns {]Xo-I-am-bn-cn- p - Cu BImi tkm]p-cw. a\p-jy-\n Ωn-X-amb G hpw Db-c-ap hkvxp-hmwv CXv ao (2722 ASn) BWv CXns Db-cw. tlm -ep-iƒ, ^vfm p-iƒ XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS kap- -b-amwv CXv. G hpw ]ucm-wn-i-amb F n-\o-b-dnwkv imj-bmwv knhn F n-\o-b-dnw- Kv. a\p-jy-ip-e-øns Hmtcm hf m-im-e-l- -Ønepw Cu apt - -Øn\v Xmßmbn Hcp knhn F n-\o-b-dnwkv apt w ImWmw. Npcp- -Øn Cu taj-e-bnse apt w am\-h-cm-in-bpss Xs apt - -ambn amdp p F -XmWv Ncn-{Xw. a\p-jys ASn-ÿm\mhiyß-fn H mb ]m nsw F -Xp-ambn _ - s p InS- p p F -XmWv Cu taj-ebv v C{X {]m[m\yw simsp- p- Xv. IqSmsX Hcp cmpy-øns hf -bpss Hcp am\-z-wvu-ambn IW- m- p- Xv Ahn-SpsØ Xmak kui-cyw, KXm-KX kui-cy-߃ XpS-ßnb C {^m-kv{s-ivn hni-k\w t\m n-bm- Wv. AXm-bXv sa -s knhn F n-\o-b-dnwkv kt -X-߃ F m sa -s hni-k\w F Xp Xs. {]mtbm-kni ]cn- m-\hpw Ipd p Iem-hm-k-\bpw {]txy-in v Nn{X-h-c, inev]-ie F n-h-bn A`n-cp-Nn-bpap GsXm-cmƒ pw knhn F n-\o-b-dnwkv ]Tn-s -Sp- m-hp- -tx-bp p. ]n osv {]mtbm-kni Xe-Øn tim`n- m Bflm amb ITn\ ]cn-{iaw Xs thww. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 28

29 C v temi-ønse F m hni-knx hni-kzc cmpy-ßfpw Hcp am -Øns ]mx-bn-em-wv. ASn-ÿm\ kui-cy-ß-fpss hni-k-\-øns {]m[m\yw F m-hcpw Xncn- -dn- n-cn- p- p. CXv knhn F n-\o-b am v Hcp ]pxnb temiw Xs Xpd p simsp-øn-cn- p- p. k m, A -k m, kzim-cytaj-e-i-fn e -I- W- n\v sxmgn-e-h-k-c-ß-fmwv knhn F n-\o-b amsc ImØn-cn- p- -Xv. Ch p ]pdsa kz -amb Hcp kwcw`w XpS-ßp-hm\pw G hpw Ffp- -Øn Ah-k-c-sam-cpßp- Xv Hcp knhn F n-\o-b p Xs -bm-wv. {][m-\-hn-j-b-߃ Structural Geotechnical Transportation Water Resources Environmental Surveying Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering A\p-_- - Architectural Foundation Highway Hydraulic Water Supply Land Surveying hn-j-b-߃ Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Earth quake Mining Railway River Topographic Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Surveying Wind Geosynthetics Airport Coastal Sanitary Hydrographic Surveying Engineering Engineering Engineering Engineering Astronomical Energy, Oil Geomechanics Port & Harbour Ground Water Surveying & Gas Engineering Cadastral Surveying sxmgn-e-h-k-c-߃ s]m-xp-taj-em I-º-\nIƒ kzim-cy taj-em I-º-\nIƒ Health Dept BHEL L & T Skyline Builders PWD Railway Gammon India Water Authority SAIL Atkins Shoba Hindustan Developers Irrigation Dept Indian Steel Construction Plant Company JMC Projects Central Water ONGC Tata Projects Commission Ltd Brigade Group IOCL MES Unitech ISRO IES Bridge & Roof F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 29

30 tpmen-km-[y-xbv p ]pdta Hcp]mSv D]-cn-]-T\ Kth-jW taj-e-i-fp v Cu hnj-b-øn. Znh-khpw amdn amdn sim n-cn- p \n ΩmW taje Cu hnj-b-ønse Kth-jW km[y-xsb Xs -bmwv kqnn- n- p- -Xv. kv{sivn-d F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, PntbmsS-Iv\n- F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, F hn-tdm sa F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, hm dntkmgvkv F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, {Sm kvt]m t -j F n-\o-b-dnwkv XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv {][m\ D]-cn-]- T\ hnj-b-߃. C y-bn sf.-sf.-sn., F.-sF.-Sn, a v bqwn-th-gvkn- n-iƒ F n-h \S- Øp Fw.-sS v timgvkp-i-fmwv {][m-\-s - h. Chbv p ]pdta Nne ÿm]-\-߃ Fw.-F-kv. Fw.-C. timgvkp-ifpw \S-Øp- p- v. CXn-\p-]p-dta amt\-pvsa n Xm ]-cy-ap- -h v Fw.-_n.-F.-t]m-ep timgvkp-ifpw snømw. I kv{s- F n-\o-b-dnwkv amt\-pvsa v F p- Xv C v hfsc {]m[m-\y-ap Hcp taj-e-bm-wv. C y-bn \niva t]mep ÿm]-\-ßfn I kv{s- F n-\o-b-dnwkv amt\-pvsa v ]Tn- n- p- p- v. CeIv{Sn B Uv Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv F n-\o-b-dnwkv F n-\o-b-dnwkv cwksø AXn-{]-[m-\-amb Hcp I p-]n-sp-ø-am-wv awkƒbm. snm {Kl-sØ- p-dn- p ]T-\-Øn-\mbn C y-bpss {][m\ kw`m-h-\-bmwv awkƒbm hnt -]Ww. hn{iw kmcm-`mbv kvt]kv dnk v sk -dnse {]K- -cmb F n-\o-b-dnwkv hnz-kv -cmwv awkƒbm-\ns \n Ωm-W-Øn-s -bpw, hnt -]-W-Øns bpw Npa-Xe hln- -Xv. _ln-cm-im-isø C y-bpss Ncn-{X-{]-[m-\-amb t\ -ßfnse kph Æ-en-]n-I-fn tcj-s -Sp-Øn-bn-cn- p Hcp t\ -am-wn-xv. F n-\o-bdnwkv `mj-bn ]d- m hnhn[ taj-e-i-fn-ep F n-\o-b am-cpss Iq mb Hcp {]h Ø-\-Øns ^e-amwv awkƒbm-\ns hnt -]-Ww. awkƒbm-\ns hnp-b-i-cawkƒbm F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 30

31 amb {]h Ø-\-ß-fn AXns \nb-{ -W-Øn\v Hcp kp{]-[m\ ] m-wp- -Xv. Cu taj-e-bn Ce-Iv{Sn- F n-\o-b-dnwkv hnzkv kp{]-[m\ ] mwv hln- n- p- -Xv. snm sb {`aww snøp-tºm-gp Hmtc \nan-j-ønepw F{X thk-x-bn k cn- Ww F pw, awkƒbm-\ns k m-c-øn th sshzypxn DXv]m-Z-\w, `qan-bnte v awkƒbm-\n \n pw Abbv p ktµ-i-ß-fpss kam-l-c-ww, `qan-bn \n p \nb-{ -Ww, F o taj-e-i-fn Ce-Iv{Sn- B Uv Ce-Ivt{SmWnIvkv taj-e-bpss kw`m-h\ kvxpkvxy l-am-wv. imkv{x-km-t -XnI cwksø Hcp \mgn-i-i- mwv sshzyp-xn-bpss I p-]n-sp- Øw. sshzyp-xn-bpss DXv]m-Z-\w, hnx-c-ww, D]-tbm-K-߃ F n-h-sb- p-dn v {]Xn- ]m-zn- p Hcp {][m\ kmt -XnI hn`m-k-amwv Ce-Iv{Sn- B Uv CevIvt{Sm- WnIvkv F n\o-b-dnw-kv. ASn-ÿm-\-]-c-amb Hcp F n-\o-b-dnwkv hn`m-k-amwv CXv. `uxn-i-im-kv{x-øn \n p-amwv Cu F n-\o-b-dnwkv hn`m-k-øns D -hw. sshzyp- Xn-bpsS \n Ωm-W-sØbpw hnx-c-w-søbpw Ipdn v `uxni imkv{x-øn-s bpw ASnÿm-\-K-Wn-X-Øn-s bpw klm-b-tøm-ss-bp hni-i-e-\-amwv Ce-Iv{Sn- B Uv Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv F n-\o-b-dnw-kv. hnhn[ Xc-Øn-ep sshzyp-txm m-z\ \neb-ß-fpss Unssk-\nw-Kv, I t{sm-fnw-kv, sabn -\ kv, Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv D]-I-c-Wß-fmb bp.-]n.-f-kv., C sh F n-h-bpss Unssk-\nwKv F n-hbpw Cu ]mty- ]- -Xn-bn Dƒs -Sp- p. `uxn-i-im-kv{x-ønepw ASn-ÿm-\-K-Wn-X-Ønepw Nn{X-Ie-bnepw A`n-cp-Nn-bp Ip n-iƒ v ]Tn- m-hp G hpw \ hn`m-k-am-wv Ce-Iv{Sn- B Uv Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv F n-\o-b-dnw-kv. ka-im-eo\ imkv{x-cw-ksø G hpw B[p-\n-I-amb Hcp imj-bmwv Hmt m-ta-j hn`mkw. \n ΩmW hyh-km-b-ta-j-ebpw, D]-t`mK hyh-kmb taj-e-bpw.hmt m ta v snøp C m-eøv Hmt m-ta-j-s\- p-dn- p ]T\w {]m[m-\y-a ln- p- p. hnhn-[-x-c-øn-ep dnte, k Iyq v t{_, Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv D]-I-c-W-߃ F nh D]-tbm-Kn- mwv F n-\o-b-dnwkv Hmt m-taj snøp- -Xv. Cu D]-I-c-W-ßsf pdn pw hfsc hni-z-amb coxn-bn {]Xn-]m-Zn- p taj-e-bm-wn-xv. Ce-Iv{Sn- & C kv{sp-sa-t -j F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, C kv{sp-sa-t -j & I t{smƒ F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, ]h F n-\o-b-dnwkv F n-h-bmwv Ce-Iv{Sn- F n- \o-b-dnwkv hn`m-k-øns hnhn[ A\p-_ hn`m-k-߃. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 31

32 {][m\ hnj-b-߃ Power Power Control Engineering Electronics and Instrumentation A\p-_ hnj-b-߃ Electrical Power Different types Trouble Shooting of Generation of controlling Electrical Devices Different types of power generating stations Different types of distribution Economic considerations Devices for motors in power generation Design of UPS Inverter Controlling of different Power System Analysis types of Space crafts Power System Protector & utilization CXp IqSmsX Fw.-sSIv ]h πm v F n-\o-b-dnw-kv, Ce-Iv{Sn- F n-\ob-dnwkv Unssk, C U-kv{Sn-b ss{uhvkv & I t{smƒ XpS-ßnb hnhn[ Xcw D]cn ]T\ km[y-x-ifpw Cu timgvkn-\p- v. ]e \h-cxv\ Iº-\n-Ifpw tpmen p th nbp Nne {]txyi k n-^n- v timgvkp-ifpw Cu hn`m-k-øn \S-Øp- p- v. Ce-Iv{Sn- F n-\o-b-dnwkv hn`m-k-øn\v hnim-e-amb tpmen km[y-x-i-fm- Wp- -Xv. t_kniv k Iyq v Unssk-\nwKv apx t]mip p Cu km[y-x-iƒ. Unssk-\nwKv taj-e, D]-t`m-K-ta-J-e, DXv]m-Z-\-ta-Je F n-ßs\ hnhn[ taj-e- I-fn hnim-e-amb sxmgn km[y-x-i-fmwv CXn-epƒs m- p- -Xv. C y-bnepw hntz-i-øp-ap Nne Iº-\n-I-fnse tpmen km[yx Cu tej-\-tøm-ssm w tn p- p. Kh sa v taj-e-bnepw kzim-cy-ta-j-e-bnepw D tpmen-km-[y-x-iƒ CXn Dƒs -Sp- p. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 32

33 s]mxp-ta-je Iº-\n-Iƒ kzim-cy-ta-je Iº-\n-Iƒ PWD NEYVELI LIGNITE DUBAI WATER AND ELECTRICTY CORPORATION AUTHORITY IRRIGATION DEPARTMENT RASHTRIYA ISPAT QATAR WATER AND NIGAM LIMITED ELECTRICITY CORPORARION ELECRTICAL INSPECTORATE RURAL ELECTRIFICATION MIDDLE EAST CORPORATION LIMITED CONTROL SERVICES KSEB COCHIN SHIPYARD LIMITED SIMENS BHEL MAZAGON DOCK LIMITED ABB NTPC HLL LIFE CARE LIMITED SAMSUNG GAIL ISRO L&T ELECTRONICS CORPORATION INDIAN ENGINEERING TEXAS INSTRUMENTS- OF INDIA UMITED SERVICES US COMPANY POWER GRID CORPORATION MILITARY ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS OF INDIA LIMITED SERVICES BSNL STEEL AUTHORITY OF HONEYWELL-INDIA INDIA LIMITED BEML LIMITED AIR PORT AUTHORIY OF KIRLOSKAR INDIA LIMITED HAL IOCL,BPCL, ONGC MIL CONTROLS - F sh_vssk v kµ in- m F n-\o-b-dnwkv cwk-øp hn]p-e-amb tpmen km[y-x- I-sf- p-dn v Adn-bm km[n- pw. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 33

34 Iºyq- kb kv B Uv F n-\o-b-dnwkv ENIAC First electronic General purpose computer (1946). Cost 3 crores. Weight 25 tons. Space occuppied 680 sq.ft. hnh-c-ß-fpss kam-l-c-whpw ]cn-h Ø-\-hp-amWv Iºyq- F imjbv p XpS w Ipdn- p- -Xv. AXn\p th n D]-tbm-Kn- p ASn-ÿm\ LS-I-ß-fmWv Iºyq- _n p-iƒ AYhm ss_ p-iƒ. hnh-c-km-t -Xn-I-X-bp-tSbpw B[p-\nI Iºyq- n-ßn-s bpw ASn-ÿm-\XØzßfpw {]mtbm-kni hi-ßfpw kwtbm-pn- n p sim p F n-\o-b-dnwkv imj-bmwv Iºyq- kb kv. hnhn-[-xcw Iºyq- nßv hnzy-i-fp-tsbpw t{]m{km-ap-i-fp-ssbpw \n ΩmW coxn-ifpw Aπn-t -j-\p-amwv ChnsS ]Tn- n- p- -Xv. ASn-ÿm\ KWn-Xm-`n-cp-Nnbpw bp n-]q -amb {]iv\ \n m-cw tijnbp-ap- -h v Cu taj-e-bn tim`n- mw. kz -ambn Bπn-t -j \n Ωn- m- Xmev]-cy-ap- -h v Cu taje DX-Ip- -Xm-Wv. tihew GsX- nepw Hcp sxmgn taj-e-bn am{xw ti{µo-i-cn- -s - SmØ imkv{x-im-j-bmwv Iºyq- kb kv. F mw B[p-\n-I-h-XvI-cn- -s -Sp- Ibw a\p-jy-k-lm-b-an- msx {]h Øn- p-ibpw snøp b{ -ß-fpsS Cu temiøv, Ch-bp-sS-sb mw {]h Ø-\-co-Xn-Isf \nb-{ n- p-ibpw klm-bn- p- Ibpw snøp t{]m{km-ap-iƒ p ]nd-in-ep- Xv Iºyq- F n-\o-b am-cpss kvxpxy l-amb tkh-\-am-wv. Iºyq- kb kv F imj-bnse ]T\ hnj-b-߃ v km[y-x-iƒ hfsc hn]p-e-am-wv. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 34

35 {][m\ hnj-b-߃ Computer Software Artificial Other Network Engineering Intelligence Subjects Digital Data Architecture Genetic Database Communication Programming A\p-_ Wireless Quality Pattern Compiler Design hnj-b-߃ Networking Assurance Recognition Cryptography Automata Data Structure _lpcmjv{s Iº-\n-I-fnepw Kh sa v ÿm]-\-ß-fnepw Db iº-ftømsp IqSnb h sxmgn-e-h-k-c-ß-fmwv Iºyq- kb kv _ncp-z-[m-cn-iƒ v Xpd p In p- -Xv. s]mxp-ta-je Iº-\n-Iƒ kzim-cy-ta-je Iº-\n-Iƒ ISRO Banks Google DRDO Engineering Colleges MICROSOFT IISC Railway INFOSYS CAIR Navy WIPRO BAARC Air Force TCS GAIL Army CTS SAIL KELTRONE F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 35

36 Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv B Uv IΩyq-Wn-t -j F n-\o-b-dnwkv 1973 temi-øn-em-zy-ambn D]-tbm-Kn sk t^m, C v FhnsS FØn \n p p F Xv Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv F n-\o-b-dnw-kns amkvacn-i-xbv v Hcp DZm-l-cWw am{x-am-wv. ""temiw apgph \ΩpsS hnc Xp-ºn '' F hmiyw {]mh Øn- I-am- p- Xv Ce-Ivt{Sm-Wn-Ivkv D]-tbm-Kn- m-wv. hnim-e-amb F n-\o-b-dnwkv imj-i-fn-sem- mb Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv B Uv IΩyq-Wn-t -j C sø G hpw ]pxnb ssivt\m-fpn ASn-ÿm-\-am- p Hcp F n-\o-b-dnwkv hn`m-k-am-wv. CXv Ce-{Œn- {_m n \n pw Dcp-Øn-cn p h - Xpw, {][m-\-ambpw c v {_m p-iƒ kwtbm-pn- p- m-b-xp-am-wv. (H v Ce-Ivt{Sm- WnIvkpw c v IΩyq-Wn-t -j-\pw) C v Hcp Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv F n-\o-b-dpss ÿm\w sndnb Hcp Ifn- m w Unssk-\nw-Kn XpSßn km v sse v kvt]kv IΩyq-Wn-t -j Unssk hsc FØn \n p- p. Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv B Uv IΩyq-Wn-t -j F n-\o-b-dnwkv Dƒs m- n- n- p- Xv hnhn[ taj-e-ifn D]-tbm-Kn p hcp CeIvt{SmWnIvkv Xnb-dn, Unssk, ^m{_n-t -j, s{]mu- ssãnwkv B Uv am\p-^m-iv -dnwkv XpS-ßn-b-h-bm-Wv. {][m-\-ambpw Cu timgvkp sim v Dt±-in- p- Xv hnh-c-km-t -XnI taj-e- I-fnse tpmen kw_- -amb A]-{K-Y-\w, \n Ωm-Ww, {]h Ø-\w, ]cn-]m-e\w XpSßn-b-h-bm-Wv. C sø {][m-\-s hyh-kmb kwcw-`-ß-fmb saun-, Bt mtam- o-hv, tdmt_m- n-iv, Iºyq- s\ v h nwkv XpSßn F m taj-e-i-fnepw Bh-iyambn hcp Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIvkv D]-I-c-W-ß-sf-Ip-dn v a\- n-em- p-ibpw AXv {]mh Øn-I-am- m {ian p hcn-ibpw snøp- p. F p-sim v F n-\o-b-dnwkv? Hcp hni-i-e\w GI-Zn\ inev]-ime 36

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