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1 REPORT NUMBER: GZU-001 ORIGINAL ISSUE DATE: EVALUATION CENTER TEST REPORT Intertek Testing Services Shenzhen Ltd. Guangzhou Branch Block E, No.7-2 Guang Dong Software Science Park, Caipin Road, Guangzhou Science City, GETDD, Guangzhou, China Laboratories are accredited by China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment. This report may not be reproduced, except with the prior written approval of the issuing laboratory RENDERED TO TWL Technologie GmbH Im Gewerbegebiet 2 12, Freihung MANUFACTURER Shandong Linuo New Material Co.,Ltd No.10 Shihua Road Shanghe County, Jinan, Shandong Province P.R.of China. PRODUCT EVALUATED: Model HLK20 and HLK30 EVALUATION PROPERTY: EN : A1:2010 Thermal solar systems and components Solar collectors Part 1:General Requirements EN :2006 Thermal solar systems and components Solar collectors Part 2: Test methods Report of Testing Model HLK20 and HLK30 solar collector for compliance with the applicable requirements of the following criteria: EN :2006+ A1:2010/ EN : All samples are normal before test. This report is for the exclusive use of Intertek's Client and is provided pursuant to the agreement between Intertek and its Client. Intertek's responsibility and liability are limited to the terms and conditions of the agreement. Intertek assumes no liability to any party, other than to the Client in accordance with the agreement, for any loss, expense or damage occasioned by the use of this report. Only the Client is authorizedto permit coying or distribution of this report and then only in its entirety. Any use of the Intertek name or one of its marks for the sale or advertisement of the tested material, product or service must first be approved in writing by Intertek. The observations and test results in this report are relevant only to the sample tested. This report by itself does not imply that the material, product, or service is or has ever been under an Intertek certification program Page 1 of 28

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Summary of test results General Specification Sample selection Sample and assembly description Testing and Evaluation Methods Condition Specimen Preparation Test Standard Execution and Evaluation Internal pressure test High temperature resistance Exposure test External thermal shock test Internal thermal shock test Rain penetration Freeze resistance test (NA) Mechanical load test Impact resistance test using steel balls Final inspection results Test results of thermal performance Test conditions Test results Annex A Measured data Annex B Terms and definitions Annex C Photos of test collector REVISION SUMMARY Page 2 of 28

3

4 2 General Specification 2.1 Sample selection Samples were selected based on the Solar Keymark rules by Intertek inspector and submitted to Intertek directly from the client. Samples were received at the Evaluation Center on Sample and assembly description According to the Solar Keymark Scheme rules, there is an agreement concerning collectors, which differ only in size, so called series or families. Only the biggest (HLK30) and the smallest (HLK20) collector have to be tested in this case. A complete collector test according to EN :2006+A1:2010/EN :2006 has to be performed on the biggest collector (HLK30). The thermal performance test is sufficient on the smallest collector (HLK20). The Solar Keymark label based on this test is valid for the whole series. (MS): means manufacture specification. Model name Test collector Number of tubes Length of tubes HLK20 Yes mm(MS) HLK30 Yes mm(MS) Specific data of the collector (MS): means manufacture specification. Brand name: Type: HLK20 Serial no.: Year of production: 2012 Collector reference no.(intertek): S Gross area: =3.03 m 2 Aperture area: =1.873 m 2 Absorber area: =1.606 m 2 Height: 152mm Weight empty: 69.1Kg Volume of the fluid: 1.2 L Brand name: Type: HLK30 Page 4 of 28

5 Serial no.: ; Year of production: 2012 Collector reference no.(intertek): S ; S Gross area: =4.49m 2 Aperture area: =2.810m 2 Absorber area: =2.410m 2 Height: 152mm Weight empty: 97.5Kg Volume of the fluid: 1.8 L Specification of the tubes Type: Material of the cover tube: Vacuum tube Borosilicate glass Number of covers: 1 Transmission of the cover tube: 91%(MS) Outer diameter of the cover tube: Φ58mm Thickness of the cover tube: 1.6mm Outer diameter of the inner tube: Φ47mm Thickness of the inner tube: 1.6mm Distance between two tubes: 75mm Absorber Solar absorptance α: Hemispherical emittanceε: Surface treatment: Material of header pipe: Outer diameter of the header pipe: Construction of the absorber: Material of the fin: Thickness of the fin: 92% (MS) 7% (MS) Magnetron sputtering Copper 40.2mm Evacuated tube and heating pipe connected by Aluminium fin Aluminium 0.28mm Page 5 of 28

6 2.2.4 Thermal insulation and casing Insulation material: Thickness of the rock wool: Thickness of the polyurethane: Casing material: Sealing material: Rock Wool and Polyurethane 27mm 20mm Aluminum alloy Silicon rubber Limitations Maximum operation temperature: Maximum operation pressure: Heat transfer medium: Flow rate range: 120 (MS) 0.7MPa (MS) Water/ antifreeze 0.02Kg/(s*m 2 )~0.03 Kg/(s*m 2 ) (MS) Stagnation temperature: Page 6 of 28

7 3 Testing and Evaluation Methods 3.1 Condition The specimens were held in standard laboratory conditions before testing for at least 24 hours at a temperature of 23 ± 2 C and a relative humidity of 50 ± 5%. 3.2 Specimen Preparation 3 test specimens which contain one pieces of HLK 20 and two pieces of HLK 30 were submitted and received in good condition. 3.3 Test Standard EN : A1:2010 Thermal solar systems and components Solar collectors Part 1: General requirements. EN : 2006 Thermal solar systems and components Solar collectors Part 2: Test methods. 4 Execution and Evaluation 4.1 Internal pressure test Collector reference No.: S Lead through and boundary conditions acc. to EN :2006-part 2, clause Collector type Cover: Glazed Unglazed Maximum collector operation pressure s pecified by manufacturer: 700kPa Test conditions Test temperature [ o C] Test pressure [kpa] Test duration [min] Test results Conclusion: No major failure appears after test acc. to EN : A1:2010, clause Page 7 of 28

8 4.2 High temperature resistance Collector reference No.: S Lead through and boundary conditions acc. to EN :2006-part 2, clause Method used to heat collectors Outdoor test method In solar simulator Test conditions Collector tilt angle[degrees form horizontal [ ]: 30 Average irradiance during test [W/ m 2 ]: 955 Average surrounding air temperature [ o C] : 34.3 Average surrounding air speed [m/s]: 0.4 Duration of test [h]: Stagnation temperature Mean irradiance [W/ m 2 ]: 955 Mean absorber temperature [ ]: Mean ambient temperature [ ]: 34.3 Note: The temperature sensor was placed at the centre of the header of the collector. The stagnation temperature t stg for required ambient conditions Gs=1000 W/ m 2 and t as = 30 o C is calculated according t stg = t as G + G S m ( t t ) am sm to t stg = Test results Conclusion: No major failure appears after test acc. to EN : A1:2010, clause Page 8 of 28

9 4.3 Exposure test Collector reference No.: S Lead through and boundary conditions acc. to EN :2006-part 2, clause 5.4 Collector tilt angle (degree from horizontal): 30 degrees Climatic conditions for all days during the test Date H t a Rain Date H t a Rain (MJ/m 2 ) ( O C) (mm) (MJ/m 2 ) ( O C) (mm) Page 9 of 28

10 Total: 30 days in which H > 14 MJ/m 2 Maximum daily rain fall: 34.6 mm Page 10 of 28

11 4.3.2 Time periods in which irradiance and surrounding air temperature have values greater than those specified Table 4 which is in clause 5.4.3of EN :2006 Date G (W/m 2 ) t a ( o C) Time periods (min) Date G (W/m 2 ) t a ( o C) Time periods (min) Total time: Suffered more than 41.8 hours in which G > 850 W/m 2 in the exposure period. Page 11 of 28

12 4.3.3 Test Results: Evaluate each potential problem according to the following scale: 0 No problem 1 Minor problem 2 Severe problem * - Inspection to establish the condition was not possible Collector component Potential problem evaluation Result Collector box/fasteners Cracking/warping/corrosion/ rain penetration 0 Mounting/structure Strength/safety 0 Seals/gaskets Cracking/adhesion/elasticity 0 Cover/reflector Cracking/crazing/buckling/ delamination 0 Absorber coating Cracking/crazing/blistering 0 Absorber tubes and headers Deformation/corrosion/leakage/ loss of bonding 0 Absorber mountings Deformation/corrosion 0 Insulation Water retention/outgassing/ degradation 1 Note: 1 There are some changes in color of insulation. And there are no major failure appears after test acc. to EN : A1:2010, clause Page 12 of 28

13 4.4 External thermal shock test Collector reference No.: S Lead through and boundary conditions acc. to EN :2006-part 2, clause Test conditions Test performed outdoors Combined with exposure test Test performed indoors in solar simulator Combined with high temperature resistance test First shock Second shock Collector tilt angle[ ] Min & mean irradiance [W/ m 2 ] Min & mean surrounding air temperature[ o C] Period during which the required operating conditions were maintained prior to shock [min] Flow rate of water spray [kg/s. m 2 ] Temperature of water spray [ o C] Duration of water spray [min] Absorber temperature immediately prior to water spray [ o C] Not determined Not determined Test results Conclusion: No major failure appears after test acc. to EN : A1:2010, clause Page 13 of 28

14 4.5 Internal thermal shock test Collector reference No.: S Lead through and boundary conditions acc. to EN :2006-part 2, clause Test conditions Test performed outdoors Combined with exposure test Test performed indoors in solar simulator Combined with high temperature resistance test First shock Second shock Collector tilt angle[ ] Min & mean irradiance [W/ m 2 ] Min & mean surrounding air temperature[ o C] Period during which the required operating conditions were maintained prior to shock [min] Flow rate of heat transfer fluid [kg/s. m 2 ] Temperature of heat transfer fluid [ o C] Duration of heat transfer fluid flow [min] 5 5 Absorber temperature immediately prior to heat transfer fluid flow [ o C] Not determined Not determined Test results Conclusion: No major failure appears after test acc. to EN : A1:2010, clause Page 14 of 28

15 4.6 Rain penetration Collector reference No.: S Lead through and boundary conditions acc. To EN :2006-part 2, clause Test conditions Collector mounting: Open frame Simulated roof Collector tilt angle[ ]: Collector experienced effective exposure days: Method used to keep absorber warm: Water spray flow rate[kg/(s. m2)]: Hot water circulation Exposure of collector to solar radiation 0.07 Water spray temperature [ o C] 20.9 Duration of water spray [h]: Test results Area with visible sign of water penetration [expressed as a percentage of aperture No area] Give details of water penetration, reporting the place where water penetrated The time the sign of rain penetration took to vanish NA NA Collector weight before test [g]: Collector weight after test [g]: And no major failure appears after test acc. to EN : A1:2010, clause Page 15 of 28

16 4.7 Freeze resistance test (NA) Collector reference No.:-- Lead through and boundary conditions acc. to EN :2006-part 2, clause Collector type and tilt angle Freeze-resistant when filled with water Drain down Tilt angle of collector during test [ ]: Test conditions No. of Freeze conditions Thaw conditions freeze-thaw Test Duration Test Duration cycles temperature[ ] [min] temperature a [ ] [min] a For freeze-resistant collectors, this is the temperature of the contents of the collector, e.g. water, ice For drain-down collectors, this is the temperature measured inside the absorber close to the inlet Rate of chamber cooling [K/h]: -- Rate of chamber cooling[k/h]: Test results Give details of leakage, breakage, distortion or deformation and any of the failures denoting major failure, defined in of EN : A1:2010 Page 16 of 28

17 4.8 Mechanical load test Lead through and boundary conditions acc. to EN :2006-part 2, clause Positive pressure test of the collector cover Collector reference No.: S Method used to apply pressure Loading with gravel or similar material Suction cups Loading with water Pressurization of collector cover Test condition Maximum pressure load [Pa]: Test result Conclusion: No major failure appears after test acc. to EN : A1:2010, clause with 3380 Pa pressure load Negative pressure test of fixing between the cover and the collector box (NA) It s not suitable to conduct negative pressure test on a vacuum tube collector Method used to apply pressure Suction cups Pressurization of collector box Test condition Maximum pressure load [Pa]: Test result Conclusion: No major failure appears after test acc. to EN : A1:2010, clause Page 17 of 28

18 4.9 Impact resistance test using steel balls Collector reference No.: S Lead through and boundary conditions acc. to EN :2006-part 2, clause Test conditions Diameter of ball [mm]: 33.4 Mass of ball [g]: 150 Test performed using: Vertical impact Horizontal impact Test procedure Drop height [m] No. of drops Test result Conclusion: The collector cover was broken at the 0.2m drop with a 150g steel ball. Page 18 of 28

19 4.10 Final inspection results Evaluate each potential problem according to the following scale: 0 No problem 1 Minor problem 2 Severe problem * - Inspection to establish the condition was not possible Collector component Potential problem evaluation Result Collector box/fasteners Cracking/warping/corrosion/ rain penetration 0 Mounting/structure Strength/safety 0 Seals/gaskets Cracking/adhesion/elasticity 0 Cover/reflector Cracking/crazing/buckling/ delamination 0 Absorber coating Cracking/crazing/blistering 0 Absorber tubes and headers Deformation/corrosion/leakage/ loss of bonding 0 Absorber mountings Deformation/corrosion 0 Insulation Water retention/outgassing/ degradation 1 Note: 1 There are some changes in color of insulation. Page 19 of 28

20 5 Test results of thermal performance Collector reference No.: S , S Test method according to EN :2006 Outdoor-Steady State Method(6.1) Indoor-Steady State Method(6.2) Outdoor-Quasi-Dynamic Method(6.3) 5.1 Test conditions Collector model: HLK30 HLK20 Latitude [ ]:: North North Longitude [ ]:: East East Mass flow [kg/(s m 2 )]: Aperture area [m 2 ]: Collector absorber area [m 2 ]: The instantaneous efficiency is defined by: η = Q / 0 AG 5.2 Test results Collector model: HLK30 HLK20 Effective heat capacity c [kj/(m 2 K)]: Incident angle modifier Kө (50): Peak power [ (G=1000 W/(m 2 K), W peak m ] per collector unit t t =0): a Determination of power per collector unit (second order fit to data): 2 tm ta tm ta Q = A G η 0 a1 a2g G G Page 20 of 28

21 Coefficient based on aperture area Collector model HLK30 HLK20 η0a a 1 a a 2 a Power output per collector unit HLK30 tm t a [k] Irradiance 400 W/m W/m W/m HLK20 tm t a [k] Irradiance 400 W/m W/m W/m Page 21 of 28

22 Figure 5.1 Power output per collector unit (For G=1000 W/m 2 ) Incident angle modifier HLK30 IAM at ө 0 o 10 o 20 o 30 o 40 o 50 o 60 o 70 o 80 o 90 o Transversal: Longitudinal: HLK20 IAM at ө 0 o 10 o 20 o 30 o 40 o 50 o 60 o 70 o 80 o 90 o Transversal: Longitudinal: Page 22 of 28

23 Pressure drop Pressure drop[pa] Flow rate[kg/s] Figure 5.2 Pressure drop of the collector HLK30 (for 20 o C water) Page 23 of 28

24 Date Time G (W/m 2 ) Gd (W/m 2 ) m (kg/min) Annex A Measured data t in ( 0 C) HLK30 t e ( 0 C) t m ( 0 C) t e -t in ( 0 C) t a ( 0 C) (t m -t a )/G (K m 2 /W) 2013/4/24 10: /4/24 10: /4/24 10: /4/24 10: /4/24 15: /4/24 15: /4/24 15: /4/24 15: /4/25 14: /4/25 14: /4/25 14: /4/25 14: /4/25 15: /4/25 15: /4/25 15: /4/25 16: HLK /1/13 10: /1/13 10: /1/13 10: /1/13 11: /1/13 12: /1/13 12: /1/13 12: /1/13 12: /1/13 13: /1/13 14: /1/13 14: /1/13 14: /1/13 15: /1/13 15: /1/13 15: /1/13 15: Note: The diffuse irradiance has been modified based on the diffuse irradiance pyranometer shade ring. η Page 24 of 28

25 Annex B Terms and definitions Symbol Term Unit A Area(aperture, gross or absorber) m 2 η 0 Zero-loss efficiency - η 0a Zero-loss collector efficiency based on aperture area - Q Useful power extracted from the collector W G Solar irradiance W/ m 2 t m t a Mean temperature of heat transfer fluid Ambient air temperature o C o C a 1 Heat transfer coefficient W/ m 2 /K a 1a Heat transfer coefficient based on aperture area W/ m 2 /K a 2 Temperature depending heat transfer coefficient W/ m 2 /K 2 a 2a Temperature depending heat transfer coefficient based W/ m 2 /K 2 on aperture area m Mass flow kg/s t in t e Collector inlet temperature Collector outlet temperature o C o C Measuring uncertainties Thermal performance: ±3.4% K=2 Irradiance: ±2.8% K=2 Temperature water: ±0.03K K=2 Temperature air: ±0.05K K=2 Water flow: ±0.13% K=2 Air speed: ±0.2m/s K=2 Aperture: ±0.93% K=2 Mass: ±1.5g K=2 Page 25 of 28

26 Annex C Photos of test collector Figure C.1: Photo of the thermal performance test Figure C.2: Photo of the absorber Page 26 of 28

27 Figure C.3: Photo of the Insulation after exposure testing Figure C.4: Photo of Vacuum tube Page 27 of 28

28 REVISION SUMMARY DATE SECTION SUMMARY INTERTEK INITIALS TECHNICIAN REVIEWER End of the Document Page 28 of 28

REPORT NUMBER: GZU -001 ORIGINAL ISSUE DATE:

REPORT NUMBER: GZU -001 ORIGINAL ISSUE DATE: REPORT NUMBER: 140430030GZU -001 ORIGINAL ISSUE DATE: 2014-5-6 EVALUATION CENTER TEST REPORT Intertek Testing Services Shenzhen Ltd. Guangzhou Branch Block E, No.7-2 Guang Dong Software Science Park, Caipin

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