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1 Chemistry Ms. Ye Name Date Block Heat, Kinetic Energy, and Changes in State of Matter *Kinetic Energy=the energy associated with *Temperature=measure of the of a sample. *Heat=is measured as the that is from one object to another because of a. The direction of heat flow is always from the object to the object. *Specific Heat Capacity: The amount of to of of a substance by Heat = Energy transferred due to a difference in temperatures. The amount of heat absorbed or released in a physical or chemical reaction can be calculated using the equation q = mcδt q = m x C x ΔT or, think of it as unit cancellation: = ( ) ( ) ( ) q = heat (in Joules or J) m = mass of sample (in grams) C = heat capacity of sample ΔT = change in temperature (Final Temp-Initial Temp) Example: How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 5 grams of water from 20 C to 100 C? The specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g C.

2 Practice 1: The specific heat capacities of several substances are listed in the following table. Substance Specific Heat Capacity Water, H2O 4.18 J/g C Methanol, CH3OH 2.43 J/g C Air 1.00 J/g C Aluminum, Al 0.88 J/g C Brass (Cu+Zn mixture) 0.38 J/g C 1. Which substance listed requires the least amount of energy to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance by 1 C? Why? 2. Imagine that you place an aluminum pot filled with water on the stove. After several minutes, the metal is too hot to touch, but the water is barely warm. Use specific heat capacity to explain why. 3. Why do you think adding water to a balloon prevents it from bursting when heated whereas a balloon filled with just air will burst when heated? ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Practice 2: Heat Equations Note: For all the following problems, the specific heat of water is 4.18 J/ C. 1. You heat 1 gram of water from 25 C to 75 C. How many joules of energy are transferred to the water? 2. You cool 10 grams of water from 25 C to 0 C. How many joules of energy are transferred out of the water? 3. The temperature of a sample of water in the liquid phase is raised from 20 C to 50 C by the addition of 3762 Joules. What is the mass of water?

3 Heating Curve Use the graph above (known as a heating curve ) to answer the questions that follow. 1. During which 3 line segments does the temperature of the substance increase? 2. During which 2 line segments does the temperature of the substance remain the same? 3. At which point do the molecules of the substance have the lowest average kinetic energy? The highest? 4. Which phases of matter are present during segment BC? 5. Which phases of matter are present during segment DE? 6. Even though heat is being added to the substance the entire time, why do you think there is no change in temperature during segments BC and DE? Where do you think the heat energy is going or being used for?

4 *Kinetic Energy=the energy associated with moving particles; related to temperature. *Potential Energy=the energy associated with. It is to temperature; it is related with. Section of Heating Curve AB BC CD DE EF ΔT (change in temp) ΔKE (change in kinetic ΔPE (change in potential *The heat energy that is added is being transferred to either KE or PE *When kinetic energy is changing, potential energy remains constant *When potential energy is changing, kinetic energy remains constant We can also apply the same concepts to a cooling curve, in which a substance is cooled (or heat is removed from a substance) over time. gas condensation liquid freezing solid Section of Heating Curve AB BC CD DE EF ΔT (change in temp) ΔKE (change in kinetic ΔPE (change in potential

5 **Why can t we use the formula q= mcδt when there is a phase change? Consider the problem how many joules are required to melt 100 grams of ice at 0 C? Heat of Fusion: amount of required to change a substance from a to a Heat energy to melt a substance: q=m x Hf Heat of Vaporization: amount of required to change a substance from a to a ; Heat energy to boil a substance: q=m x Hv q = m x H f and q = m x H v Problems: 1. How many joules are required to melt 100 grams of ice at 0 C? The heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g q= m= H = 2. How many joules are absorbed by a 50 gram sample of H2O that is boiling? The heat of vaporization of water is 2260 J/g. q= m= H = joules of heat is required to melt a sample of ice. What is the mass of the ice if the heat of fusion of H2O is 334 J/g? 4. What is the total number of joules required to completely boil 100 grams of water at 100 C? The heat of vaporization of water is 2260 J/g grams of a compound at its boiling point are converted to a gas by the addition of 34,400 Joules of heat. What is the heat of vaporization (Hv) for this compound?

6 Heating Curve Practice: 1. Label each section of the graph with the following terms: Solid liquid gas melting boiling/evaporation 2. What is the boiling point of the substance? 3. What is the melting point of the substance? 4. Which letters represent a change in potential energy? 5. Which letters represent a change in kinetic energy? 6. Which letters represents condensation? 7. Which letters represents freezing? Calculations: Look at whether there is a temperature change to figure out which formula to use! 8. Calculate the amount of heat absorbed when 10 grams of the solid is heated from point A to point B. Assume the specific heat capacity of the substance is 2.00 J/g C. 9. Calculate the amount of heat required to melt 10 grams of the substance. The heat of fusion of this substance is 400. J/g C.

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