Tokamak Fusion Basics and the MHD Equations

 Cassandra Thompson
 9 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 MHD Simulations for Fusion Applications Lecture 1 Tokamak Fusion Basics and the MHD Equations Stephen C. Jardin Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory CEMRACS 1 Marseille, France July 19, 21 1
2 Fusion Powers the Sun and Stars Can we harness Fusion power on earth?
3 The Case for Fusion Energy Worldwide demand for energy continues to increase Due to population increases and economic development Most population growth and energy demand is in urban areas Implies need for large, centralized power generation Worldwide oil and gas production is near or past peak Need for alternative source: coal, fission, fusion Increasing evidence that release of greenhouse gases is causing global climate change... Global warming Historical data and 1+ year detailed climate projections This makes nuclear (fission or fusion) preferable to fossil (coal) Fusion has some advantages over fission that could become critical: Inherent safety (no China syndrome) No weapons proliferation considerations (security) Greatly reduced waste disposal problems (no Yucca Mt.)
4 Controlled Fusion uses isotopes of Hydrogen in a High Temperature Ionized Gas (Plasma) Deuterium Helium nuclei (αparticle) sustains reaction Tritium Neutron Lithium α Deuterium exists in nature (.15% abundant in Hydrogen) Tritium has a 12 year half life: produced via 6 Li + n T + 4 He key proton Lithium is naturally abundant neutron T
5 Controlled Fusion Basics Create a mixture of D and T (plasma), heat it to high temperature, and the D and T will fuse to produce energy. P DT = n D n T <σv>(u α +U n ) at 1 kev, <σv> ~ T 2 P DT ~ (plasma pressure) 2 Operating point ~ 1 kev Need ~ 5 1 kev Note: 1 kev = 1,, deg(k)
6 Toroidal Magnetic Confinement Charged particles have helical orbits in a magnetic field; they describe circular orbits perpendicular to the field and freestream in the direction of the field. TOKAMAK creates toroidal magnetic fields to confine particles in the 3 rd dimension. Includes an induced toroidal plasma current to heat and confine the plasma TOKAMAK : Russian abbreviation for toroidal chamber
7 ITER is now under construction International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor: European Union Japan United States Russia Korea China India scale World s largest tokamak 5 MW fusion output all superconducting coils Cost: $ 51 B Originally to begin operation in 215 (now 228 full power)
8 ITER has a site Cadarache, France June 28, 25 Ministerial Level Meeting Moscow, Russia ITER Tore Supra
9 Progress in Magnetic Fusion Research and Next Step to ITER Fusion Power Megawatts Kilowatts Watts Milliwatts 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 1, 1 1 Data from Tokamak Experiments Worldwide TFTR (U.S.) Years JET (EU) Power (MW) Power (MW) Start of ITER Operations A Big Next Step to ITER Plasma Parameters Duration (Seconds) Plasma Duration (Seconds) TFTR/JET ITER Operation with full power test ITER (Multilateral) Gain Power Gain (Output/Input) 225
10 Simulations are needed in 4 areas How to heat the plasma to thermonuclear temperatures ( ~ 1,, o C) How to reduce the background turbulence How to eliminate devicescale instabilities How to optimize the operation of the whole device
11 These 4 areas address different timescales and are normally studied using different codes ELECTRON TRANSIT ω 1 Ω 1 LH ce SAWTOOTH CRASH ENERGY CONFINEMENT TURBULENCE ISLAND GROWTH CURRENT DIFFUSION Ω 1 τ A ci SEC. (a) RF codes (b) Microturbulence codes (c) Extended MHD codes (d) Transport Codes
12 Extended MHD Codes solve 3D fluid equations for devicescale stability ELECTRON TRANSIT ω 1 Ω 1 ce LH TURBULENCE SAWTOOTH CRASH ISLAND GROWTH ENERGY CONFINEMENT CURRENT DIFFUSION Ω 1 τ ci A SEC. Sawtooth cycle is one example of global phenomena that need to be understood Can cause degradation of confinement, or plasma termination if it couples with other modes There are several codes in the US and elsewhere that are being used to study this and related phenomena: NIMROD M3D
13 Quicktime Movie shows Poincare plot of magnetic field at one toroidal location Example of a recent 3D calculation using M3D code Internal Kink mode in a small tokamak (Sawtooth Oscillations) Good agreement between M3D, NIMROD, and experimental results 5 wallclock hours and over 2, CPUhours
14 Excellent Agreement between NIMROD and M3D Kinetic energy vs time in lowest toroidal harmonics Flux Surfaces during crash at 2 times M3D NIMROD M3D NIMROD
15 2Fluid MHD Equations: n + ( nv) = t continuity B = E ib = μj = B t Maxwell V 2 nm i( + V V ) + p = J B iπgv + μ V t momentum 1 E + V B = ηj + ( J B pe) ne Ohm's law 3 pe i pev = pe iv + ηj iqe + QΔ 2 t 2 electron energy 3 pi i piv = pi iv + μ V iqi Q 2 t 2 n number density Ideal MHD Β magnetic field Resistive MHD J current density 2fluid MHD E electric field nm i ρ mass density e electron charge V p p e i Δ fluid velocity electron pressure ion pressure p p + p e i ion energy μ viscosity η resistivity q,q i Q μ Δ e heat fluxes equipartition permeability 15
16 Ideal MHD Equations: n + ( nv) = t continuity B = E ib = μj = B t Maxwell V nm i( + V V ) + p = J B t momentum E+ V B= Ohm's law 3 p 3 + i pv = p iv 2 t 2 energy Ideal MHD n number density Β magnetic field J current density E electric field nm i ρ mass density V p p e i fluid velocity electron pressure ion pressure p p + p e i μ permeability 16
17 Ideal MHD Equations: ρ + ( ρv) = t continuity B = E ib = μj = B t Maxwell V ρ( + V V ) + p = J B t momentum E+ V B= Ohm's law 3 p 3 + i pv = p iv energy 2 t 2 s + Vi = entropy t 5/3 s pρ s Ideal MHD n number density Β magnetic field J current density E electric field nm i ρ mass density V p p e i fluid velocity electron pressure ion pressure p p + p e i E,J can be eliminated ρ / t is redundant ib is redundant μ permeability 17
18 Ideal MHD Equations: B = ( V B) t V 1 ρ( + V V ) + p = ( B ) B t μ 3 p 3 + i pv = p iv 2 t 2 s + Vi s = t ρ = ( p/ s) 3/5 ρ Β V s p ib μ mass density magnetic field fluid velocity entropy density fluid pressure is redundant permeability Quasilinear Symmetric Hyperbolic real characteristics 18
19 v Ideal MHD characteristics: The characteristic curves are the surfaces along which the solution is propagated. In 1D, the characteristic curves would be lines in (x,t) Boundary data (normally IC and BC) can be given on any curve that each characteristic curve intersects only once: s s + u = t x Cannot be tangent to characteristic curve To calculate characteristics in 3D, we suppose that the boundary conditions are given on a 3D surface φ(,) r t = φ and ask under what conditions this is insufficient to determine the solution away from this surface. If so, φ is a characteristic surface. ( ) Perform a coordinate transformation: (,) r t φ, χστ,, and look for power series solution away from the boundary surface φ = φ v v v v φχστ,,, = v χστ,, + φ φ + χ χ + σ σ + τ τ φ χ σ τ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) If this cannot be constructed, then φ is a characteristic surface φ φ φ φ These can all be calculated since they are surface derivatives within φ = φ
20 Ideal MHD characteristics2: Introduce a characteristic surface φ( r, t) = φ spatial normal nˆ = φ / φ characteristic speed: u ( φt + Vi φ) / φ ( ) = ( ) φ Ideal MHD All terms containing derivatives involving φ AX= i B = nˆ = u nv z A nv x A nxcs u nv z A u nzc S nv z A u A = nv z A u nv x A u nc x S nc z S u u (,, B) ( n,, n ) x All known quantities if det A = φ is characteristic surface z B is in z ˆ direction propagation in (x,z) V c A S B/ 5 3 ρv x ρv y ρv z ρ μ B x X = ρ μ B y ρ μ B z 1 cs p s μ ρ p/ ρ 2
21 Ideal MHD wave speeds: u = u = 2 2 u = u = V 2 2 A ( ) ( ) An det A = D= u u VAn u VA cs u VAnc + + S = entropy disturbance Alfven wave ( ) ( ) = s = 4 2 A + S 2 A + S An S u u V c V c V c ( ) ( ) = f = 4 2 A + S + 2 A + S An S u u V c V c V c 1/2 1/2 slow wave fast wave B = (,, B) ( n n ) nˆ =,, V c V A S x B/ 5 3 n V An Z A z μ ρ p/ ρ In normal magnetically confined plasmas, we take 2 2 the lowβ limit c V S A u = u = V u u 2 2 A = u s z S 2 2 f An nc = u V + n c A x S Alfven wave slow wave fast wave 21
22 Ideal MHD surface diagrams Reciprocal normal surface diagram u = u = V u u 2 2 A = u s z S 2 2 f An nc = u V + n c A x S Alfven wave slow wave fast wave Ray surface diagram B = (,, B) ( n n ) nˆ =,, V c V A S x B/ 5 3 n V An Z A z μ ρ p/ ρ 22
23 ρv x ρv y ρv z ρ μ B x X = = ρ μ B y ρ μ B z 1 cs p s Ideal MHD eigenvectors entropy Alfven fast n x = 1 n z = fast n x = n z = 1 slow n x = n z = ± 1 ± 1 1 cs / V A ± 1 ± 1 B = (,, B) ( n n ) nˆ =,, V c V A S x B/ 5 3 n V An Z A z μ ρ p/ ρ The Alfven wave only propagates parallel to the magnetic field, and does so by bending the field. It is purely transverse (incompressible) Only the fast wave can propagate perpendicular to the background field, and does so by compressing and expanding the field The slow wave does not perturb the magnetic field, only the pressure
24 Background magnetic field direction Slow Wave Alfven Wave Fast Wave propagation only propagates parallel to B only compresses fluid in parallel direction does not perturb magnetic field propagation only propagates parallel to B incompressible only bends the field, does not compress it propagation can propagate perpendicular to B only compresses fluid in direction compresses the magnetic field This is the troublesome wave!
25 Tokamaks have Magnetic Surfaces, or Flux Surfaces φ Magnetic field is primarily into the screen, however it has a twist to it. After many transits, it forms 2D surfaces in 3D space. Because the particles are free to stream along the field, the temperatures and densities are nearly uniform on these surfaces. Only the Fast Wave can propagate across these surfaces, but it will have a very small amplitude compared to the other waves.
26 Must deal with Fast Wave Tokamak schematic Tokamak cross section The field lines in a tokamak are dominantly in the toroidal direction. The magnetic field forms flux surfaces. Only the fast wave can propagate across these surfaces. Since the gradients across surfaces are large (requiring high resolution), the timescales associated with the fast wave are very short However, the amplitude will always be small because it compresses the field. The presence of the fast wave makes explicit time integration not practical
27 Summary Nuclear fusion is a promising energy source that will be demonstrated in the coming decades by way of the tokamak (ITER) Global dynamics of the plasma in the tokamak are described by a set of fluid like equations called the MHD equations A subset of the fullmhd equations with the dissipative terms removed are called the idealmhd equations These have wave solutions that illustrate that there are 3 fundamentally different types of waves. Unstable plasma motions are always associated with the slow wave and Alfven wave. The fast wave is a major source of trouble computationally because it is the fastest and the only one that propagates across the surfaces Largely because of the fast wave, implicit methods are essential
28 28
The Path to Fusion Energy creating a star on earth. S. Prager Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
The Path to Fusion Energy creating a star on earth S. Prager Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory The need for fusion energy is strong and enduring Carbon production (Gton) And the need is time urgent Goal
More informationIntroduction to Fusion Physics
Introduction to Fusion Physics Hartmut Zohm MaxPlanckInstitut für Plasmaphysik 85748 Garching DPG Advanced Physics School The Physics of ITER Bad Honnef, 22.09.2014 Energy from nuclear fusion Reduction
More informationChapter IX: Nuclear fusion
Chapter IX: Nuclear fusion 1 Summary 1. General remarks 2. Basic processes 3. Characteristics of fusion 4. Solar fusion 5. Controlled fusion 2 General remarks (1) Maximum of binding energy per nucleon
More informationMagnetic Confinement Fusion and Tokamaks Chijin Xiao Department of Physics and Engineering Physics University of Saskatchewan
The Sun Magnetic Confinement Fusion and Tokamaks Chijin Xiao Department of Physics and Engineering Physics University of Saskatchewan 2017 CNS Conference Niagara Falls, June 47, 2017 Tokamak Outline Fusion
More informationNuclear Fusion 1 of 24 Boardworks Ltd 2011
Nuclear Fusion 1 of 24 Boardworks Ltd 2011 2 of 24 Boardworks Ltd 2011 How do we get energy from atoms? 3 of 24 Boardworks Ltd 2011 Energy is produced from atoms in power stations using the process of
More informationJET and Fusion Energy for the Next Millennia
JET and Fusion Energy for the Next Millennia JET Joint Undertaking Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3EA JG99.294/1 Talk Outline What is Nuclear Fusion? How can Fusion help our Energy needs? Progress with Magnetic
More informationJacob s Ladder Controlling Lightning
Host: Fusion specialist: Jacob s Ladder Controlling Lightning PART 1 Jacob s ladder demonstration Video Teacher resources Phil Dooley European Fusion Development Agreement Peter de Vries European Fusion
More informationLecture 14, 8/9/2017. Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Fusion
Lecture 14, 8/9/2017 Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements A nuclear reaction takes place
More informationMagnetic Confinement FusionStatus and Challenges
Chalmers energy conference 2012 Magnetic Confinement FusionStatus and Challenges F. Wagner MaxPlanckInstitute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald Germany, EURATOM Association RLPAT St. Petersburg Polytechnic
More informationpurposes is highly encouraged.
The following slide show is a compilation of slides from many previous similar slide shows that have been produced by different members of the fusion and plasma physics education community. We realize
More informationPerspective on Fusion Energy
Perspective on Fusion Energy Mohamed Abdou Distinguished Professor of Engineering and Applied Science (UCLA) Director, Center for Energy Science & Technology (UCLA) President, Council of Energy Research
More informationSimulations of Sawteeth in CTH. Nicholas Roberds August 15, 2015
Simulations of Sawteeth in CTH Nicholas Roberds August 15, 2015 Outline Problem Description Simulations of a small tokamak Simulations of CTH 2 Sawtoothing Sawtoothing is a phenomenon that is seen in all
More informationThe RFP: Plasma Confinement with a Reversed Twist
The RFP: Plasma Confinement with a Reversed Twist JOHN SARFF Department of Physics University of WisconsinMadison Invited Tutorial 1997 Meeting APS DPP Pittsburgh Nov. 19, 1997 A tutorial on the Reversed
More informationm, kg, s, ampere, mole, K
Q1. What is the diameter of a proton? m Q2. What is the extent of the visible universe? m Q3. What is the mass of an electron? kg Q4. What is the mass of the universe? kg Q5. How long does light take to
More informationThe FieldReversed Configuration (FRC) is a highbeta compact toroidal in which the external field is reversed on axis by azimuthal plasma The FRC is
and Stability of FieldReversed Equilibrium with Toroidal Field Configurations Atomics General Box 85608, San Diego, California 921865608 P.O. APS Annual APS Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics
More informationβ and γ decays, Radiation Therapies and Diagnostic, Fusion and Fission Final Exam Surveys New material Example of βdecay Beta decay Y + e # Y'+e +
β and γ decays, Radiation Therapies and Diagnostic, Fusion and Fission Last Lecture: Radioactivity, Nuclear decay Radiation damage This lecture: nuclear physics in medicine and fusion and fission Final
More informationIntroduction to Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
Introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Tony Arber University of Warwick 4th SOLARNET Summer School on Solar MHD and Reconnection Aim Derivation of MHD equations from conservation laws Quasineutrality
More informationReferences and Figures from:  Basdevant, Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics
Lecture 22 Fusion Experimental Nuclear Physics PHYS 741 heeger@wisc.edu References and Figures from:  Basdevant, Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics 1 Reading for Next Week Phys. Rev. D 57, 38733889 (1998)
More informationPrinciples of Nuclear Fusion & Fusion research in Belgium R. R. Weynants
Principles of Nuclear Fusion & Fusion research in Belgium R. R. Weynants Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica  Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas Koninklijke Militaire School  Ecole Royale Militaire 1040
More information2/8/16 Dispersive Media, Lecture 5  Thomas Johnson 1. Waves in plasmas. T. Johnson
2/8/16 Dispersive Media, Lecture 5  Thomas Johnson 1 Waves in plasmas T. Johnson Introduction to plasma physics MagnetoHydro Dynamics, MHD Plasmas without magnetic fields Cold plasmas Transverse waves
More informationThe physics of fusion power. A.G. Peeters,
The physics of fusion power A.G. Peeters, May 8, 2008 2 PREFACE These lecture notes give a first introduction into the physics processes of importance to fusion research. You are looking at the first version
More informationPROBLEM SET. Heliophysics Summer School. July, 2013
PROBLEM SET Heliophysics Summer School July, 2013 Problem Set for Shocks and Particle Acceleration There is probably only time to attempt one or two of these questions. In the tutorial session discussion
More informationChapter 10  Nuclear Physics
The release of atomic energy has not created a new problem. It has merely made more urgent the necessity of solving an existing one. Albert Einstein David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton PHYS 214 Ernest
More informationarxiv: v1 [physics.plasmph] 11 Mar 2016
1 Effect of magnetic perturbations on the 3D MHD selforganization of shaped tokamak plasmas arxiv:1603.03572v1 [physics.plasmph] 11 Mar 2016 D. Bonfiglio 1, S. Cappello 1, M. Veranda 1, L. Chacón 2 and
More informationINITIAL EVALUATION OF COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS FOR STABILITY OF COMPACT STELLARATOR REACTOR DESIGNS
INITIAL EVALUATION OF COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS FOR STABILITY OF COMPACT STELLARATOR REACTOR DESIGNS A.D. Turnbull and L.L. Lao General Atomics (with contributions from W.A. Cooper and R.G. Storer) Presentation
More informationLecture PowerPoints. Chapter 31 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli
Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 31 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching
More informationMagnetic Reconnection: explosions in space and astrophysical plasma. J. F. Drake University of Maryland
Magnetic Reconnection: explosions in space and astrophysical plasma J. F. Drake University of Maryland Magnetic Energy Dissipation in the Universe The conversion of magnetic energy to heat and high speed
More informationIdeal Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Nick Murphy HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics Astronomy 253: Plasma Astrophysics February 1, 2016 These lecture notes are largely based on Lectures in Magnetohydrodynamics
More informationProgress Towards Burning Plasmas )
Progress Towards Burning Plasmas ) James W. VAN DAM 1,2) 1) U.S. Burning Plasma Organization & U.S. ITER Project Office 2) Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
More informationProf. dr. A. Achterberg, Astronomical Dept., IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit
Prof. dr. A. Achterberg, Astronomical Dept., IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit Rough breakdown of MHD shocks Jump conditions: flux in = flux out mass flux: ρv n magnetic flux: B n Normal momentum flux: ρv n
More informationChapter 12. Magnetic Fusion Toroidal Machines: Principles, results, perspective
Chapter 12 Magnetic Fusion Toroidal Machines: Principles, results, perspective S. Atzeni May 10, 2010; rev.: May 16, 2012 English version: May 17, 2017 1 Magnetic confinement fusion plasmas low density
More informationDirect drive by cyclotron heating can explain spontaneous rotation in tokamaks
Direct drive by cyclotron heating can explain spontaneous rotation in tokamaks J. W. Van Dam and L.J. Zheng Institute for Fusion Studies University of Texas at Austin 12th USEU Transport Task Force Annual
More informationD 3 He HA tokamak device for experiments and power generations
D He HA tokamak device for experiments and power generations USJapan Fusion Power Plant Studies Contents University of Tokyo, Japan January , 5 O.Mitarai (Kyushu Tokai University).Motivation.Formalism,
More informationRole and Challenges of Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) toward DEMO
Role and Challenges of Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) toward DEMO Mohamed Abdou Distinguished Professor of Engineering and Applied Science (UCLA) Director, Center for Energy Science & Technology
More informationSMR/ Summer College on Plasma Physics. 30 July  24 August, Introduction to Magnetic Island Theory.
SMR/18561 2007 Summer College on Plasma Physics 30 July  24 August, 2007 Introduction to Magnetic Island Theory. R. Fitzpatrick Inst. for Fusion Studies University of Texas at Austin USA Introduction
More informationRecap I Lecture 41 Matthias Liepe, 2012
Recap I Lecture 41 Matthias Liepe, 01 Recap II Nuclear Physics The nucleus Radioactive decay Fission Fusion Particle Physics: What is the Higgs? Today: Nuclear Physics: The Nucleus Positive charge and
More informationNuclear Energy Learning Outcomes
1 Nuclear Energy Learning Outcomes Describe the principles underlying fission and fusion. Interpret nuclear reactions. Discuss nuclear weapons. Describe the structure and operation of a nuclear reactor.
More informationNuclear Energy Learning Outcomes. Nuclear Fission. Chain Reaction
by fastfission public domain by fastfission public domain 1 Nuclear Energy Learning Outcomes Describe the principles underlying fission and fusion. Interpret nuclear reactions. Discuss nuclear weapons.
More informationFusion: The Ultimate Energy Source for the 21 st Century and Beyond
Fusion: The Ultimate Energy Source for the 21 st Century and Beyond Mohamed Abdou Distinguished Professor of Engineering and Applied Science (UCLA) Director, Center for Energy Science & Technology (UCLA)
More informationAtoms and Nuclei 1. The radioactivity of a sample is X at a time t 1 and Y at a time t 2. If the mean life time of the specimen isτ, the number of atoms that have disintegrated in the time interval (t
More informationMomentum transport from magnetic reconnection in laboratory an. plasmas. Fatima Ebrahimi
Momentum transport from magnetic reconnection in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas Space Science Center  University of New Hampshire collaborators : V. Mirnov, S. Prager, D. Schnack, C. Sovinec Center
More informationAn ion follows a circular path in a uniform magnetic field. Which single change decreases the radius of the path?
T51 [237 marks] 1. A circuit is formed by connecting a resistor between the terminals of a battery of electromotive force (emf) 6 V. The battery has internal resistance. Which statement is correct when
More informationWhat place for mathematicians in plasma physics
What place for mathematicians in plasma physics Eric Sonnendrücker IRMA Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg projet CALVI INRIA Nancy Grand Est 1519 September 2008 Eric Sonnendrücker (U. Strasbourg) Math
More informationTHE HENRYK NIEWODNICZAŃSKI INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES PLASMAFOCUS AND CONTROLLED NUCLEAR FUSION.
THE HENRYK NIEWODNICZAŃSKI INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES PLASMAFOCUS AND CONTROLLED NUCLEAR FUSION Marek Scholz PLASMAFOCUS and controlled nuclear fusion Marek Scholz Translation
More informationPlasma and Fusion Research: Regular Articles Volume 10, (2015)
Possibility of QuasiSteadyState Operation of LowTemperature LHDType DeuteriumDeuterium (DD) Reactor Using Impurity Hole Phenomena DD Reactor Controlled by Solid Boron Pellets ) Tsuguhiro WATANABE
More informationCHAPTER 19 THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS NUCLEAR STRUCTURE The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. A protonis a positively charged particle having mass 1.6726 x 10(27) kg and charge 1.6 x 10(19) coulomb.
More informationThe Power of the Universe on Earth: Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy
Educating Kids & Exciting Teachers about Science: A Model from the Plasma Science Community The Power of the Universe on Earth: Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy David Newman Physics Department University
More informationToroidal confinement devices
Toroidal confinement devices Dr Ben Dudson Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK 24 th January 2014 Dr Ben Dudson Magnetic Confinement Fusion (1 of 20) Last time... Power
More informationOn existence of resistive magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
arxiv:physics/0503077v1 [physics.plasmph] 9 Mar 2005 On existence of resistive magnetohydrodynamic equilibria H. Tasso, G. N. Throumoulopoulos MaxPlanckInstitut für Plasmaphysik Euratom Association
More informationJET JET JET EFDA THE JOINT EUROPEAN TORUS A EUROPEAN SUCCESS STORY
EFDA LEAD ING DEVICE FOR FUSION STUDIES HOLDER OF THE WORLD RECORD OF FUSION POWER PRODUCTION EXPERIMENTS STRONGLY FOCUSSED ON THE PREPARATION FOR ITER EXPERIMENTAL DEVICE USED UNDER THE EUROPEAN FUSION
More informationNovember 2, Monday. 17. Magnetic Energy Release
November, Monday 17. Magnetic Energy Release Magnetic Energy Release 1. Solar Energetic Phenomena. Energy Equation 3. Two Types of Magnetic Energy Release 4. Rapid Dissipation: Sweet s Mechanism 5. Petschek
More informationNuclear Reactions and E = mc 2. L 38 Modern Physics [4] Hazards of radiation. Radiation sickness. Biological effects of nuclear radiation
L 38 Modern Physics [4] Nuclear physics what s s inside the nucleus and what holds it together what is radioactivity, halflife carbon dating Nuclear energy nuclear fission nuclear fusion nuclear reactors
More informationT71 [255 marks] The graph shows the relationship between binding energy per nucleon and nucleon number. In which region are nuclei most stable?
T71 [255 marks] 1. In the Geiger Marsden experiment alpha particles were directed at a thin gold foil. Which of the following shows how the majority of the alpha particles behaved after reaching the foil?
More informationFast Secondary Reconnection and the Sawtooth Crash
Fast Secondary Reconnection and the Sawtooth Crash Maurizio Ottaviani 1, Daniele Del Sarto 2 1 CEAIRFM, SaintPaullezDurance (France) 2 Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour UMRCNRS 7198, Nancy
More informationThe Magnetorotational Instability
The Magnetorotational Instability Nick Murphy HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics Astronomy 253: Plasma Astrophysics March 10, 2014 These slides are based off of Balbus & Hawley (1991), Hawley
More informationMHD RELATED TO 2FLUID THEORY, KINETIC THEORY AND MAGANETIC RECONNECTION
MHD RELATED TO 2FLUID THEORY, KINETIC THEORY AND MAGANETIC RECONNECTION Marty Goldman University of Colorado Spring 2017 Physics 5150 Issues 2 How is MHD related to 2fluid theory Level of MHD depends
More informationEffects of stellarator transform on sawtooth oscillations in CTH. Jeffrey Herfindal
Effects of stellarator transform on sawtooth oscillations in CTH Jeffrey Herfindal D.A. Ennis, J.D. Hanson, G.J. Hartwell, E.C. Howell, C.A. Johnson, S.F. Knowlton, X. Ma, D.A. Maurer, M.D. Pandya, N.A.
More informationL 38 Modern Physics [4] Hazards of radiation. Radiation sickness. Nuclear Reactions and E = mc 2 Einstein: a little mass goes a long way
L 38 Modern Physics [4] Nuclear physics what s inside the nucleus and what holds it together what is radioactivity, halflife carbon dating Nuclear energy nuclear fission nuclear fusion nuclear reactors
More informationAspects of Advanced Fuel FRC Fusion Reactors
Aspects of Advanced Fuel FRC Fusion Reactors John F Santarius and Gerald L Kulcinski Fusion Technology Institute Engineering Physics Department CT2016 Irvine, California August 2224, 2016 santarius@engr.wisc.edu;
More informationFusion Principles Jef ONGENA Plasma Physics Laboratory Royal Military Academy Brussels
Fusion Principles Jef ONGENA Plasma Physics Laboratory Royal Military Academy Brussels 4 th SIFEPS International School on Energy Villa Monastero Varenna, Lago di Como 25 July 2017 Outline Fusion reactions
More informationStellarators. Dr Ben Dudson. 6 th February Department of Physics, University of York Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
Stellarators Dr Ben Dudson Department of Physics, University of York Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK 6 th February 2014 Dr Ben Dudson Magnetic Confinement Fusion (1 of 23) Previously... Toroidal devices
More informationMagnetohydrodynamic waves in a plasma
Department of Physics Seminar 1b Magnetohydrodynamic waves in a plasma Author: Janez Kokalj Advisor: prof. dr. Tomaž Gyergyek Petelinje, April 2016 Abstract Plasma can sustain different wave phenomena.
More informationMagnetohydrodynamic Waves
Magnetohydrodynamic Waves Nick Murphy HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics Astronomy 253: Plasma Astrophysics February 17, 2016 These slides are largely based off of 4.5 and 4.8 of The Physics of
More informationL 36 Modern Physics :006 FINAL EXAM. Nuclear reactions: E = mc 2. Radioactivity. Hazards of radiation. Biological effects of nuclear radiation
9:006 FINAL EXAM The final exam is on Monday MAY 7:30 AM  9:30 AM in W90 CB The FE is not cumulative, and will cover lectures 3 through 36. (50 questions) The last regular lecture (Lec. 36) will be given
More informationAn introduction to Nuclear Physics
An introduction to Nuclear Physics Jorge Pereira pereira@nscl.msu.edu National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics The Origin of Everything Layout The Nucleus.
More informationRecent Development of LHD Experiment. O.Motojima for the LHD team National Institute for Fusion Science
Recent Development of LHD Experiment O.Motojima for the LHD team National Institute for Fusion Science 4521 1 Primary goal of LHD project 1. Transport studies in sufficiently high n E T regime relevant
More informationAmplification of magnetic fields in core collapse
Amplification of magnetic fields in core collapse Miguel Àngel Aloy Torás, Pablo CerdáDurán, Thomas Janka, Ewald Müller, Martin Obergaulinger, Tomasz Rembiasz Universitat de València; MaxPlanckInstitut
More informationNuclear Reactions A Z. Radioactivity, Spontaneous Decay: Nuclear Reaction, Induced Process: x + X Y + y + Q Q > 0. Exothermic Endothermic
Radioactivity, Spontaneous Decay: Nuclear Reactions A Z 4 P D+ He + Q A 4 Z 2 Q > 0 Nuclear Reaction, Induced Process: x + X Y + y + Q Q = ( m + m m m ) c 2 x X Y y Q > 0 Q < 0 Exothermic Endothermic 2
More informationCharacterization of neoclassical tearing modes in highperformance I mode plasmas with ICRF mode conversion flow drive on Alcator CMod
1 EX/P422 Characterization of neoclassical tearing modes in highperformance I mode plasmas with ICRF mode conversion flow drive on Alcator CMod Y. Lin, R.S. Granetz, A.E. Hubbard, M.L. Reinke, J.E.
More informationSpace Physics. An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres. MayBritt Kallenrode. Springer
MayBritt Kallenrode Space Physics An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres With 170 Figures, 9 Tables, Numerous Exercises and Problems Springer Contents 1. Introduction
More informationQuantum Mechanics. Exam 3. Photon(or electron) interference? Photoelectric effect summary. Using Quantum Mechanics. Wavelengths of massive objects
Exam 3 Hour Exam 3: Wednesday, November 29th Inclass, Quantum Physics and Nuclear Physics Twenty multiplechoice questions Will cover:chapters 13, 14, 15 and 16 Lecture material You should bring 1 page
More informationChemical Engineering 412
Chemical Engineering 412 Introductory Nuclear Engineering Lecture 21 Other Nuclear Power Systems +Fusion Spiritual Thought 2 Thermoelectric Generators Lowefficiency (510%) and high cost conversion of
More informationModels for Global Plasma Dynamics
Models for Global Plasma Dynamics F.L. Waelbroeck Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin International ITER Summer School June 2010 Outline 1 Models for LongWavelength Plasma
More informationMHD turbulence in the solar corona and solar wind
MHD turbulence in the solar corona and solar wind Pablo Dmitruk Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires Motivations The role of MHD turbulence in several phenomena in space and solar
More informationThermodynamics ENGR360MEP112 LECTURE 7
Thermodynamics ENGR360MEP11 LECTURE 7 Thermodynamics ENGR360/MEP11 Objectives: 1. Conservation of mass principle.. Conservation of energy principle applied to control volumes (first law of thermodynamics).
More informationL 36 Atomic and Nuclear Physics4. Radioactivity. Nuclear reactions: E = mc 2. Hazards of radiation. Biological effects of nuclear radiation
L 36 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Nuclear physics what s inside the nucleus and what holds it together what is radioactivity, halflife carbon dating Nuclear energy nuclear fission nuclear fusion nuclear
More informationDT Fusion Power Production in ELMfree Hmodes in JET
JET C(98)69 FG Rimini and e JET Team DT Fusion ower roduction in ELMfree Hmodes in JET This document is intended for publication in e open literature. It is made available on e understanding at it may
More informationNuclear Chemistry. Technology Strategies for Success PO Box 1485 East Northport, NY (631) NYSPREP
Nuclear Chemistry Technology Strategies for Success PO Box 1485 East Northport, NY 11725 (631)7340115 1888NYSPREP techstrategies@gmail.com Nuclear Chemistry Table of Contents 1.0 Nuclear Chemistry...3
More informationq(0) pressure after crash 1.0 Single tearing on q=2 Double tearing on q=2 0.5
EX/P1 MHD issues in Tore Supra steadystate fully noninductive scenario P Maget 1), F Imbeaux 1), G Giruzzi 1), V S Udintsev ), G T A Huysmans 1), H Lütjens 3), JL Ségui 1), M Goniche 1), Ph Moreau
More informationTRANSP Simulations of ITER Plasmas
PPPL3152  Preprint Date: December 1995, UC420, 421, 427 TRANSP Simulations of ITER Plasmas R. V. Budny, D. C. McCune, M. H. Redi, J. Schivell, and R. M. Wieland Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory
More informationComparison of Kinetic and Extended MHD Models for the Ion Temperature Gradient Instability in Slab Geometry
Comparison of Kinetic and Extended MHD Models for the Ion Temperature Gradient Instability in Slab Geometry D. D. Schnack University of Wisconsin Madison Jianhua Cheng, S. E. Parker University of Colorado
More informationThe Madison Dynamo Experiment: magnetic instabilities driven by sheared flow in a sphere. Cary Forest Department of Physics University of Wisconsin
The Madison Dynamo Experiment: magnetic instabilities driven by sheared flow in a sphere Cary Forest Department of Physics University of Wisconsin February 28, 2001 Planets, stars and perhaps the galaxy
More informationIntegrated Simulation of ELM Energy Loss Determined by Pedestal MHD and SOL Transport
1 Integrated Simulation of ELM Energy Loss Determined by Pedestal MHD and SOL Transport N. Hayashi, T. Takizuka, T. Ozeki, N. Aiba, N. Oyama Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibarakiken, 3110193 Japan
More informationQ, Breakeven and the nτ E Diagram for Transient Fusion Plasmas
Q, Breakeven and the nτ E Diagram for Transient Plasmas Dale M. Meade Princeton University P.O. Box 451, Princeton, N. J. 08543 Abstract  Q, breakeven and the nτe diagram are well defined and understood
More informationA Passion for Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research. K. A. Connor Plasma Dynamics Laboratory ECSE Department RPI
A Passion for Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research K. A. Connor Plasma Dynamics Laboratory ECSE Department RPI 1 Topics Quick Intro to magnetic confinement fusion energy What is a plasma? Demos Diagnostic
More informationJapanUS Workshop on Fusion Power Plants Related Advanced Technologies with participants from China and Korea (Kyoto University, Uji, Japan, 2628
JapanUS Workshop on Fusion Power Plants Related Advanced Technologies with participants from China and Korea (Kyoto University, Uji, Japan, 2628 Feb. 2013) 2/22 FFHRd1 R c = 15.6 m B c = 4.7 T P fusion
More informationEX/C35Rb Relationship between particle and heat transport in JT60U plasmas with internal transport barrier
EX/CRb Relationship between particle and heat transport in JTU plasmas with internal transport barrier H. Takenaga ), S. Higashijima ), N. Oyama ), L. G. Bruskin ), Y. Koide ), S. Ide ), H. Shirai ),
More informationFUSION and PLASMA PHYSICS
FUSION and PLASMA PHYSICS My objectives: to explain why Nuclear Fusion is worth pursuing to describe some basic concepts behind magnetic confinement to summarize the history of fusion to describe some
More informationLaser in Fusion. Department of Electronics of TEI of Crete. Dr Petridis Kostantinos Lecturer Optoelectronics, Laser and Plasma Technologies Group
Laser in Fusion Department of Electronics of TEI of Crete Dr Petridis Kostantinos Lecturer Optoelectronics, Laser and Plasma Technologies Group Nuclear Fusion Since we have tried any energy source in our
More informationGCSE to Alevel progression
GCSE to Alevel progression AQA Alevel Physics should be a natural progression from the GCSE course and there are many familiar topics that are taken a stage further. Some topics, such as electricity,
More informationObservation of Alpha Heating in JET DT Plasmas
JET P(98)1 Observation of Alpha Heating in JET DT Plasmas P R Thomas, P Andrew, B Balet, D Bartlett, J Bull, B de Esch, C Gowers, H Guo, G Huysmans, T Jones, M Keilhacker, R König, M Lennholm, P Lomas,
More informationMeasuring from electron temperature fluctuations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS VOLUME 5, NUMBER FEBRUARY 1998 Measuring from electron temperature fluctuations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor C. Ren, a) J. D. Callen, T. A. Gianakon, and C. C. Hegna University
More informationForce on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
OpenStaxCNX module: m42375 1 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStaxCNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution
More informationRotation and Neoclassical Ripple Transport in ITER
Rotation and Neoclassical Ripple Transport in ITER Elizabeth J. Paul 1 Matt Landreman 1 Francesca Poli 2 Don Spong 3 Håkan Smith 4 William Dorland 1 1 University of Maryland 2 Princeton Plasma Physics
More informationρ c (2.1) = 0 (2.3) B = 0. (2.4) E + B
Chapter 2 Basic Plasma Properties 2.1 First Principles 2.1.1 Maxwell s Equations In general magnetic and electric fields are determined by Maxwell s equations, corresponding boundary conditions and the
More informationWaves and characteristics: Overview 51
Waves and characteristics: Overview 51 Chapter 5: Waves and characteristics Overview Physics and accounting: use example of sound waves to illustrate method of linearization and counting of variables
More informationMAJOR NUCLEAR BURNING STAGES
MAJOR NUCLEAR BURNING STAGES The Coulomb barrier is higher for heavier nuclei with high charge: The first reactions to occur are those involving light nuclei  Starting from hydrogen burning, helium burning
More informationChemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry
Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry A nuclear reaction involves changes in the nucleus of an atom Nuclear chemistry the study of nuclear reactions, with an emphasis in their uses
More informationNeutronic Activation Analysis for ITER Fusion Reactor
Neutronic Activation Analysis for ITER Fusion Reactor Barbara Caiffi 100 Congresso Nazionale SIF 1 Outlook Nuclear Fusion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Neutronics Computational
More informationMHD Modes of Solar Plasma Structures
PX420 Solar MHD 20132014 MHD Modes of Solar Plasma Structures Centre for Fusion, Space & Astrophysics Wave and oscillatory processes in the solar corona: Possible relevance to coronal heating and solar
More information