# The Integers. Math 3040: Spring Contents 1. The Basic Construction 1 2. Adding integers 4 3. Ordering integers Multiplying integers 12

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Integers. Math 3040: Spring Contents 1. The Basic Construction 1 2. Adding integers 4 3. Ordering integers Multiplying integers 12"

## Transcription

1 Math 3040: Spring 2011 The Integers Contents 1. The Basic Construction 1 2. Adding integers 4 3. Ordering integers Multiplying integers 12 Before we begin the mathematics of this section, it is worth recalling the mind-set that informs our approach. We have started with a basic axiom, The Natural Number Axiom, and some logic and set-theory background to build the set of natural numbers N, together with its usual operations and order relation. In this chapter, we continue this constructive process. Specifically, we enlarge N to obtain the familiar system of integers, denoted Z. 1. The Basic Construction Let a and b be arbitrary natural numbers, and consider the following predicate in the variable x, which, for now, is assumed to range over the natural numbers: (1) E a,b (x) : a + x = b. At the end of 6 of The Natural Numbers, we observed that (2) ( x)e a,b (x) a b. In particular, unless a b, there are no specializations of x in N for which ( x)e a,b (x) is true. We consider this a limitation on the system N. To overcome this limitation, we try to enlarge N, i.e., to enlarge the set over which the variable x is allowed to vary. The hope is that if we do this in the right way, meaningful solutions to all possible equations like (1) can be found. One natural inclination is to posit a hypothetical solution for each equation. Of course, some actual solutions already exist as elements of N, i.e., when a b, but perhaps the others could be constructed somehow and adjoined to N to give us the larger system. So, we could start with the idea that each equation has such a hypothetical solution. This is fine, but at this point we should note the result of Exercise 12 in 6 of The Natural Numbers: namely: (3) (( x)( y)(e a,b (x) E a,b (y)) (x = y)). c March 12,

2 2 Two thought experiments Hypothetical solutions are unique This tells us that when a solution does exist in N, it is unique. Clearly such a property would be desirable for our hypothetical solutions as well. So, before getting into the problem of how to actually construct a solution for each equation, we would like to assure ourselves that a given equation cannot determine more than one solution. In addition, we need to deal with the question of what to do if different equations have the same solution. We shall do all this, by conducting a couple of thought experiments. For each experiment, we imagine that the desired enlarged system can be constructed as desired that is, it contains N, and it has a + operation extending that of N, with all the analogous properties (cf., Theorem 2 of The Natural Numbers) and we suppose that, for any a and b in N, solutions to equation (1) can be found in the enlarged system. For the first experiment, choose any natural numbers a and b, keep them fixed, and consider two possibly different solutions to (1), say r and s. Then, we have two equations, a + r = b, and a + s = b, from which it follows that a + r = a + s. Since we are assuming that our hypothetical system follows the usual algebraic rules, we can cancel a from both sides, and conclude that r = s. This experiment shows that if we are able to construct an enlarged system as described, then each equation has exactly one solution. Exercise 1. In the above experiment, why didn t we simply solve the equations, obtaining r = b a and s = b a, thus concluding that r = s? For the second experiment, let us suppose we have two predicates E a,b (x) and E c,d (x), with a, b, c, d N, each having the same solution, say r. We express these as follows: a + r = b, and Condition for two equations to have the same solution d = c + r. Adding these two equations and doing the usual algebra, we may cancel r s from both sides, coming up with (4) a + d = b + c. So if E a,b and E c,d have the same solution in our enlarged system, then the natural numbers a, b, c, and d must satisfy condition (4). That is, this argument shows that (4) is a necessary condition for E a,b and E c,d to have the same solution. But condition (4) is also a sufficient condition for E a,b and E c,d to have the same solution, as the next exercise shows. Exercise 2. Assume only that you are given equation (4) and a hypothetical solution r of E a,b (x). Use this information to show that r is also a solution of E c,d (x). (The same argument applies when the roles of E a,b (x) and E c,d (x) are reversed. Therefore, equation (4) implies that E a,b (x) and E c,d (x) have the same solution.)

3 3 Therefore, this experiment shows that, assuming solutions exist, E a,b (x) and E c,d (x) will have the same solution if and only if condition (4) holds. These two experiments now lead us to the following construction. We consider the set N 2 = N N, which consists of all ordered pairs (a, b), a N and b N. Each such pair corresponds to an equation E a,b. We want to think of (a, b) as a solution to E a,b, but this won t quite work. It won t work, in part, because if (a, b) and (c, d) are different pairs satisfying (4), they should represent the same solution: i.e., they should be equal, which they are not. However, this problem is easily solved by defining an equivalence relation on the set N 2, as follows: Definition 1. If a, b, c, d are natural numbers, we say that (a, b) is solution-equivalent to (c, d), written (a, b) (c, d), if and only if equation (4) holds: i.e., a+d=b+c. Notice that equation (4), the defining condition for, involves only natural numbers and the addition of natural numbers, all of which have already been defined. Exercise 3. Verify that is an equivalence relation. The equivalence class of a pair (a, b) is usually denoted by [(a, b)], but we ll abbreviate this to [a, b] for convenience. The equivalence class [a, b] consists of all pairs (c, d) that are solution-equivalent to (a, b), and these pairs correspond to all equations E c,d having the same hypothetical solution as E a,b. Therefore, it makes sense to use the class [a, b] to stand for this hypothetical solution. By definition, the set of all equivalence classes [a, b] is known as the quotient set N 2 / (cf. the section on equivalence classes in the Set Theory notes). We shall give this set a new name and symbol. Definition 2. Each equivalence class [a, b] is called an integer. The set of all integers, which is just the quotient set N 2 /, will be denoted by Z. The set Z is certainly a reasonable candidate for the set of hypothetical solutions for our enlarged system. However, a lot of ingredients are still missing: For example, we have not explained in what sense our original set N can be considered to be a subset of Z. Further, we have not discussed how to add two integers. Moreover, even if we fill these gaps, we still have to verify that our goal has been met: namely, that the integers we have constructed can really be considered as honest solutions to the equations (1). Looking ahead, we have to come up with a reasonable way to define an ordering of integers which is compatible with the ordering of the natural numbers. Finally, we need to define a suitable notion of multiplication of integers. The integers The first of these gaps can be filled by part (a) of the following exercise, as we explain below. Exercise 4. Prove each of the following. (a) For any natural numbers a, b, [0, a] = [0, b] a = b. (b) For any natural numbers a, b, [a, 0] = [b, 0] a = b.

4 4 (c) For any natural numbers a, b, [a + b, a] = [b, 0] and [a, a + b] = [0, b]. Notice that if we choose b = 0 in part (c), we may conclude that for any a, [a, a] = [0, 0]. This fact will be useful for later computations. Part (a) of this exercise shows us how we may consider N to be a subset of Z. Namely, we define the function ι : N Z by the rule ι(n) = [0, n], for each n N. Part (a) tells us that ι is injective. This means that ι maps N injectively into Z, specifically onto the subset of Z consisting of all integers of the form [0, n]. This suggests that we should identify each natural number n with the corresponding integer ι(n), that is with [0, n]. ( The word identify here is mathematicalparlance for consider to be identical with. ) In fact, we shall be doing this shortly. But before we do, we need to be sure that all the structure we have built for N (e.g., addition) carries over to Z in such a way that the identification we wish to make preserves this structure. Therefore, we are now led to consider the definition of addition for integers. 2. Adding integers We want to define an addition operation for integers [a, b] which reflects our idea of adding solutions of equations (1). So, again, we perform a thought experiment. Suppose that r is a hypothetical solution of E a,b and s is a hypothetical solution of E c,d. Then, what should r + s be a solution of? Well, maybe this is so obvious as to be rhetorical, the answer being, of course, the sum of the two equations. But, even though it s obvious, let s work it out. We have a + r = b, and c + s = d, so, clearly, this gives (a + c) + (r + s) = (b + d). In other words, the sum r +s should be the hypothetical solution for E a+c,b+d. This conclusion, then, motivates the following definition:

5 5 Definition 3. For any integers [a, b] and [c, d], we define the sum [a, b] [c, d] by the equation [a, b] [c, d] = [a + c, b + d]. We use the unusual sum symbol instead of + for the time being to distinguish it from the addition of natural numbers that we defined earlier and for which we used the symbol +. The definition of has been well-motivated (we hope), but is it well-posed? Recall what this means (cf in Set Theory ): We are using the representatives (a, b) and (c, d) of the equivalence classes [a, b] and [c, d], respectively, to write the defining expression on the right-hand side of the equation. One must check that different choices of representatives will not affect the value of this righthand side. The following exercise insures this: Exercise 5. Suppose that (a 1, b 1 ) (a 2, b 2 ) and (c 1, d 1 ) (c 2, d 2 ). Then prove that (a 1 + c 1, b 1 + d 1 ) (a 2 + c 2, b 2 + d 2 ). Make sure you understand how this exercise shows that the foregoing definition is well-posed. Adding integers is well-defined We shall now use the definition to derive some key properties of the operation. Theorem 1. Let a, b, c, d, e, f be any natural numbers. Then the following hold: (a) [a, b] ([c, d] [e, f]) = ([a, b] [c, d]) [e, f] (associative law). (b) [a, b] [0, 0] = [a, b] = [0, 0] [a, b] (identity law). (c) [a, b] [b, a] = [0, 0] = [b, a] [a, b] (inverse law). (d) [a, b] [c, d] = [c, d] [a, b] (commutative law). The first three properties listed are precisely the defining axioms in the definition of a mathematical structure called a group. The fourth property is the additional axiom needed to define a commutative group. We shall discuss groups further in an exercise at the end of this subsection. Exercise 6. Prove Theorem 1. (Hint: Use the definition of, together with the properties of addition of natural numbers.) Exercise 7. Prove each of the following: (a) Suppose that [x, y] is an integer such that, for every integer [a, b], we have [a, b] [x, y] = [a, b]. (In other words, assume that [x, y] satisfies the same property that [0, 0] does in part (b) of the above theorem.) Then [x, y] = [0, 0]. (Recall that this means you must show that (x, y) (0, 0) not that (x, y) = (0, 0).) (b) Suppose that [a, b] is any given integer and [x, y] is an integer that satisfies [a, b] [x, y] = [0, 0]. Then, [x, y] = [b, a]. (c) Suppose that c and d are natural numbers satisfying [c, d] = [d, c]. Then [c, d] = [0, 0]. (d) Suppose [a, b] [e, f] = [c, d] [e, f]. Then [a, b] = [c, d]. (cancellation law) (e) Suppose that [a, b] and [c, d] are any integers. Construct an integer [x, y] such that [a, b] [x, y] = [c, d], and show that there is only one such integer.

8 8 Exercise 11. Verify the following, for all integers a and b: (a) (a + b) = ( a) b. (b) (b a) = a b. Hint: Use the uniqueness property of additive inverses for both of these verifications. Now reconsider part (e) of Exercise 7. We shall rewrite this in terms of our new notational conventions: Let a and b be any integers. Then, part (e) of Exercise 7 asserts that the equation (5) a + x = b has a unique solution in Z. Here x represents a variable ranging over Z. Compare equation (5) with equation (1). The equations look identical. In equation (1), however, we use only natural numbers; the + is the addition operation defined for the natural numbers; the variable x is assumed to vary over N. In each of these particulars, the new equation represents an extension of the old. In equation (5), a and b represent any integers, including natural numbers; the + operation is the addition defined for integers, which we have seen extends the addition operation defined for natural numbers; finally, the variable x ranges over the set Z which contains the set N. So, we have extended our system to Z in such a way as to obtain unique solutions for all the desired equations. It remains to discuss the order properties of the integers and also integer multiplication, which we do in the next two sections. Exercise 12. A binary operation on a set S is simply a function : S S S. For such an operation, when we are given (s, t) S S, we usually write the function value (s, t) as s t. (Do not confuse this operation notation with the notation we use for binary relations.) Examples of such binary operations are addition and multiplication of natural numbers, addition of integers (and many similar examples). These examples satisfy nice properties, for instance, like those given by Theorem 2 (and a similar theorem in the section on natural numbers). Subtraction of integers can also be considered as a binary operation: just define b a = b + ( a) (as we did when we switched to this notation above). Verify the following for this binary operation on Z: (a) Subtraction does not have an identity element. (b)for every integer b, there is an integer b such that b b = 0 = b b. (c) Subtraction is not commutative (i.e., a b = b a fails for some integers a and b). (d) Subtraction is not associative (i.e., a (b c) = (a b) c fails for some integers a, b and c). Concept of a group We now introduce a concept that plays a very important role in almost every branch of mathematics: the concept of a group. Definition 4. A group consists of a set X, together with a binary operation on X, say, : X X X, such that satisfies an associative law, an identity law, and

9 an inverse law. Sometimes we write the group as a pair < X, >, when we want to emphasize the role of the operation; sometimes, when the operation is clearly understood, we write the group simply as X. If < X, > is a group such that the group operation additionally satisfies a commutative law, then we call < X, > a commutative group. For the reader s convenience, we amplify on the properties that must satisfy in order for < X, > to be a group : (i) for all x, y, z X, x (y z) = (x y) z; (ii)there exists an element e X such that, for all x X, x e = x = e x; this element is called an identity in X; (iii) for every x X, there is an element x X such that x x = e = x x; this element is called an inverse of x. For < X, > to be a commutative group, must also satisfy the following: (iv) for all x, y X, x y = y x. 9 Exercise 13. (a) Explain why the natural numbers, together with the operation of addition, do not form a group. (b) Verify that the integers, together with the operation of addition, do form a commutative group. (c) Verify that the set of non-zero real numbers, together with the operation of multiplication, form a commutative group. (You may use the standard facts about real numbers for this exercise.) (d) Verify that the set {0, 1}, together with the operation of mod 2 addition, forms a group. (e) Verify that the set of all k n matrices with real entries, together with the operation of matrix addition, form a commutative group. (f) * This exercise and the next one are for students familiar with matrix multiplication. Verify that the set of all n n matrices with real entries and non-zero determinant, together with the operation of matrix multiplication, form a group. (In this exercise, as in the ones that follow below, the first thing one has to do is to check that the set is closed under the given operation. This was pretty obvious in the preceding exercises, but it is less obvious for this one and for those that follow. Thus, given any two elements as described, apply the operation to them, and then verify that what you get is again in the given set.) Is this group commutative? If so, prove it; if not, explain why not. (g) * Let G be the set of all 2 2 matrices ( ) a b, c d such that a, b, c, d are all integers and ad bc = ±1. Verify that G, together with the operation of matrix multiplication, forms a group. (h) * This exercise is for students familiar with complex numbers. Let H denote the set of all complex numbers a + bi such that a 2 + b 2 = 1. (In the usual representation of complex numbers as points in the plane, H corresponds to all the points on the unit circle.) Verify that H, together with the operation of complex multiplication, forms a commutative group. Examples of groups

10 10 Multiplic. vs. add. notation In the following exercise, we consider an arbitrary group < X, >. Exercise 14. Prove the following: (a) There is only one identity in X. (Thus, the element e, which is described in the definition as an identity, is actually the unique identity in X.) (b) For each x X, there is only one inverse element. (We usually denote it by x 1. See the comments below.) (c) A cancellation law: For all x, y, z X, x z = y z x = y. (d) An equation law: For any a, b X, there is a unique x X, such that a x = b. The notation is slightly annoying visually, so we shall now revert to the more modest notation for group operations, or, even more modestly, we may even suppress the and just use juxtaposition, as in the case of multiplication of real numbers. This raises an notational issue that the student should pay attention to at this point. In nearly all general mathematical discussions about groups and their properties, the notation or juxtaposition notation is used for the operation. So, operating with group elements looks like multiplication, and various conventions involving group operations (such as use of exponents, as we describe below) follow this multiplicative model. However, when mathematicians focus on commutative groups, for example, the integers Z, they usually use so-called additive notation. That is, the operation in a commutative group is usually denoted +, just as with the integers. (There are exceptions to this, with the multiplicative notation occasionally being used for commutative groups as well.) One result of these different conventions is that when the multiplicative notation is used, the inverse of a group element x is x 1, whereas when the additive notation is used (in the case of a commutative group) the inverse of a group element x is x. Another consequence is that with the multiplicative convention, the identity element in the group is usually denoted e or 1, whereas with the additive convention, the identity element in a commutative group is denoted 0. The student/reader should make certain which notation is being used in any given context. Just as in the case of the integers, the associative law in any group can be extended to cover any number of elements, not just three. (This can be derived from the given associative law by an inductive argument: we do not go into this in these notes.) As a consequence, when using the multiplicative convention we can write the product of any number of elements in a group without having to bother to use parentheses to pair elements. When there are n elements, and all of them are equal to a single element, say x, then their product can be written simply as a power, x n. Thus, powers are defined for elements in any group, just as they are for, say, real numbers. Further, in any group, one uses the standard convention that x 0 = e, for any x. Finally, for any natural number n, one uses the notation x n to stand for (x 1 ) n. This defines the expression x m for any x in the group and any integer m. In the case of the additive convention, the same reasoning allows us to denote the sum of n elements in a commutative group without concern about how they are paired off. And, if all the elements are equal to one element x, we may denote the sum as nx.

11 This gets extended to non-positive values of n by the conventions that 0x = 0 and nx = ( n)( x). With these conventions, the student should have no trouble proving the following exponential laws: Exercise 15. (a) (x m ) n = x mn, for all x X and for all integers m, n; (b) (x m )(x n ) = x m+n. (Prove these results first when m and n are natural numbers, either using induction or using a less formal method of grouping terms and counting. Then extend to the cases in which one or both of the numbers m and n is negative.) State the additive counterparts of (a) and (b). Exercise 16. * This exercise assumes that the student has had some familiarity with the elementary theory of numbers (e.g., divisibility properties, prime numbers, division algorithm, Euclidean algorithm). Consider a group < X, >. If x is an element of X, then we say that x has finite order provided (i) x e, and (ii) there exists a natural number n > 0 such that x n = e. If x has finite order, then we define the order of x, written ord(x) to be the minimal natural number n > 0 such that x n = e. As an example, in the case that X is the set of non-zero reals and the operation is ordinary multiplication, then 1 does not have finite order (because it equals the identity), but 1 does have finite order because 1 1 and ( 1) 2 = 1. In fact, 1 is the only real number that has finite order. Back to the general case of a group < X, >. (a) Suppose that x X is not equal to e, and x n = e, for some positive natural number n. Prove that n must be a multiple of ord(x). (b) Suppose that F is the set of all elements of finite order in X, and assume that F is not empty. Let m be the minimum of all natural numbers ord(x), for x ranging over F. Prove that m is a prime number Ordering integers We now want to define an order relation on Z that extends the order relation we have already established for N and has all the properties we intuitively associate with the usual ordering of the integers. Technically, there is more than one way to proceed here as is often the case but they all amount to the same thing in the end. The following definition of the order relation is easy to work with. Moreover, Proposition 3 of The Natural Numbers shows that it extends the order relation on N. Definition 5. Let m and n be integers. We say that m is less than or equal to n, written m n, provided there exists a natural number k such that m + k = n. In this case, we may also write n m. We shall also use, without further comment, the strict orderings < and > associated with and, respectively. The following result states that and < have all the basic properties that we expect for the ordering of the integers. Each statement either follows from a similar statement about natural numbers or can be derived easily from definitions. Ordering the integers

12 12 Theorem 3. (a) For any m, n Z, exactly one of the following holds: m < n, m = n, or m > n. (b) For any n Z, the following are equivalent: (i) n N, (ii) n 0, n 0. (c) For any m, n Z, m < n n < m. (d) For any m, n, p Z, m < n n < p m < p; (transitivity of <). (e) For any n Z, (n < n). (f) Every non-empty subset of Z that is bounded below contains a smallest element. (g) For all m, n, p Z, m < n m + p < n + p. Positive Definition 6. Let us call an integer positive if it is > 0 and negative if it is < 0. integers Exercise 17. Prove assertions a)-g) of Theorem 3. This completes our additive picture of the ordered integers. What remains is to introduce multiplication and to check that it interacts appropriately with addition and the order relation. 4. Multiplying integers The motivation for the following complicated-looking definition of multiplication goes back to our intuitive view of integers as representing solutions to certain equations. Accordingly, for the moment, we shall revert to our older notation for integers to discuss this. Specifically, [a, b] is the solution to the equation a + x = b and [c, d] is the solution to c + y = d. Set r = [a, b] and s = [c, d]. We again conduct a mental experiment, supposing that multiplication of integers has been defined so as to satisfy Another the usual properties. We can thus multiply the two equations thought experiment a + r = b, and and then add ac to both sides, obtaining c + s = d, ac + rc + as + rs + ac = bd + ac, which becomes (a + r)c + a(c + s) + rs = bd + ac, hence (bc + ad) + rs = bd + ac. Multiplication The last equation shows that the hypothetical product rs is a solution to the equation E bc+ad, bd+ac. (Notice that the multiplication appearing in the subscripts of this symbol is multiplication of natural numbers, which has already been defined.) Therefore, still using our older notation, we are led to make the following definition for multiplication of integers, for which we temporarily use the symbol : Definition 7. Given integers [a, b] and [c, d], we define [a, b] [c, d] by the rule (6) [a, b] [c, d] = [ad + bc, bd + ac] Of course, the first thing one must check, is that this definition of is well-posed. This is done via the following exercise:

13 Exercise 18. Suppose [a, b] = [w, x] and [c, d] = [y, z], then [ad + bc, bd + ac] = [wz +xy, xz +wy]. (Hint: First prove the result under the additional assumption that w = a and x = b. Then conclude that the result also holds if, instead, one assumes y = c and z = d. Finally, prove the general case by combining the two special cases.) Therefore, assuming the exercise is done, we have a well-defined binary operation on Z. Let us see how this works for natural numbers. Recall that the natural number m can also be written as [0, m], and the natural number n can be written as [0, n]. Applying the definition of, we get m n = [0 n + m 0, mn + 0 0] = [0, mn] = mn. That is, for natural numbers,the operation coincides with the multiplication operation already defined. We can go through a similar computation for negatives of natural numbers, and the product of a negative and a positive, etc. A tally of these computations is easy to list. We do so in the following exercise: Exercise 19. Let m and n be natural numbers. Then (a) m n = mn = ( m) ( n). (b) ( m) n = (mn) = m ( n). Of course, these computations, each of which can be done in a manner similar to the computation above, yield just what one wants and expects from multiplication of integers. Since every integer is either a natural number or an additive inverse of a natural number (Exercise 10), the above list gives all possible multiplications of two integers in terms of the multiplication of two natural numbers. Using these, together with what we know about multiplication and addition of natural numbers, or using the definition of multiplication directly, we can prove the following theorem. Theorem 4. Let m, n, p be any integers. Then: (a) m (n p) = (m n) p; (b) m n = n m; (c) m 1 = 1 m = m; (d) If m > 0 and n < p, then m n < m p. (e) If m < 0 and n < p, then m n > m p. (f) m (n + p) = m n + m p; (g) If m n = 0, then either m = 0 or n = 0. (h) Suppose m 0. Then m n = m p n = p; Exercise 20. Prove this theorem. 13 (associative law). (commutative law). (identity law) (distributive law). (no zero divisors). (cancellation law). Exercise 21. Suppose that a is an integer > 1. Show that there is no integer b such that a b = 1. (Hint: First show that no integer b < 1 can satisfy a b = 1. Then, show that if b 1, then a b > 1.) Can you come to the same conclusion if a is an integer < 1? This exercise shows that Z is not a group with respect to the operation, since it shows that many elements fail to have multiplicative inverses. However, putting

14 14 Commutative ring Noncommutative ring together the commutative-group properties of addition of integers together with properties (a), (b), (c), (f) of multiplication in the above theorem, we obtain all of the axioms for what is known as a commutative ring. That is, Z, together with its two operations of addition and multiplication, is an example of a commutative ring. This concept is important enough to merit a separate definition: Definition 8. A set R, together with two binary operations, say + and, is known as a commutative ring if < R, + > is a commutative group ( i.e., + satisfies properties (a)-(d) of Theorem 1) and satisfies the associative law, the commutative law, and the identity law ( i.e., properties (a)-(c) of Theorem 4), and finally, the two operations together satisfy the distributive law (property (f) of Theorem 4). The following aspects of this definition are worth noting: The cancellation property (property (h) above) of integer multiplication, which extends the cancellation property of multiplication of natural numbers, can sometimes serve the same purpose as multiplicative inverses do, since we often multiply by multiplicative inverses in order to cancel a number from one side or both sides of an equation. For any commutative ring, it is not hard to verify that property (g) above and property (h) are equivalent. Property (g) is sometimes expressed by saying Z has no zero divisors. Even though the term zero-divisor may seem mysterious, the property looks pretty obvious. However, as is often said, looks can be deceiving. Property (g) (or, equivalently, property (h)) does not follow from the other axioms for a commutative ring). Property (g) is a special property that only some rings (like the integers) have. In other words, there are many examples of commutative rings that do have zero divisors, i.e., they have non-zero elements, say r and s such that rs = 0. Students who have had a course in number theory will recall that the ring of integers mod n is an example of such a ring whenever n is a composite number (i.e., not a prime). For example, in the ring of integers mod 6, the numbers 2 and 3 are zero divisors, because in that ring, 2 0 and 3 0, but 2 3 = 0. We shall have the occasion to discuss and use the concept of zero-divisor again later. Finally, suppose that R, +, and satisfy all of the properties of a commutative ring except that is not commutative. (Note: We still assume that + is commutative.) Then, R, together with + and is called, simply, a ring ( or a non-commutative ring if we want to emphasize its non-commutativity). There are many important examples of rings that are not commutative rings. A familiar example is provided by the set of n n real matrices, which we denote by M n, together with the operations + and of matrix addition and matrix multiplication, respectively. Since matrix multiplication is not commutative for n n matrices when n > 1, M n is a non-commutative ring for n > 1. The computations listed in Exercise 19 show that is simply an extension of the multiplication operation defined earlier on N. Moreover, it continues to have the

16 16 us that whenever a > 1, then M a,1 has no solution in Z. And the reader can readily supply other examples. Analogously to the cases in which equation (1) has no natural-number solution, we regard the unsolvability of some M a,b as a defect in our system of integers Z. So, in the next chapter we shall proceed by analogy with what we have done earlier in this one: namely, we enlarge Z to obtain a number system satisfying all the expected rules but also allowing us to uniquely solve equations M a,b, for any integers a, b with a 0.

### CHAPTER 3: THE INTEGERS Z

CHAPTER 3: THE INTEGERS Z MATH 378, CSUSM. SPRING 2009. AITKEN 1. Introduction The natural numbers are designed for measuring the size of finite sets, but what if you want to compare the sizes of two sets?

### Finite Fields: An introduction through exercises Jonathan Buss Spring 2014

Finite Fields: An introduction through exercises Jonathan Buss Spring 2014 A typical course in abstract algebra starts with groups, and then moves on to rings, vector spaces, fields, etc. This sequence

### CONSTRUCTION OF THE REAL NUMBERS.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE REAL NUMBERS. IAN KIMING 1. Motivation. It will not come as a big surprise to anyone when I say that we need the real numbers in mathematics. More to the point, we need to be able to

### Handout #6 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES: Prof. Moseley AN ALGEBRAIC FIELD

Handout #6 INTRODUCTION TO ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES: Prof. Moseley Chap. 2 AN ALGEBRAIC FIELD To introduce the notion of an abstract algebraic structure we consider (algebraic) fields. (These should not to

### * 8 Groups, with Appendix containing Rings and Fields.

* 8 Groups, with Appendix containing Rings and Fields Binary Operations Definition We say that is a binary operation on a set S if, and only if, a, b, a b S Implicit in this definition is the idea that

### 2. Two binary operations (addition, denoted + and multiplication, denoted

Chapter 2 The Structure of R The purpose of this chapter is to explain to the reader why the set of real numbers is so special. By the end of this chapter, the reader should understand the difference between

Adding and Subtracting Terms 1.6 OBJECTIVES 1.6 1. Identify terms and like terms 2. Combine like terms 3. Add algebraic expressions 4. Subtract algebraic expressions To find the perimeter of (or the distance

### Rings If R is a commutative ring, a zero divisor is a nonzero element x such that xy = 0 for some nonzero element y R.

Rings 10-26-2008 A ring is an abelian group R with binary operation + ( addition ), together with a second binary operation ( multiplication ). Multiplication must be associative, and must distribute over

### 3 The language of proof

3 The language of proof After working through this section, you should be able to: (a) understand what is asserted by various types of mathematical statements, in particular implications and equivalences;

### Mathmatics 239 solutions to Homework for Chapter 2

Mathmatics 239 solutions to Homework for Chapter 2 Old version of 8.5 My compact disc player has space for 5 CDs; there are five trays numbered 1 through 5 into which I load the CDs. I own 100 CDs. a)

### 11 Division Mod n, Linear Integer Equations, Random Numbers, The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

11 Division Mod n, Linear Integer Equations, Random Numbers, The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic Bezout s Lemma Let's look at the values of 4x + 6y when x and y are integers. If x is -6 and y is 4 we

### 1. multiplication is commutative and associative;

Chapter 4 The Arithmetic of Z In this chapter, we start by introducing the concept of congruences; these are used in our proof (going back to Gauss 1 ) that every integer has a unique prime factorization.

### DIHEDRAL GROUPS II KEITH CONRAD

DIHEDRAL GROUPS II KEITH CONRAD We will characterize dihedral groups in terms of generators and relations, and describe the subgroups of D n, including the normal subgroups. We will also introduce an infinite

### Boolean Algebra CHAPTER 15

CHAPTER 15 Boolean Algebra 15.1 INTRODUCTION Both sets and propositions satisfy similar laws, which are listed in Tables 1-1 and 4-1 (in Chapters 1 and 4, respectively). These laws are used to define an

### Groups. s t or s t or even st rather than f(s,t).

Groups Definition. A binary operation on a set S is a function which takes a pair of elements s,t S and produces another element f(s,t) S. That is, a binary operation is a function f : S S S. Binary operations

### Math Review. for the Quantitative Reasoning measure of the GRE General Test

Math Review for the Quantitative Reasoning measure of the GRE General Test www.ets.org Overview This Math Review will familiarize you with the mathematical skills and concepts that are important for solving

### Section 0.6: Factoring from Precalculus Prerequisites a.k.a. Chapter 0 by Carl Stitz, PhD, and Jeff Zeager, PhD, is available under a Creative

Section 0.6: Factoring from Precalculus Prerequisites a.k.a. Chapter 0 by Carl Stitz, PhD, and Jeff Zeager, PhD, is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike.0 license. 201,

### Introduction to Metalogic

Philosophy 135 Spring 2008 Tony Martin Introduction to Metalogic 1 The semantics of sentential logic. The language L of sentential logic. Symbols of L: Remarks: (i) sentence letters p 0, p 1, p 2,... (ii)

### 3 The Semantics of the Propositional Calculus

3 The Semantics of the Propositional Calculus 1. Interpretations Formulas of the propositional calculus express statement forms. In chapter two, we gave informal descriptions of the meanings of the logical

### chapter 5 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA GOALS 5.1 Basic Definitions

chapter 5 INTRODUCTION TO MATRIX ALGEBRA GOALS The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you to matrix algebra, which has many applications. You are already familiar with several algebras: elementary

### 0.2 Vector spaces. J.A.Beachy 1

J.A.Beachy 1 0.2 Vector spaces I m going to begin this section at a rather basic level, giving the definitions of a field and of a vector space in much that same detail as you would have met them in a

### PEANO AXIOMS FOR THE NATURAL NUMBERS AND PROOFS BY INDUCTION. The Peano axioms

PEANO AXIOMS FOR THE NATURAL NUMBERS AND PROOFS BY INDUCTION The Peano axioms The following are the axioms for the natural numbers N. You might think of N as the set of integers {0, 1, 2,...}, but it turns

### Solving Equations by Adding and Subtracting

SECTION 2.1 Solving Equations by Adding and Subtracting 2.1 OBJECTIVES 1. Determine whether a given number is a solution for an equation 2. Use the addition property to solve equations 3. Determine whether

### 1 First Theme: Sums of Squares

I will try to organize the work of this semester around several classical questions. The first is, When is a prime p the sum of two squares? The question was raised by Fermat who gave the correct answer

### Lesson 6: Algebra. Chapter 2, Video 1: "Variables"

Lesson 6: Algebra Chapter 2, Video 1: "Variables" Algebra 1, variables. In math, when the value of a number isn't known, a letter is used to represent the unknown number. This letter is called a variable.

### Elementary Properties of the Integers

Elementary Properties of the Integers 1 1. Basis Representation Theorem (Thm 1-3) 2. Euclid s Division Lemma (Thm 2-1) 3. Greatest Common Divisor 4. Properties of Prime Numbers 5. Fundamental Theorem of

### ORDERS OF ELEMENTS IN A GROUP

ORDERS OF ELEMENTS IN A GROUP KEITH CONRAD 1. Introduction Let G be a group and g G. We say g has finite order if g n = e for some positive integer n. For example, 1 and i have finite order in C, since

### MATH10040: Chapter 0 Mathematics, Logic and Reasoning

MATH10040: Chapter 0 Mathematics, Logic and Reasoning 1. What is Mathematics? There is no definitive answer to this question. 1 Indeed, the answer given by a 21st-century mathematician would differ greatly

### Calculus II - Basic Matrix Operations

Calculus II - Basic Matrix Operations Ryan C Daileda Terminology A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers, for example 7,, 7 7 9, or / / /4 / / /4 / / /4 / /6 The numbers in any matrix are called its

### ACCUPLACER MATH 0310

The University of Teas at El Paso Tutoring and Learning Center ACCUPLACER MATH 00 http://www.academics.utep.edu/tlc MATH 00 Page Linear Equations Linear Equations Eercises 5 Linear Equations Answer to

### Prealgebra. Edition 5

Prealgebra Edition 5 Prealgebra, Edition 5 2009, 2007, 2005, 2004, 2003 Michelle A. Wyatt (M A Wyatt) 2009, Edition 5 Michelle A. Wyatt, author Special thanks to Garry Knight for many suggestions for the

### Section-A. Short Questions

Section-A Short Questions Question1: Define Problem? : A Problem is defined as a cultural artifact, which is especially visible in a society s economic and industrial decision making process. Those managers

### CS 360, Winter Morphology of Proof: An introduction to rigorous proof techniques

CS 30, Winter 2011 Morphology of Proof: An introduction to rigorous proof techniques 1 Methodology of Proof An example Deep down, all theorems are of the form If A then B, though they may be expressed

### MATHE 4800C FOUNDATIONS OF ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY CLASS NOTES FALL 2011

MATHE 4800C FOUNDATIONS OF ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY CLASS NOTES FALL 2011 MATTHEW AUTH, LECTURER OF MATHEMATICS 1. Foundations of Euclidean Geometry (Week 1) During the first weeks of the semester we will

### Mathematical Induction

Chapter 6 Mathematical Induction 6.1 The Process of Mathematical Induction 6.1.1 Motivating Mathematical Induction Consider the sum of the first several odd integers. produce the following: 1 = 1 1 + 3

### Complex Numbers. Rich Schwartz. September 25, 2014

Complex Numbers Rich Schwartz September 25, 2014 1 From Natural Numbers to Reals You can think of each successive number system as arising so as to fill some deficits associated with the previous one.

### Notes on Linear Algebra I. # 1

Notes on Linear Algebra I. # 1 Oussama Moutaoikil Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 On Vector Spaces 5 2.1 Vectors................................... 5 2.2 Vector Spaces................................ 7 2.3

### GROUPS. Chapter-1 EXAMPLES 1.1. INTRODUCTION 1.2. BINARY OPERATION

Chapter-1 GROUPS 1.1. INTRODUCTION The theory of groups arose from the theory of equations, during the nineteenth century. Originally, groups consisted only of transformations. The group of transformations

### Stochastic Processes

qmc082.tex. Version of 30 September 2010. Lecture Notes on Quantum Mechanics No. 8 R. B. Griffiths References: Stochastic Processes CQT = R. B. Griffiths, Consistent Quantum Theory (Cambridge, 2002) DeGroot

### Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic

All modern digital computers are dependent on circuits that implement Boolean functions. We shall discuss two classes of such circuits: Combinational and Sequential. The difference between the two types

### EQ: How do I convert between standard form and scientific notation?

EQ: How do I convert between standard form and scientific notation? HW: Practice Sheet Bellwork: Simplify each expression 1. (5x 3 ) 4 2. 5(x 3 ) 4 3. 5(x 3 ) 4 20x 8 Simplify and leave in standard form

### CONSTRUCTION OF sequence of rational approximations to sets of rational approximating sequences, all with the same tail behaviour Deﬁnition 1.

CONSTRUCTION OF R 1. MOTIVATION We are used to thinking of real numbers as successive approximations. For example, we write π = 3.14159... to mean that π is a real number which, accurate to 5 decimal places,

### 1 Equivalence Relations

Mitchell Faulk June 12, 2014 Equivalence Relations and Quotient Spaces 1 Equivalence Relations Recall that a relation on a set X is a subset S of the cartesian product X X. Problem Set 2 has several examples

### At the start of the term, we saw the following formula for computing the sum of the first n integers:

Chapter 11 Induction This chapter covers mathematical induction. 11.1 Introduction to induction At the start of the term, we saw the following formula for computing the sum of the first n integers: Claim

### MATH 320, WEEK 6: Linear Systems, Gaussian Elimination, Coefficient Matrices

MATH 320, WEEK 6: Linear Systems, Gaussian Elimination, Coefficient Matrices We will now switch gears and focus on a branch of mathematics known as linear algebra. There are a few notes worth making before

### 1 Matrices and matrix algebra

1 Matrices and matrix algebra 1.1 Examples of matrices A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers and/or variables. For instance 4 2 0 3 1 A = 5 1.2 0.7 x 3 π 3 4 6 27 is a matrix with 3 rows and 5 columns

### Definitions, Theorems and Exercises. Abstract Algebra Math 332. Ethan D. Bloch

Definitions, Theorems and Exercises Abstract Algebra Math 332 Ethan D. Bloch December 26, 2013 ii Contents 1 Binary Operations 3 1.1 Binary Operations............................... 4 1.2 Isomorphic Binary

### ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER / Lines and Their Equations

ACCESS TO SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURE: MATHEMATICS 1 MATH00030 SEMESTER 1 017/018 DR. ANTHONY BROWN. Lines and Their Equations.1. Slope of a Line and its y-intercept. In Euclidean geometry (where

### Lecture 8: A Crash Course in Linear Algebra

Math/CS 120: Intro. to Math Professor: Padraic Bartlett Lecture 8: A Crash Course in Linear Algebra Week 9 UCSB 2014 Qué sed de saber cuánto! Pablo Neruda, Oda a los Números 1 Linear Algebra In the past

### Discrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Spring 2014 Anant Sahai Note 3

EECS 70 Discrete Mathematics and Probability Theory Spring 014 Anant Sahai Note 3 Induction Induction is an extremely powerful tool in mathematics. It is a way of proving propositions that hold for all

### MA554 Assessment 1 Cosets and Lagrange s theorem

MA554 Assessment 1 Cosets and Lagrange s theorem These are notes on cosets and Lagrange s theorem; they go over some material from the lectures again, and they have some new material it is all examinable,

### Introduction. So, why did I even bother to write this?

Introduction This review was originally written for my Calculus I class, but it should be accessible to anyone needing a review in some basic algebra and trig topics. The review contains the occasional

### Standard forms for writing numbers

Standard forms for writing numbers In order to relate the abstract mathematical descriptions of familiar number systems to the everyday descriptions of numbers by decimal expansions and similar means,

### Supplementary Material for MTH 299 Online Edition

Supplementary Material for MTH 299 Online Edition Abstract This document contains supplementary material, such as definitions, explanations, examples, etc., to complement that of the text, How to Think

### Fermat s Last Theorem for Regular Primes

Fermat s Last Theorem for Regular Primes S. M.-C. 22 September 2015 Abstract Fermat famously claimed in the margin of a book that a certain family of Diophantine equations have no solutions in integers.

### Cosets and Lagrange s theorem

Cosets and Lagrange s theorem These are notes on cosets and Lagrange s theorem some of which may already have been lecturer. There are some questions for you included in the text. You should write the

### Algebra Introduction to Polynomials

Introduction to Polynomials What is a Polynomial? A polynomial is an expression that can be written as a term or a sum of terms, each of which is the product of a scalar (the coefficient) and a series

### Direct Proof MAT231. Fall Transition to Higher Mathematics. MAT231 (Transition to Higher Math) Direct Proof Fall / 24

Direct Proof MAT231 Transition to Higher Mathematics Fall 2014 MAT231 (Transition to Higher Math) Direct Proof Fall 2014 1 / 24 Outline 1 Overview of Proof 2 Theorems 3 Definitions 4 Direct Proof 5 Using

### CHAPTER 1: Functions

CHAPTER 1: Functions 1.1: Functions 1.2: Graphs of Functions 1.3: Basic Graphs and Symmetry 1.4: Transformations 1.5: Piecewise-Defined Functions; Limits and Continuity in Calculus 1.6: Combining Functions

### Stephen F Austin. Exponents and Logarithms. chapter 3

chapter 3 Starry Night was painted by Vincent Van Gogh in 1889. The brightness of a star as seen from Earth is measured using a logarithmic scale. Exponents and Logarithms This chapter focuses on understanding

### Math 13, Spring 2013, Lecture B: Midterm

Math 13, Spring 2013, Lecture B: Midterm Name Signature UCI ID # E-mail address Each numbered problem is worth 12 points, for a total of 84 points. Present your work, especially proofs, as clearly as possible.

### Properties of Generating Sets of Finite Groups

Cornell SPUR 2018 1 Group Theory Properties of Generating Sets of Finite Groups by R. Keith Dennis We now provide a few more details about the prerequisites for the REU in group theory, where to find additional

### Contribution of Problems

Exam topics 1. Basic structures: sets, lists, functions (a) Sets { }: write all elements, or define by condition (b) Set operations: A B, A B, A\B, A c (c) Lists ( ): Cartesian product A B (d) Functions

### COLLEGE ALGEBRA. Paul Dawkins

COLLEGE ALGEBRA Paul Dawkins Table of Contents Preface... iii Outline... iv Preliminaries... 7 Introduction... 7 Integer Exponents... 8 Rational Exponents...5 Radicals... Polynomials...30 Factoring Polynomials...36

### Rings of Residues. S. F. Ellermeyer. September 18, ; [1] m

Rings of Residues S F Ellermeyer September 18, 2006 If m is a positive integer, then we obtain the partition C = f[0] m ; [1] m ; : : : ; [m 1] m g of Z into m congruence classes (This is discussed in

### 2x 1 7. A linear congruence in modular arithmetic is an equation of the form. Why is the solution a set of integers rather than a unique integer?

Chapter 3: Theory of Modular Arithmetic 25 SECTION C Solving Linear Congruences By the end of this section you will be able to solve congruence equations determine the number of solutions find the multiplicative

### Commutative Rings and Fields

Commutative Rings and Fields 1-22-2017 Different algebraic systems are used in linear algebra. The most important are commutative rings with identity and fields. Definition. A ring is a set R with two

### Rings. Chapter 1. Definition 1.2. A commutative ring R is a ring in which multiplication is commutative. That is, ab = ba for all a, b R.

Chapter 1 Rings We have spent the term studying groups. A group is a set with a binary operation that satisfies certain properties. But many algebraic structures such as R, Z, and Z n come with two binary

### Advanced Calculus: MATH 410 Real Numbers Professor David Levermore 5 December 2010

Advanced Calculus: MATH 410 Real Numbers Professor David Levermore 5 December 2010 1. Real Number System 1.1. Introduction. Numbers are at the heart of mathematics. By now you must be fairly familiar with

### The next sequence of lectures in on the topic of Arithmetic Algorithms. We shall build up to an understanding of the RSA public-key cryptosystem.

CS 70 Discrete Mathematics for CS Fall 2003 Wagner Lecture 10 The next sequence of lectures in on the topic of Arithmetic Algorithms. We shall build up to an understanding of the RSA public-key cryptosystem.

### 8. TRANSFORMING TOOL #1 (the Addition Property of Equality)

8 TRANSFORMING TOOL #1 (the Addition Property of Equality) sentences that look different, but always have the same truth values What can you DO to a sentence that will make it LOOK different, but not change

### Notes on Algebraic Structures. Peter J. Cameron

Notes on Algebraic Structures Peter J. Cameron ii Preface These are the notes of the second-year course Algebraic Structures I at Queen Mary, University of London, as I taught it in the second semester

### Boolean Algebras. Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Boolean Algebras Let X be an arbitrary set and let P(X) be the class of all subsets of X (the power set of X). Three natural set-theoretic operations on P(X) are the binary operations of union

### What is proof? Lesson 1

What is proof? Lesson The topic for this Math Explorer Club is mathematical proof. In this post we will go over what was covered in the first session. The word proof is a normal English word that you might

### Page 52. Lecture 3: Inner Product Spaces Dual Spaces, Dirac Notation, and Adjoints Date Revised: 2008/10/03 Date Given: 2008/10/03

Page 5 Lecture : Inner Product Spaces Dual Spaces, Dirac Notation, and Adjoints Date Revised: 008/10/0 Date Given: 008/10/0 Inner Product Spaces: Definitions Section. Mathematical Preliminaries: Inner

### Models of Computation,

Models of Computation, 2010 1 Induction We use a lot of inductive techniques in this course, both to give definitions and to prove facts about our semantics So, it s worth taking a little while to set

### Vector Space Basics. 1 Abstract Vector Spaces. 1. (commutativity of vector addition) u + v = v + u. 2. (associativity of vector addition)

Vector Space Basics (Remark: these notes are highly formal and may be a useful reference to some students however I am also posting Ray Heitmann's notes to Canvas for students interested in a direct computational

### 2 so Q[ 2] is closed under both additive and multiplicative inverses. a 2 2b 2 + b

. FINITE-DIMENSIONAL VECTOR SPACES.. Fields By now you ll have acquired a fair knowledge of matrices. These are a concrete embodiment of something rather more abstract. Sometimes it is easier to use matrices,

### 1.3 Limits and Continuity

40 CHAPTER 1. RATES OF CHANGE AND THE DERIVATIVE 1.3 Limits and Continuity Despite the fact that we have placed all of the proofs of the theorems from this section in the Technical Matters section, Section

### Factorisation CHAPTER Introduction

FACTORISATION 217 Factorisation CHAPTER 14 14.1 Introduction 14.1.1 Factors of natural numbers You will remember what you learnt about factors in Class VI. Let us take a natural number, say 30, and write

### Part IV. Rings and Fields

IV.18 Rings and Fields 1 Part IV. Rings and Fields Section IV.18. Rings and Fields Note. Roughly put, modern algebra deals with three types of structures: groups, rings, and fields. In this section we

### 2x 1 7. A linear congruence in modular arithmetic is an equation of the form. Why is the solution a set of integers rather than a unique integer?

Chapter 3: Theory of Modular Arithmetic 25 SECTION C Solving Linear Congruences By the end of this section you will be able to solve congruence equations determine the number of solutions find the multiplicative

### The Gauss-Jordan Elimination Algorithm

The Gauss-Jordan Elimination Algorithm Solving Systems of Real Linear Equations A. Havens Department of Mathematics University of Massachusetts, Amherst January 24, 2018 Outline 1 Definitions Echelon Forms

### Mathematics. Algebra I (PreAP, Pt. 1, Pt. 2) Curriculum Guide. Revised 2016

Mathematics Algebra I (PreAP, Pt. 1, Pt. ) Curriculum Guide Revised 016 Intentionally Left Blank Introduction The Mathematics Curriculum Guide serves as a guide for teachers when planning instruction and

### Sequences and infinite series

Sequences and infinite series D. DeTurck University of Pennsylvania March 29, 208 D. DeTurck Math 04 002 208A: Sequence and series / 54 Sequences The lists of numbers you generate using a numerical method

### Fundamentals of Mathematics I

Fundamentals of Mathematics I Kent State Department of Mathematical Sciences Fall 2008 Available at: http://www.math.kent.edu/ebooks/10031/book.pdf August 4, 2008 Contents 1 Arithmetic 2 1.1 Real Numbers......................................................

### 8.6 Partial Fraction Decomposition

628 Systems of Equations and Matrices 8.6 Partial Fraction Decomposition This section uses systems of linear equations to rewrite rational functions in a form more palatable to Calculus students. In College

### Math 110 FOUNDATIONS OF THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM FOR ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS

4-1Divisibility Divisibility Divisibility Rules Divisibility An integer is if it has a remainder of 0 when divided by 2; it is otherwise. We say that 3 divides 18, written, because the remainder is 0 when

### And for polynomials with coefficients in F 2 = Z/2 Euclidean algorithm for gcd s Concept of equality mod M(x) Extended Euclid for inverses mod M(x)

Outline Recall: For integers Euclidean algorithm for finding gcd s Extended Euclid for finding multiplicative inverses Extended Euclid for computing Sun-Ze Test for primitive roots And for polynomials

### 3.4 Complex Zeros and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra

86 Polynomial Functions 3.4 Complex Zeros and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra In Section 3.3, we were focused on finding the real zeros of a polynomial function. In this section, we expand our horizons

### Solving Quadratic & Higher Degree Equations

Chapter 9 Solving Quadratic & Higher Degree Equations Sec 1. Zero Product Property Back in the third grade students were taught when they multiplied a number by zero, the product would be zero. In algebra,

### Chapter 4 Vector Spaces And Modules

Chapter 4 Vector Spaces And Modules Up to this point we have been introduced to groups and to rings; the former has its motivation in the set of one-to-one mappings of a set onto itself, the latter, in

### Chapter 2. Mathematical Reasoning. 2.1 Mathematical Models

Contents Mathematical Reasoning 3.1 Mathematical Models........................... 3. Mathematical Proof............................ 4..1 Structure of Proofs........................ 4.. Direct Method..........................