# PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect"

## Transcription

1 PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall 2006 Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect Only a short report is required: worksheets, graphs and answers to the questions. Introduction In this experiment we study the mechanisms by which heat is transferred, and the greenhouse effect. The data for the greenhouse effect experiment is taken by computer using the Data Studio interface. This part of the experiment can run unattended for periods of 20 to 60 minutes while you perform 5 other simple experiments concerning heat transfer and other thermal phenomena. You will have to use your time efficiently in order to complete the experiments during the lab period. Each group will move through different stations to carry out different experiments. Heat Transfer Heat, or thermal energy, can be transmitted by three mechanisms, convection, conduction, and radiation. We will discuss each briefly before discussing the greenhouse effect and the other experiments to be done. Convection In convection, heat is transferred by the macroscopic movement of heated mass inside a body of fluid (gas or liquid). Solids are rigid and so they do not support convection. A fan (or pump) in a household furnace moves heated air (or water) from the furnace to cooler locations in the house. This is called forced convection. On the other hand, we can rely on the fact that air and water become less dense when heated, and rise. If we place a hot brick in a room, the air near the brick becomes warm, and rises, carrying heat from the brick to the space above. This is natural convection. Conduction Heat transfer by conduction is due to molecular vibrations and, in metals, the motion of electrons. Neighboring particles exchange kinetic energy continuously. Energy is transferred from one part of the material to another whenever there is a difference in temperature. No movement of mass is involved. Solids, liquids and gases all support thermal conduction, but the low density of gases make conduction typically much less important than convection. In all fluids, the relative importance of convection versus conduction depends on the driving force for flow. A large temperature difference would lead to a large density difference between hot and cold regions, and thus a large buoyant force to drive natural convection. Poor heat conductors are used for thermal insulation, and they are typically also poor electrical conductors. Do you know which material has the best thermal conductivity? Radiation Energy can also be transferred by the radiation of electromagnetic waves that have no mass and can travel through vacuum. EM waves can have any frequency f with the quantum (smallest parcel) of energy transferred being hf, where h is the Planck constant. This implies that since X- page 1

2 rays have higher frequencies than visible light, the quanta of x-rays have more energy and we would predict they can do more damage to the cells in our bodies. Every object emits a spectrum of EM waves. The intensity is greatest at a frequency f max that is proportional to the absolute temperature T (Wein's law). For an ideal black body, it can be shown that hf max! 5k BT, where k B is the Boltzmann constant. The radiated power of an ideal blackbody is proportional to the 4 th power of the absolute temperature (Stefan s law). Increasing the absolute temperature of an object from 300 K to 357 K (27 o C to 84 o C) doubles the radiated power, because 2 1/4 = and = 357. The sun is at such a high temperature that it radiates most strongly with visible light. The sun s light has to travel km through space (which is a near perfect vacuum) to reach earth. Upon reaching the earth s atmosphere, this light can be reflected, absorbed or transmitted to the earth s surface. At the earth s surface, the light is either absorbed or reflected. Since all bodies radiate, the earth will radiate as well, but mostly strongly in the infrared (wavelength > 1000nm) because of its lower temperature (300 K) compared to the sun (6000 K). Materials such as glass or the gases in the atmosphere, may be transparent to visible light yet opaque to infrared, or viceversa. Another term we often see is albedo. Radiation incident on a surface, is either reflected, transmitted, or absorbed. The fraction which is reflected (diffusely or specularly) is called the albedo. The albedo of shiny aluminum foil is 95%. An ideal black body absorbs 100%, so the albedo is zero. The Greenhouse Effect Every object receives energy from its surroundings by all three mechanisms, and simultaneously loses energy to its surroundings the same way. If the rate of energy loss is equal to the rate received, the object will stay at the same temperature, i.e., in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Otherwise it will heat up or cool down. Since the rate of heat transfer depends on temperature and many other parameters, predicting the steady-state temperature is a complex problem. Further, the environment is always changing, so the temperature of everything in nature is constantly changing, it is just a question of how quickly. A simple garden plot receives energy radiated from the surroundings on earth and from the sun. The garden loses energy primarily by natural convection, and some by radiation. The balance between the incoming and outgoing energy determines the rate of temperature change. If the environment stayed the same long enough, the garden would reach a steady state temperature. Covering the garden with a greenhouse greatly reduces the convective heat loss, resulting in a new energy balance at a significantly higher temperature. The glass roof of the greenhouse lets in the radiated energy from the sun (visible light), but it reflects the infrared radiation emitted from the plants and soil back into the greenhouse. The glass also prevents heat loss by convection. The temperature in a green house is controlled by painting some roof panels white to reduce the incident sunlight, and by opening roof panels to let some of the warm air out, allowing some convective cooling. page 2

3 Some of the energy received from the sun by radiation is absorbed by the earth s atmosphere, some is transmitted to the earth s surface. The heated atmosphere also radiates energy, some toward the earth. The earth emits thermal radiation as well, and some of it is absorbed in the atmosphere, which radiates both inward and outward. Thus the atmosphere plays the role of a blanket that wraps around the earth to reduce the heat loss and keeps it warm. There are also internal sources of heat within the earth, such as natural radioactivity and geothermal sources. Again, the heat balance determines the steady state temperature. Without the atmosphere the earth would be 30 to 35 o C cooler, and life here would be very different. This is called the greenhouse effect because the earth would be much cooler without the atmosphere, just as the greenhouse would be much cooler without its roof. However, the physical effects involved are quite different. The environmental concerns about "greenhouse gases" relate to the fact that the degree to which the atmosphere absorbs and transmits radiation of a particular wavelength depends upon its chemical composition. The addition to the atmosphere of gases which change the absorption and transmission of the radiation incident from the sun and earth would most likely change the heat balance, and hence the steady-state temperature of the earth. Water vapor, carbon dioxide and fluorocarbon molecules have strong molecular vibrational modes with natural frequencies in the infrared region. There is evidence that the rapid release of these molecules into the atmosphere over the last century is causing the average temperature of the earth to rise. The Greenhouse Experiment Note : while the computer is collecting this data you should do the Heat Circus experiments. Log onto the computer using the name and password posted above the monitor screen. Double-click on the Data Studio icon to start the application. Use the File menu in Data Studio to open the Greenhouse.ds activity file. (Look in C:\student temp\p289\) The sun is represented by a projector lamp, and the Earth by a metal disc. A timer turns the "sun" on and off. Mount either the black or the white disc on the holder, and bring the temperature probe into contact with the disc. Use a small dab of the heat-conducting grease to assure good thermal contact between the temperature probe and the disc. Measure the distance from the projector lamp to the disc, and keep this constant for the remainder of the experiment. Start recording in Data Studio. Set the data rate to about 1 point every 2 seconds. After 30 seconds you will have enough points to determine the steady-state temperature of the disc. Set the lamp timer for 10 minutes, and turn the timer on. The computer should now be collecting the heating curve. Choose a suitable scale for the time axis to see all the data while they are being recorded. After 10 minutes the lamp will turn off, and the computer will record the cooling curve. Terminate this after 10 minutes. Save your Data Studio activity file with a unique name. DO NOT REPLACE or DELETE THIS DATA; later you will need to plot this curve along with others. page 3

4 Repeat the above for the other disc. Again, record data for 10 minutes with the sun on and 10 minutes off. DO NOT REPLACE the PREVIOUS DATA. When this is complete, save the file again. Display the two curves on a single graph. Observe the similarities and differences between the black and white discs. Now, change to the disc initially used (so that you start at room temperature). Cover the disc with a plastic bag. Make a small hole in the bag for the temperature probe. Record the data as before, but with the timer set for 20 to 30 minutes, and 20 to 30 minutes of cooling (depending on the time remaining in the lab period). DO NOT REPLACE the PREVIOUS DATA. Display all three heating and cooling curves on one graph, print it, and submit it with your lab worksheet. On your lab worksheet: For the two uncovered discs (black and white), compare the temperature ranges and the rates of heating and cooling. Discuss and explain your observations. Look at the heating and cooling curves for the covered disc, and for the same disc uncovered. Compare the temperature ranges, and the rates of heating and cooling. If possible, look at the curves for the other covered disc from another lab groups, and make the same comparisons How do your observations and data relate to greenhouses, and the greenhouse effect? Heat Circus The following observations should be made, in any order, while the computer is collecting data. There are some very hot surfaces. Use caution and avoid burns. A. Boiling Water - Conduction versus Convection Heat some water in a large test tube over a bunsen burner. The stand holds the test tube ~30 o from vertical. Fill the tube ~2/3 full with cold water, and clamp it at the top. Carefully add a crystal of potassium permanganate dye to help see the convection currents in the water. Do not stir the water to make the color uniform. Do this twice, starting each time with cold water and new dye.: 1. First apply the heat near the bottom of the test tube. Observe what happens in the test tube. How long can you hold your fingers near the water level at the top of the tube? 2. This time apply the heat just below the water surface. Observe what happens in the test tube. How long can you hold your fingers on the bottom of the test tube? Compare conduction and convection as heat transfer mechanisms. B. Conductors and Insulators Short rods of various materials (aluminum, copper, glass, and iron) are held in an aluminum block heated to a uniform temperature. Note the variations in the temperature of the ends of the rods. Your finger tips make a reasonable sensor, and the time required to feel significant heat is a rough measure of thermal conductivity. If the end feels cold, work your way down the rod toward the aluminum base block. page 4

6 PHYSICS 289 Experiment 3 Fall 2006 Heat transfer and the Greenhouse Effect NAME DATE LAB PARTNER Lab Sec. 1 Wed. 2:30 2 Thu 12:10 Heat Circus This lab involves many hot surfaces and the potential to burn yourself. Please be careful! A. Boiling Water - Conduction versus Convection 1. (heating from the bottom) 2. (heating near the top of the water) B. Conductors and insulators Rank in order from the best (1) to worst (4) heat conductor. [ ] aluminum [ ] copper [ ] iron [ ] glass Look up the thermal conductivities of these materials online or in a reference book such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. List the values below. Are the values in agreement with your sensations? C. Radiation Reflection Record your observations about the reflection of thermal radiation. Explain the principle behind the radiometer.

7 D. Radiation Transmission Record your observations about the transmission of thermal radiation and of visible light through the materials supplied. Visible Light Thermal Radiation (Heat) Glass Insulating Tile Mica Plexiglass Are there situations in which your hand does not feel the heat but visible light is passed? What about the converse? How can this be? E. Radiation Absorption Record your observations about how the absorption of thermal radiation is dependent on surface properties such as dullness, shininess, and color.

8 The Greenhouse Experiment 1. Attach the three heating and cooling curves. 2. Discuss and explain the temperature ranges and the rates of heating and cooling for: Uncovered white vs. uncovered black disc. Covered disc vs. uncovered disc. Try to justify your explanations using observations you have made in the Heat Circus part of the lab if you can. (To help organize your thoughts, you may want to discuss how each of the three heat transfer mechanisms is affected by the different conditions) 3. Use your observations to explain the principles behind the greenhouse effect. Specifically, use your observations from the Heat Circus labs and questions 1 and 2 above to discuss how the heat transfer mechanisms and steady-state temperature of the earth are affected by the atmosphere and by surface conditions.

### Conduction is the transfer of heat by the direct contact of particles of matter.

Matter and Energy Chapter 9 energy flows from a material at a higher temperature to a material at a lower temperature. This process is called heat transfer. How is heat transferred from material to material,

### Heat can be transferred by. and by radiation Conduction

Heat can be transferred by conduction, by convection, and by radiation. The spontaneous transfer of heat is always from warmer objects to cooler objects. If several objects near one another have different

### L 18 Thermodynamics [3] Heat flow. Conduction. Convection. Thermal Conductivity. heat conduction. Heat transfer

L 18 Thermodynamics [3] Heat transfer convection conduction emitters of seeing behind closed doors Greenhouse effect Heat Capacity How to boil water Heat flow HEAT the energy that flows from one system

### THERMODYNAMICS METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER RADIATION

VISUAL PHYSICS ONLINE THERMODYNAMICS METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER RADIATION Radiation is the energy transferred by electromagnetic waves mainly infrared (IR), visible and ultraviolet (UV). All materials radiate

Lecture 4: Radiation Transfer Spectrum of radiation Stefan-Boltzmann law Selective absorption and emission Reflection and scattering Remote sensing Importance of Radiation Transfer Virtually all the exchange

### Bernoulli s Principle. Application: Lift. Bernoulli s Principle. Main Points 3/13/15. Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper

Bernoulli s Principle Demo: Blowing on a sheet of paper Where the speed of a fluid increases, internal pressure in the fluid decreases. Due to continuous flow of a fluid: what goes in must come out! Fluid

### Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection.

Section 2 Atmospheric Heating Key Concept Heat in Earth s atmosphere is transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection. What You Will Learn Solar energy travels through space as radiation and passes

### Exercises Conduction (pages ) 1. Define conduction. 2. What is a conductor?

Exercises 22.1 Conduction (pages 431 432) 1. Define conduction. 2. What is a conductor? 3. are the best conductors. 4. In conduction, between particles transfer thermal energy. 5. Is the following sentence

### Energy and Insolation Review 2

Energy and Insolation Review 2 The diagram below shows a container of water that is being heated. 1. The movement of water shown by the arrows is most likely caused by (1) density differences (2) insolation

### Infrared Experiments of Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer

Infrared Experiments of Thermal Energy and Heat Transfer You will explore thermal energy, thermal equilibrium, heat transfer, and latent heat in a series of hands-on activities augmented by the thermal

### Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes

Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Energy Transfer When two objects of different temperatures are placed in thermal contact, the temperature of the warmer decreases and the temperature of the cooler

### Science 7 Unit C: Heat and Temperature. Topic 6. Transferring Energy. pp WORKBOOK. Name:

Science 7 Unit C: Heat and Temperature Topic 6 Transferring Energy pp. 226-236 WORKBOOK Name: 0 Read pp. 226-227 object or material that can transfer energy to other objects Example: light bulb, the Sun

### HEAT HISTORY. D. Whitehall

1 HEAT HISTORY 18 th Century In the 18 th century it was assumed that there was an invisible substance called caloric. When objects got it was assumed that they gained caloric, therefore hot objects should

### Name Class Date. What are three kinds of energy transfer? What are conductors and insulators? What makes something a good conductor of heat?

CHAPTER 14 SECTION Heat and Temperature 2 Energy Transfer KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are three kinds of energy transfer? What are conductors and insulators?

### A) usually less B) dark colored and rough D) light colored with a smooth surface A) transparency of the atmosphere D) rough, black surface

1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows two identical houses, A and B, in a city in North Carolina. One house was built on the east side of a factory, and the other

### Chapter 1. Blackbody Radiation. Theory

Chapter 1 Blackbody Radiation Experiment objectives: explore radiation from objects at certain temperatures, commonly known as blackbody radiation ; make measurements testing the Stefan-Boltzmann law in

### P5 Heat and Particles Revision Kinetic Model of Matter: States of matter

P5 Heat and Particles Revision Kinetic Model of Matter: States of matter State Size Shape Solid occupies a fixed volume has a fixed shape Liquid occupies a fixed volume takes the shape of its container

### Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat

Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat Heat Transfer Temperature - temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles making up an object (measured in C or K) 0 K = -273 o C

### Outline. Stock Flow and temperature. Earth as a black body. Equation models for earth s temperature. Balancing earth s energy flows.

Outline Stock Flow and temperature Earth as a black body Equation models for earth s temperature { { Albedo effect Greenhouse effect Balancing earth s energy flows Exam questions How does earth maintain

### Chapter 2. Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere

Chapter 2 Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere Topics Earth-Sun Relationships Energy, Heat and Temperature Mechanisms of Heat Transfer What happens to Incoming Solar Radiation? Radiation Emitted by the

### Empirical Gas Laws (Parts 1 and 2) Pressure-volume and pressure-temperature relationships in gases

Empirical Gas Laws (Parts 1 and 2) Pressure-volume and pressure-temperature relationships in gases Some of the earliest experiments in chemistry and physics involved the study of gases. The invention of

### Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation Chapter 5. What is light? What is a wave? Radiation carries information

Concepts: Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation Chapter 5 Electromagnetic waves Types of spectra Temperature Blackbody radiation Dual nature of radiation Atomic structure Interaction of light and matter

### Experiment #9. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

Introduction Experiment #9. Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of light with matter. This interaction can be in the form of the absorption or the emission of electromagnetic

### SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy

THERMAL ENERGY AND LATENT HEAT LEARNING GOALS Students will learn: Heat changes the amount of thermal energy in an object Temperature is a measure of the average thermal energy in an object Heat capacity

### Temperature and Heat. Chapter 10. Table of Contents. Chapter 10. Chapter 10. Bellringer. Objectives. Chapter 10. Chapter 10

Heat and Heat Technology Table of Contents Temperature and Heat Section 3 Matter and Heat Bellringer Objectives The temperature of boiling water is 100 on the Celsius scale and 212 on the Fahrenheit scale.

### Lecture 4: Global Energy Balance. Global Energy Balance. Solar Flux and Flux Density. Blackbody Radiation Layer Model.

Lecture : Global Energy Balance Global Energy Balance S/ * (1-A) terrestrial radiation cooling Solar radiation warming T S Global Temperature Blackbody Radiation ocean land Layer Model energy, water, and

### Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity

cen54261_ch21.qxd 1/25/4 11:32 AM Page 97 97 where f l1 and f l2 are blackbody functions corresponding to l 1 T and l 2 T. These functions are determined from Table 21 2 to be l 1 T (3 mm)(8 K) 24 mm K

### The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy

Energy Balance The inputs and outputs of energy within the earth-atmosphere system that determines the net energy available for surface processes is the Energy Balance Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic

### * Defining Temperature * Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. * Temperature * Internal energy

* Defining Temperature * We associate temperature with how hot or cold an object feels. * Our sense of touch serves as a qualitative indicator of temperature. * Energy must be either added or removed from

Conduction Thermal energy is transferred from place to place by conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy by collisions between particles in matter. Conduction

### The Kinetic Theory of Matter. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Temperature. Chapter 6 HEAT

The Kinetic Theory of Matter Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Chapter 6 HEAT Kinetic Theory of Matter: Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) that are always in

### Composition, Structure and Energy. ATS 351 Lecture 2 September 14, 2009

Composition, Structure and Energy ATS 351 Lecture 2 September 14, 2009 Composition of the Atmosphere Atmospheric Properties Temperature Pressure Wind Moisture (i.e. water vapor) Density Temperature A measure

### Physical and mathematical models of the greenhouse effect

Physical and mathematical models of the greenhouse effect My Research Questions If the Earth had no atmosphere, its average surface temperature would be about 18 C. However, the heat trapping effect of

### 8th Grade. Thermal Energy Study Guide.

1 8th Grade Thermal Energy Study Guide 2015 10 09 www.njctl.org 2 Thermal Energy Study Guide www.njctl.org 3 Part 1 Define the following terms and/or concepts 4 1 Temperature 5 2 Kinetic Energy 6 3 Thermal

### Slide 1 / 67. Slide 2 / 67. 8th Grade. Thermal Energy Study Guide Slide 3 / 67. Thermal Energy. Study Guide.

Slide 1 / 67 Slide 2 / 67 8th Grade Thermal Energy Study Guide 2015-10-09 www.njctl.org Slide 3 / 67 Thermal Energy Study Guide www.njctl.org Slide 4 / 67 Part 1 Define the following terms and/or concepts

### What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold?

Heat and Temperature Section 1: Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? 1 Intro: Discussion A person

### Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out by the sun L = 3.9

### Assess why particular characteristics are necessary for effective conduction KEY POINTS

Conduction LEARNING OBJECTIVES Assess why particular characteristics are necessary for effective conduction KEY POINTS On a microscopic scale, conduction occurs as rapidly moving or vibrating atoms and

### Chapter 11. Important to distinguish between them. They are not interchangeable. They mean very different things when used in physics Internal Energy

Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Energy Transfer When two objects of different temperatures are placed in thermal contact, the temperature of the warmer decreases and the temperature of the cooler

### Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat

Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat Textbook pages 424 435 Section 10.1 Summary Before You Read We often use the terms heat and temperature interchangeably. Do you think they mean the same thing? Explain

### Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes

Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Vocabulary, 3 Kinds of Energy Internal Energy U = Energy of microscopic motion and intermolucular forces Work W = -F x = -P V is work done by compression (next chapter)

### Chapter: Heat and States

Table of Contents Chapter: Heat and States of Matter Section 1: Temperature and Thermal Energy Section 2: States of Matter Section 3: Transferring Thermal Energy Section 4: Using Thermal Energy 1 Temperature

### PHYSICS OF FOIL. HEAT GAIN/LOSS IN BUILDINGS. Up Heat Flow. Down Heat Flow. Side Heat Flow

HEAT GAIN/LOSS IN BUILDINGS There are three modes of heat transfer: CONDUCTION, CONVECTION, and RADIATION (INFRA-RED). Of the three, radiation is the primary mode; conduction and convection are secondary

### General Physics (PHY 2130)

General Physics (PHY 2130) Lecture 34 Heat Heat transfer Conduction Convection Radiation http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/phy2130/ Lightning Review Last lecture: 1. Thermal physics Heat. Specific

### Experiment 2: THE DENSITY OF A SOLID UNKNOWN AND CALIBRATION WITH DATASTUDIO SOFTWARE

Experiment 2: THE DENSITY OF A SOLID UNKNOWN AND CALIBRATION WITH DATASTUDIO SOFTWARE Concepts: Density Equipment Calibration Approximate time required: 90 minutes for density 90 minutes for two thermometers

### !U = Q " P!V. Q = mc!t. Vocabulary, 3 Kinds of Energy. Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes. Example Temperature and Specific Heat

Vocabulary, 3 Kinds of Energy Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Internal Energy U = Energy of microscopic motion and intermolucular forces Work W = -F!x = -P!V is work done by compression (next chapter)

### Heat and Temperature

Heat and Temperature Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? Intro: Discussion A person from Seattle

### NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 5. Radiation

NATS 101 Section 13: Lecture 5 Radiation What causes your hand to feel warm when you place it near the pot? NOT conduction or convection. Why? Therefore, there must be an mechanism of heat transfer which

### Comparing the actual value and the experimental value on heat. By conservation of energy

Topic: Heat 1. Temperature and thermometers a. Temperature: - measure degree of hotness. -measure the average kinetic energy of molecules in random motions. b. Fixed points: -Lower fixed point: temperature

### HEAT TRANSFER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 5 2 CONDUCTION

HEAT TRANSFER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS 5 2 CONDUCTION 11 Fourier s Law of Heat Conduction, General Conduction Equation Based on Cartesian Coordinates, Heat Transfer Through a Wall, Composite Wall

### Conduction and Convection

Conduction and Convection Convection Currents Definition Convection is the transfer of heat in liquids and gases. The hotter the liquid/gas the particles move faster and spread out. This means the gas/liquid

### What Is Air Temperature?

2.2 Read What Is Air Temperature? In Learning Set 1, you used a thermometer to measure air temperature. But what exactly was the thermometer measuring? What is different about cold air and warm air that

### Emissivity: Understanding the difference between apparent and actual infrared temperatures

Emissivity: Understanding the difference between apparent and actual infrared temperatures By L. Terry Clausing, P.E. ASNT Certified NDT Level III T/IR, for Fluke Corporation Application Note Taking infrared

### Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 2: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Selective absorption Vertical energy balance Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L) the constant flux of energy put out

### Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled?

1 NAME Investigation 2 Earth s Energy Budget: How Is the Temperature of Earth Controlled? Introduction As you learned from the reading, the balance between incoming energy from the sun and outgoing energy

### Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos. White light is made up of many different colors. Interactions of Light with Matter

Chapter 5 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos 5.1 Light in Everyday Life Our goals for learning: How do we experience light? How do light and matter interact?

### Physics PH1FP. (Jun14PH1FP01) General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier June Unit Physics P1. Unit Physics P1 TOTAL

Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials Question Mark Science A Unit Physics P1 Physics Unit Physics P1 Thursday 12 June 2014 General

### HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE

HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE Earth and Sun 99.9% of Earth s heat comes from Sun But

### States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, and Gas

Movie Special Effects Activity 2 States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, and Gas GOALS In this activity you will: Create an animation to illustrate the behavior of particles in different phases of matter, and

### Emissivity and Remote Sensing

Emissivity and Remote Sensing Introduction: In the last laboratory with reflectivity we touched on the subject of emissivity. In comparison to reflectivity, emissivity is actually a bit more complex from

### How does the surface type and moisture content affect the surfaceʼs temperature?

How does the surface type and moisture content affect the surfaceʼs temperature? Introduction In addition to the output of and the distance from the energy source, surface type (surface reflectivity, specific

### Electromagnetic Waves

4/15/12 Chapter 26: Properties of Light Field Induction Ok, so a changing magnetic field causes a current (Faraday s law) Why do we have currents in the first place? electric fields of the charges Changing

### Teaching the Greenhouse Effect. Brian Hornbuckle and Ray Arritt

Teaching the Greenhouse Effect Brian Hornbuckle and Ray Arritt It is true that there are other factors (such as volcanic activity, variations in the earth s orbit and axis, the solar cycle), yet a number

### 8.5 GREENHOUSE EFFECT 8.6 GLOBAL WARMING HW/Study Packet

8.5 GREENHOUSE EFFECT 8.6 GLOBAL WARMING HW/Study Packet Required: READ Tsokos, pp 434-450 Hamper pp 294-307 SL/HL Supplemental: none REMEMBER TO. Work through all of the example problems in the texts

### PHYSICS 149: Lecture 26

PHYSICS 149: Lecture 26 Chapter 14: Heat 14.1 Internal Energy 14.2 Heat 14.3 Heat Capacity and Specific Heat 14.5 Phase Transitions 14.6 Thermal Conduction 14.7 Thermal Convection 14.8 Thermal Radiation

### Lecture 13 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Lecture 13 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Lecture 13 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium Linear Expansion

### X-ray spectroscopy: Experimental studies of Moseley s law (K-line x-ray fluorescence) and x-ray material s composition determination

Uppsala University Department of Physics and Astronomy Laboratory exercise X-ray spectroscopy: Experimental studies of Moseley s law (K-line x-ray fluorescence) and x-ray material s composition determination

### Thermal Effects. IGCSE Physics

Thermal Effects IGCSE Physics Starter What is the difference between heat and temperature? What unit is thermal energy measured in? And what does it depend on? In which direction does heat flow? Heat (Thermal

### K20: Temperature, Heat, and How Heat Moves

K20: Temperature, Heat, and How Heat Moves Definition of Temperature Definition of Heat How heat flows (Note: For all discussions here, particle means a particle of mass which moves as a unit. It could

### Study Guide Unit 3 Chapter 6 DRAFT

Study Guide Unit 3 Chapter 6 DRAFT Unit 3 BIG IDEAS Energy can be transformed from one type into another. Energy transformation systems often involve thermal energy losses and are never 100 % efficient.

### Name Class Date. How are temperature and energy related? What are the three common temperature scales? Why do objects feel hot or cold?

CHAPTER 14 SECTION Heat and Temperature 1 Temperature KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How are temperature and energy related? What are the three common temperature scales?

### Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Flux and Flux Density Solar Luminosity (L)

### Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound Source: Utah State Office of Education A two-year-old has plenty of it, and the sun has a bunch of it. Do you know what it is? If not, let me give you a definition: A source

### Most of the energy from the light sources was transferred to the sand by the process of A) conduction B) convection C) radiation D) transpiration

1. Light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation are given off by stars using energy released during A) nuclear fusion B) conduction C) convection D) radioactive decay 2. At which temperature would

### Thermal Systems. What and How? Physical Mechanisms and Rate Equations Conservation of Energy Requirement Control Volume Surface Energy Balance

Introduction to Heat Transfer What and How? Physical Mechanisms and Rate Equations Conservation of Energy Requirement Control Volume Surface Energy Balance Thermal Resistance Thermal Capacitance Thermal

### Lab 2: The electromagnetic spectrum

Astronomy 102 Name(s): Lab 2: The electromagnetic spectrum Purpose: In this lab, you will explore the phenomenon of light, and see that the electromagnetic spectrum provides a comprehensive model for understanding

### High temperature He is hot

Lecture 9 What is Temperature and Heat? High temperature He is hot Some important definitions * Two objects are in Thermal contact with each other if energy can be exchanged between them. Thermal equilibrium

### Physical Science. Thermal Energy & Heat

Physical Science Thermal Energy & Heat Sometimes called internal energy Depends on the object's mass, temperature, and phase (solid, liquid, gas) TOTAL potential and kinetic energy of all the particles

### Purpose of the experiment

Seasons and Angle of Insolation ENSC 162 Solar Energy Lab Purpose of the experiment Use a Temperature Probe to monitor simulated warming of your city by the sun in the winter. Use a Temperature Probe monitor

### HEAT How is thermal energy transferred?

HEAT How is thermal energy transferred? Give an example of conduction? What is a convection current? Explain radiant energy? 1/3/2017 Heat Notes 1 1/3/2017 Heat Notes 2 NEED TO KNOW VOCABULARY: Conduction

### Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 23 : Particle and Waves

Module 5 : MODERN PHYSICS Lecture 23 : Particle and Waves Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Radiation (light) exhibits both wave and particle nature. Laws governing black body radiation,

### Heat Transfer. Phys101 Lectures 33, 34. Key points: Heat as Energy Transfer Specific Heat Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation.

Phys101 Lectures 33, 34 Heat Transfer Key points: Heat as Energy Transfer Specific Heat Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, Radiation. Ref: 14-1,2,3,4,6,7,8. Page 1 Heat as Energy Transfer We often

### Energy: Warming the earth and Atmosphere. air temperature. Overview of the Earth s Atmosphere 9/10/2012. Composition. Chapter 3.

Overview of the Earth s Atmosphere Composition 99% of the atmosphere is within 30km of the Earth s surface. N 2 78% and O 2 21% The percentages represent a constant amount of gas but cycles of destruction

### Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos

Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos 5.1 Light in Everyday Life Our goals for learning How do we experience light? How do light and matter interact? How do we experience light?

### Energy in Thermal Processes. Heat and Internal Energy

Energy in Thermal Processes Heat and Internal Energy Internal energy U: associated with the microscopic components of a system: kinetic and potential energies. The larger the number of internal degrees

### Greenhouse Effect. Julia Porter, Celia Hallan, Andrew Vrabel Miles, Gary DeFrance, and Amber Rose

Greenhouse Effect Julia Porter, Celia Hallan, Andrew Vrabel Miles, Gary DeFrance, and Amber Rose What is the Greenhouse Effect? The greenhouse effect is a natural occurrence caused by Earth's atmosphere

Name Class Date Skills Practice Lab Blackbody Radiation A perfect absorber of radiation also happens to be a perfect radiator of that radiation as well. Such objects are called blackbodies, because darker

### Measuring Albedo. Materials Light meters Student worksheets

Measuring Albedo Materials Light meters Student worksheets Background: Albedo is a measure of reflectivity. It is the ratio of the solar radiation (short wave radiation) reflected by a surface to the total

### Light carries energy. Lecture 5 Understand Light. Is light. Light as a Particle. ANSWER: Both.

Light carries energy Lecture 5 Understand Light Reading: Chapter 6 You feel energy carried by light when light hits your skin. Energy Conservation: Radiation energy will be given to molecules making your

### Energy Balance and Temperature. Ch. 3: Energy Balance. Ch. 3: Temperature. Controls of Temperature

Energy Balance and Temperature 1 Ch. 3: Energy Balance Propagation of Radiation Transmission, Absorption, Reflection, Scattering Incoming Sunlight Outgoing Terrestrial Radiation and Energy Balance Net

### Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes

Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Vocabulary, 3 Kinds of Energy Internal Energy U Energy of a system due to microscopic motion and inter-molucular forces Work W -F x -P V is work done by expansion

### Recall: The Importance of Light

Key Concepts: Lecture 19: Light Light: wave-like behavior Light: particle-like behavior Light: Interaction with matter - Kirchoff s Laws The Wave Nature of Electro-Magnetic Radiation Visible light is just

### Lesson 9 Overview. DRIVING QUESTION: What is the greenhouse effect and how does it affect Earth s surface temperature?

Lesson 9 Overview DRIVING QUESTION: What is the greenhouse effect and how does it affect Earth s surface temperature? LEARNING GOAL: Students develop and use models of the greenhouse effect to construct

### Unit Two Worksheet Matter and Energy WS PS U2

Unit Two Worksheet Matter and Energy WS PS U2 Name Period Section 4.1 Matching. Match the definition with the term that best correlates to it. 1. Chemical potential energy 2. Elastic potential energy 3.

### Properties of Matter

Grade 7 Science, Quarter 1, Unit 1.1 Properties of Matter Overview Number of instructional days: 15 (1 day = 50 minutes) Content to be learned Identify different substances using data about characteristic

### Pre-Lab Read the entire laboratory assignment. Answer all pre-lab questions before beginning the lab.

Name: Date: Pd: Lab Partner: Lab # 13: Types of Reactions, Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions Lab Accelerated Chemistry 1 Introduction: If you examine your bicycle after it has been left out in

### Chapter 5 Light: The Cosmic Messenger. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5 Light: The Cosmic Messenger 5.1 Basic Properties of Light and Matter Our goals for learning: What is light? What is matter? How do light and matter interact? What is light? Light is an electromagnetic