PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect

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1 PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall 2006 Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect Only a short report is required: worksheets, graphs and answers to the questions. Introduction In this experiment we study the mechanisms by which heat is transferred, and the greenhouse effect. The data for the greenhouse effect experiment is taken by computer using the Data Studio interface. This part of the experiment can run unattended for periods of 20 to 60 minutes while you perform 5 other simple experiments concerning heat transfer and other thermal phenomena. You will have to use your time efficiently in order to complete the experiments during the lab period. Each group will move through different stations to carry out different experiments. Heat Transfer Heat, or thermal energy, can be transmitted by three mechanisms, convection, conduction, and radiation. We will discuss each briefly before discussing the greenhouse effect and the other experiments to be done. Convection In convection, heat is transferred by the macroscopic movement of heated mass inside a body of fluid (gas or liquid). Solids are rigid and so they do not support convection. A fan (or pump) in a household furnace moves heated air (or water) from the furnace to cooler locations in the house. This is called forced convection. On the other hand, we can rely on the fact that air and water become less dense when heated, and rise. If we place a hot brick in a room, the air near the brick becomes warm, and rises, carrying heat from the brick to the space above. This is natural convection. Conduction Heat transfer by conduction is due to molecular vibrations and, in metals, the motion of electrons. Neighboring particles exchange kinetic energy continuously. Energy is transferred from one part of the material to another whenever there is a difference in temperature. No movement of mass is involved. Solids, liquids and gases all support thermal conduction, but the low density of gases make conduction typically much less important than convection. In all fluids, the relative importance of convection versus conduction depends on the driving force for flow. A large temperature difference would lead to a large density difference between hot and cold regions, and thus a large buoyant force to drive natural convection. Poor heat conductors are used for thermal insulation, and they are typically also poor electrical conductors. Do you know which material has the best thermal conductivity? Radiation Energy can also be transferred by the radiation of electromagnetic waves that have no mass and can travel through vacuum. EM waves can have any frequency f with the quantum (smallest parcel) of energy transferred being hf, where h is the Planck constant. This implies that since X- page 1

4 Repeat the above for the other disc. Again, record data for 10 minutes with the sun on and 10 minutes off. DO NOT REPLACE the PREVIOUS DATA. When this is complete, save the file again. Display the two curves on a single graph. Observe the similarities and differences between the black and white discs. Now, change to the disc initially used (so that you start at room temperature). Cover the disc with a plastic bag. Make a small hole in the bag for the temperature probe. Record the data as before, but with the timer set for 20 to 30 minutes, and 20 to 30 minutes of cooling (depending on the time remaining in the lab period). DO NOT REPLACE the PREVIOUS DATA. Display all three heating and cooling curves on one graph, print it, and submit it with your lab worksheet. On your lab worksheet: For the two uncovered discs (black and white), compare the temperature ranges and the rates of heating and cooling. Discuss and explain your observations. Look at the heating and cooling curves for the covered disc, and for the same disc uncovered. Compare the temperature ranges, and the rates of heating and cooling. If possible, look at the curves for the other covered disc from another lab groups, and make the same comparisons How do your observations and data relate to greenhouses, and the greenhouse effect? Heat Circus The following observations should be made, in any order, while the computer is collecting data. There are some very hot surfaces. Use caution and avoid burns. A. Boiling Water - Conduction versus Convection Heat some water in a large test tube over a bunsen burner. The stand holds the test tube ~30 o from vertical. Fill the tube ~2/3 full with cold water, and clamp it at the top. Carefully add a crystal of potassium permanganate dye to help see the convection currents in the water. Do not stir the water to make the color uniform. Do this twice, starting each time with cold water and new dye.: 1. First apply the heat near the bottom of the test tube. Observe what happens in the test tube. How long can you hold your fingers near the water level at the top of the tube? 2. This time apply the heat just below the water surface. Observe what happens in the test tube. How long can you hold your fingers on the bottom of the test tube? Compare conduction and convection as heat transfer mechanisms. B. Conductors and Insulators Short rods of various materials (aluminum, copper, glass, and iron) are held in an aluminum block heated to a uniform temperature. Note the variations in the temperature of the ends of the rods. Your finger tips make a reasonable sensor, and the time required to feel significant heat is a rough measure of thermal conductivity. If the end feels cold, work your way down the rod toward the aluminum base block. page 4

6 PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall 2006 Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect NAME DATE LAB PARTNER Lab Sec. 1 Wed. 2:30 2 Thu 12:10 Heat Circus This lab involves many hot surfaces and the potential to burn yourself. Please be careful! A. Boiling Water - Conduction versus Convection 1. (heating from the bottom) 2. (heating near the top of the water) B. Conductors and insulators Rank in order from the best (1) to worst (4) heat conductor. [ ] aluminum [ ] copper [ ] iron [ ] glass Look up the thermal conductivities of these materials online or in a reference book such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. List the values below. Are the values in agreement with your sensations? C. Radiation Reflection Record your observations about the reflection of thermal radiation. Explain the principle behind the radiometer.

8 The Greenhouse Experiment 1. Attach the three heating and cooling curves. 2. Discuss and explain the temperature ranges and the rates of heating and cooling for: Uncovered white vs. uncovered black disc. Covered disc vs. uncovered disc. Try to justify your explanations using observations you have made in the Heat Circus part of the lab if you can. (To help organize your thoughts, you may want to discuss how each of the three heat transfer mechanisms is affected by the different conditions) 3. Use your observations to explain the principles behind the greenhouse effect. Specifically, use your observations from the Heat Circus labs and questions 1 and 2 above to discuss how the heat transfer mechanisms and steady-state temperature of the earth are affected by the atmosphere and by surface conditions.

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