CRYOGENIC CONDUCTION COOLING TEST OF REMOVABLE PANEL MOCK-UP FOR ITER CRYOSTAT THERMAL SHIELD

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1 CRYOGENIC CONDUCTION COOLING TEST OF REMOVABLE PANEL MOCK-UP FOR ITER CRYOSTAT THERMAL SHIELD K. Nam, a D. K. Kang, a W. Chung, a C. H. Noh, a J. Yu, b N. I. Her, b C. Hamlyn-Harris, b Y. Utin, b and K. Ioki b a ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon , Republic of Korea, b ITER Organization, CS , St Paul Lez Durance Cedex, France This paper describes the fabrication of removable panel for ITER cryostat thermal shield (CTS) and its conduction cooling test at cryogenic temperature. Two kinds of full-scale mock-ups of the removable panels have been developed, depending on different thermal conduction designs. Passive cooling characteristics of the mock-ups are investigated with the measured data of temperature jump at the joint and maximum temperature at the panel. The passive cooling of panel with copper insertion satisfies the design requirement of temperature jump (< 3 K), even though the heat load condition in the cooling test is more severe than the design condition of CTS. It is clearly demonstrated that the copper strips bonded on the panel attenuate the temperature gradient of the panel. Different thermal behaviors at the joint are also found for the two mock-ups. I. INTRODUCTION The ITER cryostat thermal shield (CTS) should minimize radiation heat load transferred from the cryostat to the superconducting magnet that operates at 4.5 K. The CTS operating at 80 K are constructed with stainless steel of thickness ranging between 10 and 30 mm. Silver electroplating is to be applied to the thermal shield in 6 m 15 m 5 m 20 m 28 m Fig. 1. Removable panel of ITER cryostat thermal shield order to obtain low emissivity (< 0.05). The active cooling is applied to most parts of the panels as first priority. Figure 1 shows the CTS with its overall dimensions. The design value of radiation heat flux from the cryostat to the CTS is 24 W/m 2. Access to magnet components for maintenance is necessary in ITER. 1 As the CTS is located outside the PF coil, a removable panel on the CTS makes access to the magnet joint possible. There are also four removable panels at lower CTS, which are to be opened during tokamak assembly. Figure 1 shows typical removable panels. Total number of the removable panel is 115 and its individual area varies in 0.2 ~ 1.8 m 2. No active cooling is supposed and the passive cooling is introduced locally for the removal panels. Cooling tube is not directly attached on the removable panel, but attached on the frame, which is connected to the panel by bolted joint. Thermal contact resistance should be minimized at the joint for effective passive cooling. To achieve acceptable thermal contact conduction, an effective pre-compression with metal-inserting such as copper gasket is required at the joint. Design requirement for the thermal contact at the joint is such that the temperature difference across the joint should be lower than 3 K. The effective thermal contact at the joint should be demonstrated by the mockup test. This paper deals with the experimental study on the passive cooling panel for the ITER CTS. Two kinds of mock-ups are developed and their cooling tests are performed at liquid nitrogen temperature level. Temperature difference at the joint and the panel temperatures are measured for different radiation heat flux conditions. Passive cooling characteristics are investigated with the measured temperatures concerning different designs of two mock-ups. II. MOCK-UP OF PASSIVE COOLING PANEL II.A. Description Two kinds of passive cooling panel mock-ups are shown in Fig. 2. The mock-up consists of panel, frame and cooling tube. The panel size is 1000 mm x 1000 mm with 10 mm thickness. The cooling tube is attached on the FUSION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY VOL. 64 AUG

2 frame by intermittent welding with pitch 100 mm. The tube diameter is mm and its thickness is 2.24 mm. The panel is assembled with the frame by stud bolts. The overall size of the removable panel mock-up including the frame is 1200 mm x 1200 mm. Two mock-ups are distinguished as follows. - Mock-up A: Copper gasket (2 mm thickness, 50 mm width) is inserted between the panel and the frame at the joint. - Mock-up B: Copper plate with 2 mm thickness is bonded on one side of the stainless steel panel by explosive bonding. Then the bonded copper plate is partially removed by machining to obtain a copper bridge pattern as shown in Fig. 2. Three copper bridges across the panel are remained after the machining to attenuate temperature gradient at the panel. Silver coating is applied to the panel and the frame, respectively. Detailed process of the silver coating is described in the previous paper. 2 Typical photos of the mock-up are shown in Fig. 3. II.B. Measurement of Contact Pressure at the Joint Contact pressure at the joint is directly measured by the pressure sensitive film (FUJIFILM PRESCALE model LW). The target value for the contact pressure at the joint is 10 MPa. Figure 4 shows the drawing of a specimen for the contact pressure measurement. The pressure sensitive film (Film thickness: 0.24 mm) is inserted between the copper gasket and the frame. The Fig. 4. Joint specimen for contact pressure measurement Fig. 5. Contact pressure distribution (torque = 600 kgf-cm, pressure = 10 MPa) Cooling tube 304L plate (10t) 304L plate (10t) with bonded copper (2t) Frame (20t) Stud bolt (M16) Copper gasket (2t) Mock-up A Bonded copper 304L plate (10t) measurement range of the film is 2.5 MPa ~ 10 MPa. The fastening torque of nut is measured by a torque wrench. Surface distortion of the specimen is minimized and maximum deviation of surface level for the specimen is measured as 0.06 mm. The torque increases sequentially from 100 kgf-cm to 1600 kgf-cm. After the stud bolt is fastened by the torque wrench, the specimen is disassembled and contact pressure distribution on the film is examined based on the color density code supplied by the film manufacturer. Figure 5 shows the representative contact pressure distribution illustrated by the film. The fastening torque for mock-up assembly is set to be 600 kgf-cm for which the contact pressure reaches 10 MPa. Mock-up B Bottom view of panel III. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS Fig. 2. Two mock-ups for the removable panel III.A. Temperature Measurement Panel (mock-up B) Fig. 3. Photos of mock-up Assembly Temperature is measured by resistance temperature detector (RTD, pt100). The RTDs are connected to the multi-channel recorder (GRAPHTEC model GL820). The calibration of RTD is conducted with the reference sensor (Lakeshore model DT-670), which has ±22 mk accuracy. The RTDs and the reference sensor are dipped into liquid nitrogen (77.4 K) and liquid argon (87.3 K). As the RTD has excellent linearity with respect to temperature, linear equation is used with two temperature points for calibration correlation. 132 FUSION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY VOL. 64 AUG. 2013

3 Fig. 6. Mount design of temperature sensor Fig. 8. The mock-up assembled with the screen and the top flange of a vacuum chamber monitor coolant temperature. Channel 11 is the temperature at the center of panel and channel 12 sensor is located between the panel center and the panel edge. For the measurement of temperature jump at the joint, two pairs of sensors are attached on several positions along the joint. Figure 7 also shows the cross section of the joint indicating the sensor locations. Fig. 7. Temperature sensor locations on the mock-up Figure 6 shows the dimensions of RTD and its mounting design. The RTD is attached on the panel and the frame surfaces by mechanical fixation. Stainless steel bracket is welded on the mock-up surface by spot welding. G10 bolt penetrates the bracket and presses the sensor directly. Quick-drying glue is injected into the gap between the G10 bolt and the bracket in order to prevent self-loosening. Silver paste is inserted between the sensor and the surface for effective thermal contact. Aluminum tape (not shown in the photo) covers the bracket opening to minimize thermal radiation into the sensor. One point of sensor signal wire is also fixed at the surface by the similar mechanical pressing. Figure 7 shows sensor locations on the mock-up. Channel 1 and 2 are assigned to cooling tube surface to III.B. Test Set-up for Conduction Cooling The mock-up is suspended underneath the top flange of vacuum chamber with supports and side guides. The mock-up is entirely enclosed by the stainless steel screen structure (thickness = 1 mm) as Fig. 8. Flexible bend heaters are attached on the outer surface of the vacuum chamber with glass fiber insulation. The purpose of the heater is to raise the screen temperature by radiation. Two temperature sensors are attached on the inner surface of screen. Input power for the heater is controlled according to the set value of screen temperature. The mock-up is cooled down by liquid nitrogen, which flows inside the cooling tube attached on the frame. The cooling tube is connected to a liquid nitrogen supplying chamber through the top flange. The open-loop of liquid nitrogen circulation is adopted for the cooling of the mock-up. FUSION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY VOL. 64 AUG

4 220 Temperature (K) Temperature (K) Tube inlet Panel (Ch 3) Panel (Ch 11) Panel (Ch 12) Frame (Ch 13) 80 IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS IV.A. Mock-up A Time (hr) Time (hr) Fig. 9. Temperature history during cool-down of mock-up A (no heating of screen) The temperatures of panel, frame and tube inlet/outlet are monitored and recorded until steady state is reached. The steady state is determined when the panel center temperature is maintained as constant (< 0.1 K variation) during 2 hours. Figure 9 shows a typical temperature history during cool-down of mock-up A. Coolant temperature is maintained near liquid nitrogen temperature. Panel center temperature (Ch 11) reaches K. Table I-(a) summarizes the measurement of temperature difference at the joint for no heating condition. The temperature difference varies from 0.4 K to 2 K and its average value is 1.1 K. Radiation heat load is increased by heating the screen using the heaters around the vacuum chamber to investigate the effect of heat flux on conduction cooling. The heat flux to the mock-up is measured indirectly from the measured temperature of panel. Square panel is analyzed with inputs such as edge temperature (average value from the experiment) and heat flux into the panel. The heat flux is obtained by matching the panel center Edge temperature (K) Center temperature (K) Heat flux (W/m 2 ) Fig. 10. Estimation of heat flux into the mock-up by the analysis with temperature measurement result temperatures between the analysis and the measurement. Figure 10 shows the heat flux value obtained from the analysis and temperature measurement. Temperature differences at the joint for the increased heat flux are summarized in Table I-(b), (c). The average temperature difference is below 3 K when the heat flux increases up to 22.2 W/m 2. Two sides of the mock-up face the warm surface, while one side of the ITER CTS is exposed to the cryostat. Therefore, for the heat flux 22.2 W/m 2 in the test, about two times larger heat load is transferred to the mock-up compared with the design load of CTS removable panel. The temperature difference is still below 3 K under larger heat load condition than ITER CTS. IV.B. Mock-up B Table II-(a) summarizes the temperature measurement result of the mock-up B under no heating of vacuum chamber. The screen temperature is measured as 258 K. Total 7 points at the joint are measured for the mock-up B. By comparing with the mock-up A result, temperature gradient at the panel decreases approximately from 16 K to 10 K due to the bonded copper plate on the TABLE I. Temperature Difference at the Joint for Mock-up A (Unit in K) Panel (Ch3~10) Ch11 = Frame (Ch13~20) Ch12 = 97.3 T Averaged T = 1.1 (a) Heat flux = 11.4 W/m 2 (No heating of screen) Panel (Ch3~10) Ch11 = Frame (Ch13~20) Ch12 = T Averaged T = 2.3 (b) Heat flux = 22.2 W/m 2 Panel (Ch3~10) Ch11 = Frame (Ch13~20) Ch12 = T Averaged T = 4.7 (c) Heat flux = 52.9 W/m FUSION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY VOL. 64 AUG. 2013

5 TABLE II. Temperature Difference at the Joint for Mock-up B (Unit in K) Panel (Ch3,4,5,6,7,9,10) Screen temperature = Frame (Ch13,14,15,16,17,19,20) Ch11 = 98.6, Ch12 = 95.2 T Averaged T = 2.0 (a) Heat flux = 11.7 W/m 2 (No heating of screen) Panel (Ch3,4,5,6,7,9,10) Screen temperature = Frame (Ch13,14,15,16,17,19,20) Ch11 = 108.8, Ch12 = T Averaged T = 2.9 (b) Heat flux = 21.1 W/m 2 Panel (Ch3,4,5,6,7,9,10) Screen temperature = Frame (Ch13,14,15,16,17,19,20) Ch11 = 112.5, Ch12 = T Averaged T = 3.2 (c) Heat flux = 30.9 W/m 2 (10,20) (9,19) (3,13) (4,14) (5,15) (6,16) conduction cooling experiments were performed. Table III summarizes the temperature differences at the joint. The measured temperature differences at the joint for two mock-ups satisfy the design requirement (< 3 K), even though the experimental heat load is more severe than the design load to CTS. It is also found that the joint with extended copper bridges shows larger temperature difference compared with the joint without the copper bridges. Simpler manufacturing of the removable panel without the bonded copper is also favorable. (7,17) Fig. 11. Measurement points at the joint of mock-up B panel. Figure 11 shows measurement points at the joint for the mock-up B. It is revealed that top and bottom edges show smaller temperature difference (0.6 ~ 1.4 K), while side edges show larger values (2.1 ~ 3.6 K). The main distinction is that the copper plates are extended from the side edges to the center. Radiation heat into the panel mostly flows through the extended copper plate due to its large thermal conductance. Therefore, left and right sides of the joint shows larger temperature difference due to the larger heat flow through the bonded copper plates. Table II-(b), (c) show the results for the heating of screen around the mock-up. The heat flux to the mock-up is estimated using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann radiation equation 3 with the measured screen temperature. The emissivity of the mock-up and the screen are set as 0.05 and 0.3 respectively in the equation. When the screen temperature is maintained near room temperature by heating, the average temperature difference is still below the design requirement (< 3 K). In this case, the heat load is about 1.8 times bigger than the design load for the ITER CTS because two sides of the mock-up are exposed to the warm surface. V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS TABLE III. Temperature Difference at the Joint for Different Heat Loads Heat load T at the joint 0.95 Q* 1.1 K Mock-up A 1.85 Q* 2.3 K 0.98 Q* 2.0 K Mock-up B 1.76 Q* 2.9 K *Q is the design heat load corresponding to the heat flux (24 W/m 2 ) of ITER CTS. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work is supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Republic of Korea under an ITER Project Contract. REFERENCES 1. V. BYKOV et al, The ITER thermal shields for the magnet system: Design evolution and analysis, Fusion Engineering and Design, 75-79, 155 (2005). 2. C. H. NOH, K. NAM et al, Manufacture and Test of Mock-up for ITER Thermal Shield, Fusion Engineering and Design, 85, 1880 (2010). 3. R. F. BARRON, Cryogenic Systems, pp , 2 nd Ed., Oxford University Press, New York (1985). Experimental study has been carried out for the passive cooling of the removable panel for the ITER CTS. Two kinds of removable panels were fabricated and their FUSION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY VOL. 64 AUG

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