The Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law"

Transcription

1 The Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law It is impossible for any device that operates on a cycle to receive heat from a single reservoir and produce a net amount of work Q W E =ΔE net net net, mass sys Q net W = net 0 ( Q H + W ) ( Q L + W ) = 0 in out Q H = W out Due to friction and dissipative effect, no heat engine can have a thermal efficiency of 100 percent A heat engine that violates the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law 1

2 The Causius statement of the second law It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a low temperature body to a higher - temperature body. Q W E =ΔE net net net, mass sys Q net = 0 Q = Q H Heat can not move from low temperature source to high temperature source without external work! L A refrigerator that violates the Clausius statement of the second law 2

3 Reversible or Irreversible process? Reversible process: a process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the surroundings. - Both the system and the surroundings are returned to their initial states at the end of the reverse process -W gas gas gas gas A irreversible process -Q - For combined (original and reverse) process, if the net heat and net work exchange between the system and surrounding is zero, then it is a reversible process. Q net = 0 and W net = 0 3

4 Reversible or Irreversible process? Consider a heat reservoir giving up heat to a reversible heat engine, which in turn gives up heat to a piston-cylinder device. From 1 st law of Thermodynamics E E = ΔE in out c δq ( δw + δw ) = de R rev sys c δq δw = de δq T R R c c To prove reversible process, we assume a Q net = 0 R δ = δq = T δq QR TR T 4

5 Reversible or Irreversible process? Now the total work done is For a cycle and the total net work becomes If W c > 0 then a cyclic device exchanging energy with a single heat reservoir and producing an equivalent amount of work Thus, the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law is violated! Since T R > 0 (absolute temperature), we conclude Here Q is the net heat added to the system, Q net. or This equation is called the Clausius inequality. The equality holds for the reversible process and the inequality holds for the irreversible process. 5

6 Definition of Entropy In the reversed cycle case, all the quantities will have the same magnitude but the opposite sign. Therefore, the work W C, which could not be a positive quantity in the regular case, cannot be a negative quantity in the reversed case. Then W C,int rev = 0 since it cannot be a positive or negative quantity, and therefore for internally reversible cycles. Thus we conclude that the equality in the Clausius inequality holds for totally or just internally reversible cycles and the inequality for the irreversible ones. Clausius (1865) defined entropy, ds δq = T int rev 6

7 Entropy Consider the cycle shown below composed of two reversible processes A and B. Apply the Clausius inequality for this cycle. What do you conclude about these two integrals? P 2 B A 1 A cycle composed of two reversible processes. V Apply the Clausius inequality for the cycle made of two internally reversible processes: 7

8 Entropy You should find: Since the quantity (δq net /T) int rev is independent of the path and must be a property, we call this property the entropy S. The entropy change occurring during a process is related to the heat transfer and the temperature of the system. The entropy change during a reversible process, sometimes called an internally reversible process, is defined as 8

9 Entropy Consider the cycle 1-A-2-B-1, shown below, where process A is arbitrary that is, it can be either reversible or irreversible, and process B is internally reversible. P 2 B A 1 A cycle composed of reversible and irreversible processes. V The integral along the internally reversible path, process B, is the entropy change S 1 S 2. Therefore, 9

10 Entropy or In general the entropy change during a process is defined as where ds Q δ T = holds for the internally reversible process > holds for the irreversible process Consider the effect of heat transfer on entropy for the internally reversible case. net ds Q = δ T Which temperature T is this one? If then ds > net δ Q net > 0 0 δ Q net = 0 then ds = 0 δ < 0 then ds < 0 Q net 10

Chapter 7. Entropy: A Measure of Disorder

Chapter 7. Entropy: A Measure of Disorder Chapter 7 Entropy: A Measure of Disorder Entropy and the Clausius Inequality The second law of thermodynamics leads to the definition of a new property called entropy, a quantitative measure of microscopic

More information

Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements

Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements Violation of Clausius statement Violation of Kelvin-Planck statement Violation of Kelvin-Planck statement Violation of Clausius statement Violation

More information

Chapter 5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics (continued)

Chapter 5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics (continued) hapter 5 he Second Law of hermodynamics (continued) Second Law of hermodynamics Alternative statements of the second law, lausius Statement of the Second Law It is impossible for any system to operate

More information

THERMODYNAMICS Lecture 5: Second Law of Thermodynamics

THERMODYNAMICS Lecture 5: Second Law of Thermodynamics HERMODYNAMICS Lecture 5: Second Law of hermodynamics Pierwsza strona Second Law of hermodynamics In the course of discussions on the First Law of hermodynamics we concluded that all kinds of energy are

More information

Chapter 20. Heat Engines, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Dr. Armen Kocharian

Chapter 20. Heat Engines, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Dr. Armen Kocharian Chapter 20 Heat Engines, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Dr. Armen Kocharian First Law of Thermodynamics Review Review: The first law states that a change in internal energy in a system can

More information

Free expansion (Joule); Constant U Forced expansion (Joule-Kelvin); Constant H. Joule-Kelvin coefficient - heating or cooling on JK expansion?

Free expansion (Joule); Constant U Forced expansion (Joule-Kelvin); Constant H. Joule-Kelvin coefficient - heating or cooling on JK expansion? ...Thermodynamics Adiabats: How c P and c V get into the exponent PV γ Free expansion (Joule); Constant U Forced expansion (Joule-Kelvin); Constant H Joule-Kelvin coefficient - heating or cooling on JK

More information

12 The Laws of Thermodynamics

12 The Laws of Thermodynamics June 14, 1998 12 The Laws of Thermodynamics Using Thermal Energy to do Work Understanding the laws of thermodynamics allows us to use thermal energy in a practical way. The first law of thermodynamics

More information

Two mark questions and answers UNIT II SECOND LAW 1. Define Clausius statement. It is impossible for a self-acting machine working in a cyclic process, to transfer heat from a body at lower temperature

More information

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 2 ND Law of Thermodynamics Puts a limitation on the conversion of some forms of energy Determines the scope of an energy conversion and if an energy conversion is possible

More information

Entropy and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

Entropy and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics CHAPTER 5 Entropy and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics Key Points Entropy, S, is a state function that predicts the direction of natural, or spontaneous, change. Entropy increases for a spontaneous

More information

Reversibility, Irreversibility and Carnot cycle. Irreversible Processes. Reversible Processes. Carnot Cycle

Reversibility, Irreversibility and Carnot cycle. Irreversible Processes. Reversible Processes. Carnot Cycle Reversibility, Irreversibility and Carnot cycle The second law of thermodynamics distinguishes between reversible and irreversible processes. If a process can proceed in either direction without violating

More information

SOLUTION: Consider the system to be the refrigerator (shown in the following schematic), which operates over a cycle in normal operation.

SOLUTION: Consider the system to be the refrigerator (shown in the following schematic), which operates over a cycle in normal operation. Soln_21 An ordinary household refrigerator operating in steady state receives electrical work while discharging net energy by heat transfer to its surroundings (e.g., the kitchen). a. Is this a violation

More information

Irreversible Processes

Irreversible Processes Irreversible Processes Examples: Block sliding on table comes to rest due to friction: KE converted to heat. Heat flows from hot object to cold object. Air flows into an evacuated chamber. Reverse process

More information

Lecture 29-30: Closed system entropy balance

Lecture 29-30: Closed system entropy balance ME 200 Thermodynamics I Spring 2016 Lecture 29-30: Closed system entropy balance Yong Li Shanghai Jiao Tong University Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics 800 Dong Chuan Road Shanghai, 200240, P.

More information

October 18, 2011 Carnot cycle - 1

October 18, 2011 Carnot cycle - 1 Carnot Cycle In 1824, Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) published a short book, eflections on the Motive Power of Fire (The book is now free online You should try it out) To construct an engine, Carnot noted, at

More information

= for reversible < for irreversible

= for reversible < for irreversible CAPER 6 Entropy Copyright he McGraw-ill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. he Clausius Inequality: 0 his inequality is valid for all cycles, reversible or irreversible Cycle

More information

Thermodynamic system is classified into the following three systems. (ii) Closed System It exchanges only energy (not matter) with surroundings.

Thermodynamic system is classified into the following three systems. (ii) Closed System It exchanges only energy (not matter) with surroundings. 1 P a g e The branch of physics which deals with the study of transformation of heat energy into other forms of energy and vice-versa. A thermodynamical system is said to be in thermal equilibrium when

More information

Chapter 12. The Laws of Thermodynamics

Chapter 12. The Laws of Thermodynamics Chapter 12 The Laws of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics tells us that the internal energy of a system can be increased by Adding energy to the system Doing work

More information

Chapter 16 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 16 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 16 The Second Law of Thermodynamics To examine the directions of thermodynamic processes. To study heat engines. To understand internal combustion engines and refrigerators. To learn and apply

More information

Engineering Thermodynamics. Chapter 5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Engineering Thermodynamics. Chapter 5. The Second Law of Thermodynamics 5.1 Introduction Chapter 5 The Second aw of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics states that processes occur in a certain direction, not in just any direction. Physical processes in nature can

More information

1. Second Law of Thermodynamics

1. Second Law of Thermodynamics 1. Second Law of hermodynamics he first law describes how the state of a system changes in response to work it performs and heat absorbed. he second law deals with direction of thermodynamic processes

More information

Unit D-2: List of Subjects

Unit D-2: List of Subjects ES312 Energy Transfer Fundamentals Unit D: The Second Law of Thermodynamics ROAD MAP... D-1: From First to Second Law D-2: Second Law of Thermodynamics Unit D-2: List of Subjects Second Law of Thermodynamics

More information

Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 322 Mechanical Engineering Thermodynamics. Introduction to 2 nd Law and Entropy.

Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 322 Mechanical Engineering Thermodynamics. Introduction to 2 nd Law and Entropy. Department of Mechanical Engineering ME 322 Mechanical Engineering hermodynamics Introduction to 2 nd aw and Entropy ecture 18 Example Consider an adiabatic compressor steadily moving R125, P2 2 430 psia

More information

CHEM Introduction to Thermodynamics Fall Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

CHEM Introduction to Thermodynamics Fall Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics CHEM2011.03 Introduction to Thermodynamics Fall 2003 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Introduction It is a matter of everyday observation that things tend to change in a certain direction.

More information

Second Law of Thermodynamics -

Second Law of Thermodynamics - Second Law of Thermodynamics - REVIEW ENTROPY EXAMPLE Dr. Garrick 1/19/09 First Law of Thermodynamics you can t win! First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy cannot be Created or Destroyed the total energy

More information

PY2005: Thermodynamics

PY2005: Thermodynamics ome Multivariate Calculus Y2005: hermodynamics Notes by Chris Blair hese notes cover the enior Freshman course given by Dr. Graham Cross in Michaelmas erm 2007, except for lecture 12 on phase changes.

More information

Spring_#7. Thermodynamics. Youngsuk Nam.

Spring_#7. Thermodynamics. Youngsuk Nam. Spring_#7 Thermodynamics Youngsuk Nam ysnam1@khu.ac.kr You can t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in

More information

CHAPTER 7 ENTROPY. Copyright Hany A. Al-Ansary and S. I. Abdel-Khalik (2014) 1

CHAPTER 7 ENTROPY. Copyright Hany A. Al-Ansary and S. I. Abdel-Khalik (2014) 1 CHAPTER 7 ENTROPY S. I. Abdel-Khalik (2014) 1 ENTROPY The Clausius Inequality The Clausius inequality states that for for all cycles, reversible or irreversible, engines or refrigerators: For internally-reversible

More information

CARNOT CYCLE = T = S ( U,V )

CARNOT CYCLE = T = S ( U,V ) hermodynamics CANO CYCE Do not trouble students with history In 1824, Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) published a short book, eflections on the Motive Power of Fire (he book is now free online You should try it

More information

Basic Thermodynamics. Prof. S. K. Som. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.

Basic Thermodynamics. Prof. S. K. Som. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Basic Thermodynamics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 06 Second Law and its Corollaries I Good afternoon, I welcome you all to this

More information

Chapter 12. The Laws of Thermodynamics. First Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 12. The Laws of Thermodynamics. First Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 12 The Laws of Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics tells us that the internal energy of a system can be increased by Adding energy to the system Doing work

More information

1. Second Law of Thermodynamics

1. Second Law of Thermodynamics 1. Second Law of hermodynamics he first law describes how the state of a system changes in response to work it performs and heat absorbed. However, the first law cannot explain certain facts about thermal

More information

First Law showed the equivalence of work and heat. Suggests engine can run in a cycle and convert heat into useful work.

First Law showed the equivalence of work and heat. Suggests engine can run in a cycle and convert heat into useful work. 0.0J /.77J / 5.60J hermodynamics of Biomolecular Systems 0.0/5.60 Fall 005 Lecture #6 page he Second Law First Law showed the euivalence of work and heat U = + w, du = 0 for cyclic process = w Suggests

More information

Chapter 2 Thermodynamics

Chapter 2 Thermodynamics Chapter 2 Thermodynamics 2.1 Introduction The First Law of Thermodynamics is a statement of the existence of a property called Energy which is a state function that is independent of the path and, in the

More information

THERMODYNAMICS NOTES. These notes give a brief overview of engineering thermodynamics. They are based on the thermodynamics text by Black & Hartley.

THERMODYNAMICS NOTES. These notes give a brief overview of engineering thermodynamics. They are based on the thermodynamics text by Black & Hartley. THERMODYNAMICS NOTES These notes give a brief overview of engineering thermodynamics. They are based on the thermodynamics text by Black & Hartley. Topics covered include: concepts; properties; conservation

More information

Adiabatic Expansion (DQ = 0)

Adiabatic Expansion (DQ = 0) Adiabatic Expansion (DQ = 0) Occurs if: change is made sufficiently quickly and/or with good thermal isolation. Governing formula: PV g = constant where g = C P /C V Adiabat P Isotherms V Because PV/T

More information

Chapter 16 Thermodynamics

Chapter 16 Thermodynamics Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 16 Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Introduction Another area of physics is thermodynamics Continues with the principle of conservation of energy

More information

Chapter 19. Heat Engines

Chapter 19. Heat Engines Chapter 19 Heat Engines Thermo Processes Eint = Q+ W Adiabatic No heat exchanged Q = 0 and E int = W Isobaric Constant pressure W = P (V f V i ) and E int = Q + W Isochoric Constant Volume W = 0 and E

More information

Thermodynamics Second Law Heat Engines

Thermodynamics Second Law Heat Engines Thermodynamics Second Law Heat Engines Lana Sheridan De Anza College May 10, 2018 Last time entropy (microscopic perspective) Overview heat engines heat pumps Carnot engines Heat Engines Steam engines

More information

T s change via collisions at boundary (not mechanical interaction)

T s change via collisions at boundary (not mechanical interaction) Lecture 14 Interaction of 2 systems at different temperatures Irreversible processes: 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 19: Heat Engines and Refrigerators Thermal interactions T s change via collisions

More information

THERMODYNAMICS SSC-JE STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS THERMODYNAMICS THERMODYNAMICS

THERMODYNAMICS SSC-JE STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS THERMODYNAMICS THERMODYNAMICS 1 SSC-JE STAFF SELECTION COMMISSION MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDY MATERIAL 2 Syllabus: Thermal Engineering (Thermodynamics) Properties of Pure Substances : p-v & P-T diagrams of pure substance like H 2

More information

The first law of thermodynamics. U = internal energy. Q = amount of heat energy transfer

The first law of thermodynamics. U = internal energy. Q = amount of heat energy transfer Thermodynamics Investigation of the energy transfer by heat and work and how natural systems behave (Q) Heat transfer of energy due to temp differences. (W) Work transfer of energy through mechanical means.

More information

Atkins / Paula Physical Chemistry, 8th Edition. Chapter 3. The Second Law

Atkins / Paula Physical Chemistry, 8th Edition. Chapter 3. The Second Law Atkins / Paula Physical Chemistry, 8th Edition Chapter 3. The Second Law The direction of spontaneous change 3.1 The dispersal of energy 3.2 Entropy 3.3 Entropy changes accompanying specific processes

More information

The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot

More information

c Dr. Md. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Entropy ME 203 (2017) 2 / 27 T037

c Dr. Md. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Entropy ME 203 (2017) 2 / 27 T037 onsequences of Second Law of hermodynamics Dr. Md. Zahurul Haq Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering & echnology BUE Dhaka-000, Bangladesh zahurul@me.buet.ac.bd

More information

Chapter 11 Heat Engines and The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 11 Heat Engines and The Second Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 11 Heat Engines and The Second Law of Thermodynamics Heat Engines Heat engines use a temperature difference involving a high temperature (T H ) and a low temperature (T C ) to do mechanical work.

More information

Chemistry 163B. q rev, Clausius Inequality and calculating ΔS for ideal gas P,V,T changes (HW#6) Challenged Penmanship Notes

Chemistry 163B. q rev, Clausius Inequality and calculating ΔS for ideal gas P,V,T changes (HW#6) Challenged Penmanship Notes Chemistry 163B q rev, Clausius Inequality and calculating ΔS for ideal gas P,V, changes (HW#6) Challenged Penmanship Notes 1 statements of the Second Law of hermodynamics 1. Macroscopic properties of an

More information

IS A PARTICULAR PROCESS / REACTION FEASIBLE? TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE PROCESS / REACTION PROCEED?

IS A PARTICULAR PROCESS / REACTION FEASIBLE? TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE PROCESS / REACTION PROCEED? Limitations of First Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is a law of conservation of energy. It does not specify the direction of the process. All spontaneous processes processed in one

More information

VI. Entropy. VI. Entropy

VI. Entropy. VI. Entropy A. Introduction ( is an alternative way of looking at entropy). Observation shows that isolated systems spontaneously change to a state of equilibrium. a. wo blocks of iron with A > B. Bring the blocks

More information

Carnot Theory: Derivation and Extension*

Carnot Theory: Derivation and Extension* Int. J. Engng Ed. Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 46±430, 998 0949-49X/9 $3.00+0.00 Printed in Great Britain. # 998 TEMPUS Publications. Carnot Theory: Derivation and Extension* LIQIU WANG Department of Mechanical

More information

Chapter 3. The Second Law Fall Semester Physical Chemistry 1 (CHM2201)

Chapter 3. The Second Law Fall Semester Physical Chemistry 1 (CHM2201) Chapter 3. The Second Law 2011 Fall Semester Physical Chemistry 1 (CHM2201) Contents The direction of spontaneous change 3.1 The dispersal of energy 3.2 The entropy 3.3 Entropy changes accompanying specific

More information

Review of classical thermodynamics

Review of classical thermodynamics Review of classical thermodynamics Fundamental Laws, Properties and Processes (2) Entropy and the Second Law Concepts of equilibrium Reversible and irreversible processes he direction of spontaneous change

More information

5/6/ :41 PM. Chapter 6. Using Entropy. Dr. Mohammad Abuhaiba, PE

5/6/ :41 PM. Chapter 6. Using Entropy. Dr. Mohammad Abuhaiba, PE Chapter 6 Using Entropy 1 2 Chapter Objective Means are introduced for analyzing systems from the 2 nd law perspective as they undergo processes that are not necessarily cycles. Objective: introduce entropy

More information

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SPRING 2007

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SPRING 2007 MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SPRING 007 5.9 Energy Environment and Society (a Project Based First Year Subject supported by the d'arbeloff Program) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Laws of Thermodynamics

Laws of Thermodynamics Laws of Thermodynamics The Three Laws of Thermodynamics - The first lawof thermodynamics, also called conservation of energy. We can use this knowledge to determine the amount of energy in a system, the

More information

Outline. Property diagrams involving entropy. Heat transfer for internally reversible process

Outline. Property diagrams involving entropy. Heat transfer for internally reversible process Outline roperty diagrams involving entropy What is entropy? T-ds relations Entropy change of substances ure substances (near wet dome) Solids and liquids Ideal gases roperty diagrams involving entropy

More information

FINAL EXAM. ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2013 CIRCLE YOUR LECTURE BELOW:

FINAL EXAM. ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2013 CIRCLE YOUR LECTURE BELOW: ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2013 CIRCLE YOUR LECTURE BELOW: Div. 5 7:30 am Div. 2 10:30 am Div. 4 12:30 am Prof. Naik Prof. Braun Prof. Bae Div. 3 2:30 pm Div. 1 4:30 pm Div. 6 4:30 pm Prof. Chen Prof.

More information

Lecture 2 Entropy and Second Law

Lecture 2 Entropy and Second Law Lecture 2 Entropy and Second Law Etymology: Entropy, entropie in German. En from energy and trope turning toward Turning to energy Zeroth law temperature First law energy Second law - entropy CY1001 2010

More information

CHAPTER - 12 THERMODYNAMICS

CHAPTER - 12 THERMODYNAMICS CHAPER - HERMODYNAMICS ONE MARK QUESIONS. What is hermodynamics?. Mention the Macroscopic variables to specify the thermodynamics. 3. How does thermodynamics differ from Mechanics? 4. What is thermodynamic

More information

The Laws of Thermodynamics

The Laws of Thermodynamics MME 231: Lecture 06 he Laws of hermodynamics he Second Law of hermodynamics. A. K. M. B. Rashid Professor, Department of MME BUE, Dhaka oday s opics Relation between entropy transfer and heat Entropy change

More information

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics CHEM 331 Physical Chemistry Fall 2017 The Second Law of Thermodynamics We have now reached a major milestone for the course; and are ready to enunciate the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The 0 th and 1

More information

Active Learners Reflective Learners Use both ways equally frequently More Inclined to be Active More inclined to be Reflective

Active Learners Reflective Learners Use both ways equally frequently More Inclined to be Active More inclined to be Reflective Active Learners Reflective Learners Use both ways equally frequently More Inclined to be Active More inclined to be Reflective Sensory Leaners Intuitive Learners Use both ways equally frequently More inclined

More information

Chap. 3. The Second Law. Law of Spontaneity, world gets more random

Chap. 3. The Second Law. Law of Spontaneity, world gets more random Chap. 3. The Second Law Law of Spontaneity, world gets more random Kelvin - No process can transform heat completely into work Chap. 3. The Second Law Law of Spontaneity, world gets more random Kelvin

More information

Chapter 20 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 20 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Chapter 20 The Second Law of Thermodynamics When we previously studied the first law of thermodynamics, we observed how conservation of energy provided us with a relationship between U, Q, and W, namely

More information

The laws of Thermodynamics. Work in thermodynamic processes

The laws of Thermodynamics. Work in thermodynamic processes The laws of Thermodynamics ork in thermodynamic processes The work done on a gas in a cylinder is directly proportional to the force and the displacement. = F y = PA y It can be also expressed in terms

More information

Reading Assignment #13 :Ch.23: (23-3,5,6,7,8), Ch24: (24-1,2,4,5,6) )] = 450J. ) ( 3x10 5 Pa) ( 1x10 3 m 3

Reading Assignment #13 :Ch.23: (23-3,5,6,7,8), Ch24: (24-1,2,4,5,6) )] = 450J. ) ( 3x10 5 Pa) ( 1x10 3 m 3 Ph70A Spring 004 Prof. Pui Lam SOLUTION Reading Assignment #3 :h.3: (3-3,5,6,7,8), h4: (4-,,4,5,6) Homework #3: First Law and Second of Thermodynamics Due: Monday 5/3/004.. A monatomic ideal gas is allowed

More information

Lecture Outline Chapter 18. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 18. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 18 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 18 The Laws of Thermodynamics Units of Chapter 18 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermal Processes

More information

General Physics I. New Lecture 27: Carnot Cycle, The 2nd Law, Entropy and Information. Prof. WAN, Xin

General Physics I. New Lecture 27: Carnot Cycle, The 2nd Law, Entropy and Information. Prof. WAN, Xin General Pysics I New Lecture 27: Carnot Cycle, e 2nd Law, Entropy and Information Prof. AN, Xin xinwan@zju.edu.cn ttp://zimp.zju.edu.cn/~xinwan/ Carnot s Engine Efficiency of a Carnot Engine isotermal

More information

ΔU = Q W. Tue Dec 1. Assign 13/14 Friday Final: Fri Dec 11 2:30PM WALTER 145. Thermodynamics 1st Law. 2 nd Law. Heat Engines and Refrigerators

ΔU = Q W. Tue Dec 1. Assign 13/14 Friday Final: Fri Dec 11 2:30PM WALTER 145. Thermodynamics 1st Law. 2 nd Law. Heat Engines and Refrigerators Tue Dec 1 Thermodynamics 1st Law ΔU = Q W 2 nd Law SYS Heat Engines and Refrigerators Isobaric: W = PΔV Isochoric: W = 0 Isothermal: ΔU = 0 Adiabatic: Q = 0 Assign 13/14 Friday Final: Fri Dec 11 2:30PM

More information

Thermodynamics is the Science of Energy and Entropy

Thermodynamics is the Science of Energy and Entropy Definition of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is the Science of Energy and Entropy - Some definitions. - The zeroth law. - Properties of pure substances. - Ideal gas law. - Entropy and the second law. Some

More information

Second law of thermodynamics

Second law of thermodynamics Second law of thermodynamics It is known from everyday life that nature does the most probable thing when nothing prevents that For example it rains at cool weather because the liquid phase has less energy

More information

Today lecture. 1. Entropy change in an isolated system 2. Exergy

Today lecture. 1. Entropy change in an isolated system 2. Exergy Today lecture 1. Entropy change in an isolated system. Exergy - What is exergy? - Reversible Work & Irreversibility - Second-Law Efficiency - Exergy change of a system For a fixed mass For a flow stream

More information

Lecture 2.7 Entropy and the Second law of Thermodynamics During last several lectures we have been talking about different thermodynamic processes.

Lecture 2.7 Entropy and the Second law of Thermodynamics During last several lectures we have been talking about different thermodynamic processes. ecture 2.7 Entropy and the Second law of hermodynamics During last several lectures we have been talking about different thermodynamic processes. In particular, we have discussed heat transfer between

More information

AME 436. Energy and Propulsion. Lecture 7 Unsteady-flow (reciprocating) engines 2: Using P-V and T-s diagrams

AME 436. Energy and Propulsion. Lecture 7 Unsteady-flow (reciprocating) engines 2: Using P-V and T-s diagrams AME 46 Energy and ropulsion Lecture 7 Unsteady-flow (reciprocating) engines : Using - and -s diagrams Outline! Air cycles! What are they?! Why use - and -s diagrams?! Using - and -s diagrams for air cycles!!!!!!

More information

Chapter 1: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS AND VARIOUS THERMODYMIC PROCESSES

Chapter 1: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS AND VARIOUS THERMODYMIC PROCESSES Chapter 1: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS AND VARIOUS THERMODYMIC PROCESSES Thermodynamics is that branch of science which deals with energy transfer A system may be closed, open or isolated system

More information

Boundary. Surroundings

Boundary. Surroundings Thermodynamics Thermodynamics describes the physics of matter using the concept of the thermodynamic system, a region of the universe that is under study. All quantities, such as pressure or mechanical

More information

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Second Law of Thermodynamics Dr. Alain Brizard College Physics II (PY 211) Second Law of Thermodynamics Textbook Reference: Chapter 20 sections 1-4. Second Law of Thermodynamics (Clausius) Heat flows naturally from a hot object to

More information

AC : ON THE WORK BY ELECTRICITY IN THE FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

AC : ON THE WORK BY ELECTRICITY IN THE FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS AC 2011-2088: ON THE WORK BY ELECTRICITY IN THE FIRST AND SECOND LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS Hyun W. Kim, Youngstown State University Hyun W. Kim, Ph.D., P.E. Hyun W. Kim is a professor of mechanical engineering

More information

c describe the Carnot cycle. c interpret the Clausius inequality.

c describe the Carnot cycle. c interpret the Clausius inequality. Exercises: Things Engineers Think About 267 undergoing cycles while interacting with thermal reservoirs. The irreversibility concept is introduced and the related notions of irreversible, reversible, and

More information

Chem Lecture Notes 6 Fall 2013 Second law

Chem Lecture Notes 6 Fall 2013 Second law Chem 340 - Lecture Notes 6 Fall 2013 Second law In the first law, we determined energies, enthalpies heat and work for any process from an initial to final state. We could know if the system did work or

More information

ME264 Thermodynamics

ME264 Thermodynamics ME264 Thermodynamics Spring 2016 Syllabus Instructor: Dr. Özgür Uğraş Baran 1 Course Information Basic Information Required or elective Course Credit (Hours/ECTS credits) Required (3-0-0/6) Class Hours

More information

Entropy in Macroscopic Systems

Entropy in Macroscopic Systems Lecture 15 Heat Engines Review & Examples p p b b Hot reservoir at T h p a a c adiabats Heat leak Heat pump Q h Q c W d V 1 V 2 V Cold reservoir at T c Lecture 15, p 1 Review Entropy in Macroscopic Systems

More information

First Law Limitations

First Law Limitations First Law Limitations First Law: During any process, the energy of the universe is constant. du du du ZERO!!! universe sys surroundings Any energy transfer between system and surroundings is accomplished

More information

PHY 206 SPRING Problem #1 NAME: SIGNATURE: UM ID: Problem #2. Problem #3. Total. Prof. Massimiliano Galeazzi. Midterm #2 March 8, 2006

PHY 206 SPRING Problem #1 NAME: SIGNATURE: UM ID: Problem #2. Problem #3. Total. Prof. Massimiliano Galeazzi. Midterm #2 March 8, 2006 PHY 06 SPRING 006 Prof. Massimiliano Galeazzi Midterm # March 8, 006 NAME: Problem # SIGNAURE: UM ID: Problem # Problem # otal Some useful relations: st lat of thermodynamic: U Q - W Heat in an isobaric

More information

Chapter 5: Mass, Bernoulli, and

Chapter 5: Mass, Bernoulli, and and Energy Equations 5-1 Introduction 5-2 Conservation of Mass 5-3 Mechanical Energy 5-4 General Energy Equation 5-5 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows 5-6 The Bernoulli Equation 5-1 Introduction This chapter

More information

Maxwell s demon does not violate the second law but violates the first law of thermodynamics

Maxwell s demon does not violate the second law but violates the first law of thermodynamics 1 Maxwell s demon does not violate the second law but violates the first law of thermodynamics P. Radhakrishnamurty 282, Duo Marvel Layout, Ananthapuragate, Yelahanka, Bangalore 560064, India. E-mail:

More information

Entropy ISSN

Entropy ISSN Entropy 2005 Entropy ISSN 1099-4300 www.mdpi.org/entropy/ Short Note Light at ambient temperature in violation of the Kelvin-Planck Statement of the Second Law? Thomas V. Prevenslik 3F Mountain View, Discovery

More information

Second Year Thermodynamics. 1.1 Basic Concepts

Second Year Thermodynamics. 1.1 Basic Concepts Second Year hermodynamics M. Coppins 1.1.1 Jargon 1.1 Basic Concepts Microscopic: on the atomic scale; involving very few or single particles (atoms, molecules, electrons, etc). Macroscopic: on the everyday

More information

Addison Ault, Department of Chemistry, Cornell College, Mt. Vernon IA. The Carnot cycle is usually described in terms of classical

Addison Ault, Department of Chemistry, Cornell College, Mt. Vernon IA. The Carnot cycle is usually described in terms of classical 1 The Carnot Cycle: from Classical Thermo to Stat Thermo Addison Ault, Department of Chemistry, Cornell College, Mt. Vernon IA The Carnot cycle is usually described in terms of classical thermodynamics,

More information

Basic Thermodynamics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Basic Thermodynamics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Basic Thermodynamics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 09 Second Law and its Corollaries-IV Good afternoon to all of you to this session

More information

ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2015, Exam 3, 8 p.m. to 9 p.m. on April 14, 2015

ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2015, Exam 3, 8 p.m. to 9 p.m. on April 14, 2015 ME 200 Thermodynamics I, Spring 2015, Exam 3, 8 p.m. to 9 p.m. on April 14, 2015 CIRCLE YOUR LECTURE BELOW: 7:30 a.m. 10:30 a.m. 12:30 p.m. 2:30 p.m. 4:30 p.m. Joglekar Chen Chen Kittel Naik INSTRUCTIONS

More information

18.13 Review & Summary

18.13 Review & Summary 5/2/10 10:04 PM Print this page 18.13 Review & Summary Temperature; Thermometers Temperature is an SI base quantity related to our sense of hot and cold. It is measured with a thermometer, which contains

More information

Statistical Thermodynamics - Fall Professor Dmitry Garanin. Thermodynamics. February 15, 2017 I. PREFACE

Statistical Thermodynamics - Fall Professor Dmitry Garanin. Thermodynamics. February 15, 2017 I. PREFACE 1 Statistical hermodynamics - Fall 2009 rofessor Dmitry Garanin hermodynamics February 15, 2017 I. REFACE he course of Statistical hermodynamics consist of two parts: hermodynamics and Statistical hysics.

More information

The Story of Spontaneity and Energy Dispersal. You never get what you want: 100% return on investment

The Story of Spontaneity and Energy Dispersal. You never get what you want: 100% return on investment The Story of Spontaneity and Energy Dispersal You never get what you want: 100% return on investment Spontaneity Spontaneous process are those that occur naturally. Hot body cools A gas expands to fill

More information

Adiabats and entropy (Hiroshi Matsuoka) In this section, we will define the absolute temperature scale and entropy.

Adiabats and entropy (Hiroshi Matsuoka) In this section, we will define the absolute temperature scale and entropy. 1184 Adiabats and entropy (Hiroshi Matsuoka In this section, we will define the absolute temperature scale and entropy Quasi-static adiabatic processes and adiabats Suppose that we have two equilibrium

More information

T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S M E

T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S M E T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S M E THERMODYNAMICS CONTENTS 1 BASIC CONCEPTS IN THERMODYNAMICS 2 TEMPERATURE 3 WORK AND HEAT TRANSFER Thermodynamic system, surroundings, universe, system boundary Types of

More information

The Direction of Spontaneous Change: Entropy and Free Energy

The Direction of Spontaneous Change: Entropy and Free Energy The Direction of Spontaneous Change: Entropy and Free Energy Reading: from Petrucci, Harwood and Herring (8th edition): Required for Part 1: Sections 20-1 through 20-4. Recommended for Part 1: Sections

More information

Physics 408 Final Exam

Physics 408 Final Exam Physics 408 Final Exam Name You are graded on your work (with partial credit where it is deserved) so please do not just write down answers with no explanation (or skip important steps)! Please give clear,

More information

Recent Progress in the Definition of Thermodynamic Entropy 1

Recent Progress in the Definition of Thermodynamic Entropy 1 ecent Progress in the Definition of hermodynamic Entropy 1 Enzo Zanchini Università di Bologna, Department of Industrial Engineering, Viale isorgimento, 40136 Bologna, Italy enzo.zanchini@unibo.it and

More information

AP PHYSICS 2 WHS-CH-15 Thermodynamics Show all your work, equations used, and box in your answers!

AP PHYSICS 2 WHS-CH-15 Thermodynamics Show all your work, equations used, and box in your answers! AP PHYSICS 2 WHS-CH-15 Thermodynamics Show all your work, equations used, and box in your answers! Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) Sadi Carnot was a French military engineer and physicist, often

More information