# Math 121 Homework 5: Notes on Selected Problems

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1 Math 121 Homework 5: Notes on Selected Problems Let M be a module over the integral domain R. (a) Assume that M has rank n and that x 1,..., x n is any maximal set of linearly independent elements of M. Prove that N is isomorphic to R n and that the quotient M/N is a torsion R- module. (b) Prove conversely that if M contains a submodule N that is free of rank n (i.e., N R n ) such that the quotient M/N is a torsion R-module then M has rank n. Solution. (a) Write e 1,..., e n for the standard basis of R n. The R-linear map R n N given by e i x i is injective by independence of the set x 1,..., x n and surjective by definition of N. For any x in M, x, x 1,..., x n is R-linearly dependent by maximality so we can write an R-linear dependence ax + a 1 x a n x n = 0 for a, a 1,..., a n in R not all zero. Since x 1,..., x n are R-linearly independent, a is nonzero. Therefore the image of x in M/N is R-torsion, being killed by the nonzero element a of R. (b) If N is free on x 1,..., x n, then x 1,..., x n is an R-linearly independent set of elements of M so the rank of M is at least n. Let y 1,..., y n+1 be elements of M. Since M/N is torsion, for each i there exists a nonzero a i in R such that a i y i is in N. Then since N is free of rank n, there exists a nontrivial R-linear dependence among a 1 y 1,..., a n+1 y n+1, which gives a nontrivial R-linear dependence among y 1,..., y n+1 since the a i are nonzero and hence not zero divisors as R is an integral domain. Therefore the rank of M is precisely n. (Instead of appealing to the fact that n + 1 elements in a free module of rank n over a commutative ring with identity must be dependent proved in the text in the case that R is a domain one may also, as indicated in the hint, imitate/repeat either of the proofs.) Let R = Zx and let M = (2, x) be the ideal generated by 2 and x, considered as a submodule of R. Show that {2, x} is not a basis of M. Show that the rank of M is 1, but that M is not free of rank 1. Solution. The set {2, x} is not a basis of M because it is not Zx- linearly independent: ( x) x = 0 is a nontrivial Zx-linear 1

2 dependence. In fact, for any p(x) and q(x) in M, either both of p(x) and q(x) are zero or ( q(x)) p(x) + p(x) q(x) = 0 is a nontrivial Zx-linear dependence. Therefore M does not contain any independent sets with more than one element. Any nonzero element in M is non-torsion, however, so M has rank at least 1. Therefore M has rank precisely 1. To show that M is not free of rank 1 it suffices to show that no element of M principally generates M. Let r (x) be an element of M so that r (x)zx contains 2, that is r (x) divides 2. By degree considerations, r (x) is a constant polynomial, which must be equal to some integral multiple of 2. Then x is not divisible by r (x). Therefore r (x)zx does not contain x and so is a proper Zx-submodule of M. Finally, M is not a principal Zx-module and hence not free of rank Let R be an integral domain with quotient field F and let M be any R-module. Prove that the rank of M equals the dimension of the vector space F R M over F. Proof. We shall assume that the kernel of M F R M is the torsion submodule of M. This is proved in several ways in the comment and note below. We first show that every element of F R M is an F-multiple of a simple tensor in the image of M F R M. This is true of simple tensors in F R M: an arbitrary simple tensor a b m either has a b = 0 so can be written as 0(1 m) or otherwise can be written as a b m = a( 1 b m) = a b b( 1 b m) = a (1 m). b The set of F-multiples of elements in the image of M F R M is also closed under addition a 1 b 1 (1 m 1 ) + a 2 b 2 (1 m 2 ) = 1 b 1 b 2 (b 2 a 1 (1 m 1 ) + b 1 a 2 (1 m 2 ) = 1 b 1 b 2 (1 (b 2 a 1 m 1 + b 1 a 2 m 2 )) so the general case follows. Now consider an F-linearly independent set in F R M, which by the above we may write as {f i (1 m i )}. Then {1 m i } is also an F-linearly independent set in F R M. We claim that {m i } is an R-linearly independent set in M. Assume that for each i there is r i in R, all but finitely many zero, such that r i m i = 0. Then ri (1 m i ) = 0. By independent of {1 m i }, r i = 0 for each i. This proves that {m i } is R-linearly independent. Conversely, let {m i } be an R-linearly independent subset of M. We claim that {1 m i } is an F-linearly independent subset of F R M.

3 Assume that for each i there is f i in F, all but finitely many zero, such that f i (1 m i ) = 0. Multiplying out denominators for the finitely many nonzero coefficients gives that r i (1 m i ) = 0 where each r i is a nonzero multiple of f i. Therefore 1 r i m i = 0. Since the kernel of M F R M consists of torsion elements, there is a nonzero r in R such that r r i m i = 0. By R-linear independence, for each i we have r r i = 0, but r is nonzero so r i = 0. It follows that each f i is a zero divisor and hence equal to zero. This proves F-linear independence of {1 m i }. Given an R-linearly independent subset of M, we demonstrated an F-linearly independent subset of F R M of the same cardinality, and the other way around. Therefore the R-rank of M is the same as the F-dimension of F R M. Comment. The harder part is showing that the F-dimension of F R M is at least the rank of M. The main difficulty is showing that 1 m = 0 in F R M implies that m in M is R-torsion. We illustrate a proof of this. Let N N be an inclusion of R-modules. We show that any R- bilinear map ϕ : F N F extends to an R-bilinear map ϕ : F N F. Assume first that N is generated over N by a single element n. If Rn N = 0 so N = N Rn, we set ϕ(f, n) = 0 for all f in F and extend linearly. If Rn N 0, then there is a nonzero r in R and n in N so that r n = n, and then we set ϕ(f, n) = r 1 ϕ (f, n ) for all f in F and extend linearly. Inductively we have proved the existence of extensions when N is finitely generated over N, and the general case follows from Zorn s lemma. Now consider a non-torsion element m of M. Then Rm is a free R- module on {m}, and Rm R F is a free F-module on {m 1}. Since m 1 is not zero in Rm R F, there exists an R-bilinear map Rm F F that does not kill (m, 1). An extension to an R-bilinear map of M F F exists, and by virtue of being an extension also does not kill (m, 1). Therefore m 1 is nonzero in M R F. Note. Alternatively, one may use the module of fractions, which is defined as an R-module homomorphism M M F with codomain some F-module M F that is universal, meaning that any R-module homomorphism M Z with codomain an F-module factors uniquely through M M F. (Every F-module is an R-module via restriction of scalars R F.) A realization of M F is as follows: As a set M F is the set of equivalence classes of M (R \ 0) with the equivalence relation (m, s) (m, s ) if and only if there exists s in R \ 0 such that s (s m sm ) = 0. Denoting the equivalence class of (m, s) by m s may 3

4 help in understanding the definition; we will simply write (m, s) for the equivalence class of (m, s). The set map M M F sending m to the equivalence class of (m, 1) will be an R-module homomorphism when M F has the following F-module structure: the zero element is (0, 1) and addition is given by (m, s) + (m, s ) = (s m + sm, ss ) and the action of F is given by r s (m, s) = (r m, s s). Having discussed the module of fractions M F, we now return to the original question by showing that 1 m is zero in F R M only if m is R- torsion. An R-bilinear map M F M F is given as the composition of F M F M F that is the identity in the second component followed by the F-action, which is a map F M F M F. The bilinear map induces an R-linear map M R F M F (which is in fact an isomorphism) taking m 1 to (m, 1). By definition of the equivalence relation, (m, 1) (0, 1) if and only if there exists a nonzero r in R such that r m = 0, that is if and only if m is torsion. In particular, m 1 has nonzero image in M F when m is not torsion. Therefore m 1 is not zero when m is not torsion. Note. Another alternative to the first proof, which extended bilinear maps, is to use the adjoint property of the tensor product. We prove the following lemma (which was implicitly proved above). Lemma. Let R be an integral domain and let F be the fraction field of R. Then for any inclusion of R-modules N N, the corresponding map N R F N R F is injective. Proof. Any R-linear map N F can be extended to an R-linear map N F as follows. For any n in N, either Rn N = 0 in which case the extension may send n anywhere, or there is a nonzero r in R such that r n = n for some n in N, in which case we send n to 1/r times the image of n. This allows us to create the extension in steps; when N is not finitely generated over N we invoke Zorn s lemma. Hence the natural R-linear map Hom R (N, F) Hom R (N, F) is surjective. We now show that the natural F-linear map Hom F (N R F, F) Hom F (N R F, F) 4

5 is surjective. 1 Let ϕ : N R F F be an F-linear map. Then an R- linear map N F is given by n ϕ(n 1). Choose an extension α to an R-linear map N F. The R-bilinear map N F F given by (n, f ) α(n)f induces an R-linear map N R F F whose image in Hom R (N R F, F) satisfies n a b α(n ) a b = ϕ(n 1) a b = ϕ( (n 1) a ) b = ϕ ( (n a b b) 1 b ) = ϕ(n a b ) for n in N and a in R and nonzero b in R, and therefore equals ϕ. We have proved that every element of Hom F (N R F, F) comes from an element of Hom F (N R F, F). If x in N R F is nonzero, there exists an F-linear map N R F F that does not kill x, and hence there exists an F-linear map N R F F not killing the image of x in N R F. Consequently the natural map N R F N R F is injective. 5 Problem 2. Find, with proof, a free basis for the subgroup of Z 4 defined by the constraint {(x, y, z, w) Z 4 : 11x + 8y + 3z 9w = 0}. Solution. Define a Z-linear map ρ : Z 4 Z by ρ(x, y, z, w) = 11x + 8y + 3z 9w. Using the Euclidean algorithm we may find a preimage of 1 under ρ, for example ρ(3, 4, 0, 0) = 1. Then we may define a section ι: Z Z 4 of ρ as the unique Z-linear map sending 1 to (3, 4, 0, 0). If ι(x) is in ker ρ, then x = ρ ι(x) = 0 so ι(x) = 0. Therefore ker ρ and im ι intersect trivially. Any x in Z 4 can be written as x = (x ι ρ(x)) + ι ρ(x), but x ι ρ(x) is in ker ρ and ι ρ(x) is in im ι. Thus Z 4 is the internal direct sum of ker ρ and im ι. Then im(1 Z 4 ι ρ) = ker ρ and ker(1 Z 4 ι ρ) = im ι. Hence ker ρ has the following presentation: generators v 1 = (1 Z 4 ι ρ)(1, 0, 0, 0) = ( 32, 44, 0, 0) v 2 = (1 Z 4 ι ρ)(0, 1, 0, 0) = ( 24, 33, 0, 0) v 3 = (1 Z 4 ι ρ)(0, 0, 1, 0) = ( 9, 12, 1, 0) v 4 = (1 Z 4 ι ρ)(0, 0, 0, 1) = (27, 36, 0, 1) 1 This follows directly from the natural F-linear isomorphism between F and Hom F (F, F) and adjointness: for any R-module E there is a natural bijection but we will argue directly. Hom R (E, Hom F (F, F)) Hom F (E R F, F),

6 with the only relations among the v i being multiples of 3v 1 4v 2 = 0 (which is obtained from the choice of section ι). In other words, ker ρ has presentation matrix v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 1st relation Replacing v 1 with v 1 v 2 gives the presentation matrix v 1 v 2 v 2 v 3 v 4 1st relation Replacing v 2 with v 2 3(v 1 v 2 ) gives the presentation matrix or equivalently v 1 v 2 3v 1 + 4v 2 v 3 v 4 1st relation v 1 4v 2 v 1 v 2 v 3 v 4 1st relation Finally, a free basis for ker ρ is given by 6 v 1 v 2 = ( 8, 11, 0, 0) v 3 = ( 9, 12, 1, 0) v 4 = (27, 36, 0, 1). Note. One method to find integer kernels in general is (to use Hermite normal form) as follows. We use elementary integer column operations to transform to its Hermite normal form: = = =

7 that is where = U = is unimodular because it is a composition of matrices corresponding to elementary integer operations. In particular we see that the list B = 33, 3 8, of three elements of Z 4, which corresponds to the last 3 columns of U, consists of elements in the kernel of Conversely assume that a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 in Z 4 is in the kernel of transpose Then a a a a 4 is in the kernel of Thus we may write a 1 a 2 a 3 a 4 0 = b 2 where necessarily b 1, b 3, b 4 are integers since U 1 has integral coefficients. Therefore a a 2 a 3 = b b b a 4 is in the Z-span of B. Finally we have proved that B is a basis for the kernel of b 3 b 4 7

8 In general, to find a basis for the kernel of an integer matrix M, we find a unimodular matrix U such that MU is in Hermite normal form, whose kernel is the span of the elementary basis vectors corresponding to non-pivot columns. The images under left multiplication by U of these elementary basis vectors is then a basis for the kernel of M. 8 Problem 3. In this exercise we give a direct proof that a submodule of a free module is free in the case of the ring Z. Let K Z m. Let K Q be the Q-subspace spanned by K; let r be the dimension of K Q, and let ω be an alternating r -form on K Q. Prove that there exists a rational number q so that ω(v 1,..., v r ) is in qz whenever v 1,..., v r K. Let x 1,..., x r K be chosen to minimize ω(x 1,..., x r ) among nonzero values. (In words, the volume of the parallelepiped that the x i span is as small as possible.) Prove that K is free on x 1,..., x r. Solution. The space of alternating r -forms on the r -dimensional vector space K Q has dimension 1 so we may choose ω to be a nonzero alternating r -form on K Q. Write e i for the ith standard basis vector in Z n that has 1 in the ith component and zeros elsewhere and set E = {e 1,..., e n }. Then E r is a finite set so ω(e r ) is a finite subset of Q and hence there exists a rational number q so that ω(e r ) qz. Then by linearity ω((z n ) r ) qz, but K r (Z n ) r so ω(v 1,..., v r ) is in qz whenever v 1,..., v r are in K. Now choose x 1,..., x r in K so that ω(x 1,..., x r ) has minimal absolute value among nonzero values of ω restricted to K K. That ω(x 1,..., x r ) is nonzero immediately implies that x 1,..., x r are Q-linearly independent, hence a Q-basis for K Q, and in particular independent over Z. Let λ i be the Q-linear functional on K Q that sends x in K Q to the value obtained by replacing x i by x in the expression ω(x 1,..., x r ), which is just ω(x 1,..., x r ) times the dual basis element corresponding to x i. Therefore the map x λ i (x) ω(x 1,..., x r ) x i is the identity of K Q. For d an integer such that ω(k r ) 1 Z, we may d write ω(x 1,..., x r ) = a/d for some integer a. Consider an index i and assume x satisfies λ i (x) = b/d. Then there exist integers r and s so that r a + sb = gcd(a, b) and so λ(r x i + sx) = gcd(a, b)/d. By

9 minimality, it follows that a gcd(a, b) and so a divides b. This proves that λ i (K) ω(x 1,..., x r )Z. Consequently for x in K, x = λ i (x) ω(x 1,..., x r ) x i is an expression for x as a Z-linear combination of x 1,..., x r. Therefore x 1,..., x r is a free Z-basis for K. 9 Problem 4. Let v = (x, y, z) and v = (x, y, z ) be elements of Z 3. Show that v, v are be extended to a basis if and only if gcd(xy yx, xz zx, yz zy ) = 1. Solution. The vector v = (x, y, z ) extends v, v to a basis if and only if x y z det x y z x y z is a unit in Z. The units in Z are ±1 so, by the cofactor expansion, the latter is equivalent the existence of x, y, z in Z such that x (yz zy ) y (xz zx ) + z (xy yx ) = ±1, which is the statement that gcd(xy yx, xz zx, yz zy ) = 1. The result follows. Problem 5. How many subgroups K Z 3 have the property that Z 3 /K is isomorphic to (Z/2Z) 3? For how many K is Z 3 /K isomorphic to Z/2Z Z/4Z Z/8Z? Solution. The group GL(Z n ) of group automorphisms of Z n acts on subgroups of Z n. If K is a subgroup of Z n and φ is an automorphism of Z n, then Z n /K is isomorphic to Z n /φ(k). Conversely, assume that K 1 and K 2 are subgroups of Z n such that Z n /K 1 and Z n /K 2 are isomorphic to each other. For each i there is a basis v i,1,..., v i,n of Z n and integers a i,1,..., a i,li (for some l i with 0 l i n) such that a i,1 v i,1,..., a i,li v i,li is basis of K i. Then l 1 = l 2 and after reordering if necessary a 1,j = a 2,j for each j. The automorphism v 1,j v 2,j of Z n sends K 1 to K 2, and in particular K 1 and K 2 are conjugates under the action of GL(Z n ). We have proved that for any subgroup K 0 of Z n, GL(Z n ) acts transitively on the collection of subgroups K of Z n such that Z n /K is isomorphic to Z n /K 0. Therefore the set of such subgroups is in bijective correspondence with the collection of cosets in GL(Z n ) of the stabilizer of K 0.

10 Let K 0 be the subgroup 2Z 3 of Z 3, which satisfies Z 3 /K 0 (Z/2Z) 3. Note that K 0 is a characteristic subgroup (because it is fully invariant) so the stabilizer of K 0 is all of GL(Z 3 ). Hence there is precisely one subgroup K of Z 3 such that Z 3 /K (Z/2Z) 3. Let K 0 be the subgroup of Z 3 generated by (2, 0, 0), (0, 4, 0), and (0, 0, 8), which satisfies Z 3 /K 0 Z/2Z Z/4Z Z/8Z. If the matrix c 11 c 12 c 13 c 21 c 22 c 23 c 31 c 32 c 33 represents an automorphism φ of Z 3 with respect to the standard basis, then the condition that φ(k 0 ) = K 0 (equivalently φ(k 0 ) K 0 ) is that c 11 c 12 c 13 2Z 2 c 21, 4 c 22, 8 c 23 4Z, 8Z c 31 c 32 that is 2 c 21, 2 c 32, and 4 c 31. Thus the subgroup H of G = GL 3 (Z) whose lower left coefficients satisfy the above divisibility conditions is the isotropy subgroup of K 0 under the action of G. We wish to calculate the order of G/H. The kernel of the surjective 2 group homomorphism c 33 GL 3 (Z) GL 3 (Z/4Z), is a normal subgroup of GL 3 (Z) contained in H. The above homomorphism then identifies G/H as the quotient of GL 3 (Z/4Z) by the image H of H in GL 3 (Z/4Z): c 11 c 12 c 13 c 21 c 22 c 23 0 c 32 c 33 in GL 3 (Z/4Z) with 2 c 21 and 2 c 32. One can check that H is precisely determined by the conditions c 21, c 32 {0, 2} and c 11, c 22, c 33 { 1, +1}. Therefore the cardinality of H is = The surjective 3 homomorphism GL 3 (Z/4Z) GL 3 (Z/2Z) 10 2 Surjectivity follows, for example, by factoring into a unimodular times a diagonal times a unimodular, and then noting that every unit in Z/4Z has a lift to a unit of Z, something that is only true for Z/2 a 3 b Z with a 2 and b 1 and at least one inequality strict. In general the image under reduction modulo n is the subgroup of diagonal matrices with diagonal entries in (Z/nZ) along with all possible left and right translates by unimodular matrices. 3 Reduction Z/p r +1 Z Z/p r Z always induces a surjective map on invertible matrices because every lift of a unit in Z/p r Z is a unit in Z/p r +1 Z.

11 11 has kernel the set of c 11 c 12 c c 21 c 22 c c 31 c 32 c 33 for which 2 c ij for all i and j, which has order 2 9. Since GL 3 (Z/2Z) has order ( )( )( ) = , it follows that GL 3 (Z/4Z) has order Consequently the index of H in GL 3 (Z/4Z) is /2 11 = Finally, the number of subgroups K of Z 3 such that Z 3 /K is isomorphic to Z/2Z Z/4Z Z/8Z is = 42. Note. The task is to compute the number of Hermite normal forms for a given Smith normal form, which has been computed in general when the invariant factors are powers of a single prime. For any subgroup L of Z n of finite index Z n : L, Z n : LZ n L by Lagrange s theorem applied to the quotient Z n /L. In particular, by the third isomorphism theorem, the set of subgroups K such that Z 3 /K is isomorphic to Z/2Z Z/4Z Z/8Z is in bijection with the set of subgroups H of Z 3 /2 6 Z 3 = (Z/2 6 Z) 3 such that (Z/2 6 Z) 3 /H is isomorphic to Z/2Z Z/4Z Z/8Z via K K/2 6 Z 3 Z 3 /2 6 Z 3 = (Z/2 6 Z) 3. We now show that for finite abelian groups, the number of subgroups of a certain cotype (isomorphism class of cokernel) equals the number of subgroups of that type (isomorphism class). For a finite abelian group G, write G = Hom(G, T) for the dual group where T is the multiplicative group of complex numbers of modulus 1. To each subgroup H of the finite abelian group G associate H 0, the annihilator of H in G, which is the subgroup (G/H) G. Then H 0 G/H and G /H 0 H so H H 0 takes a group H of type K 1 and cotype K 2 to a group H 0 of type K 2 and cotype K 1. By Pontryagin duality, H 00 = (G /(G/H) ) = H = H so the association is a bijection from the subgroups of G of type K 1 and cotype K 2 with subgroups of G of type K 2 and cotype K 1, but G is (non-canonically) isomorphic to G so this implies the desired equality of the number of subgroups of given type and the number of subgroups of the same cotype. We must now compute the number of subgroups of (Z/2 6 Z) 3 isomorphic to Z/2Z Z/4Z Z/8Z. Represent an element of (Z/2 6 Z) 3 as a row vector with 3 components each in (0, 2 6. Then a subgroup can be represented as a matrix of width 3 whose rows represent the generators. The p 4 + 2p 3 + 2p 2 + p subgroups of (Z/p 6 Z) 3 isomorphic to

12 12 Z/pZ Z/p 2 Z Z/p 3 Z are represented by the following matrices. p3 (0, pp3 (0, p2 p 3 p 6 p 4 (0, pp 4, p 6 p 6 p 5 p4 p3 (0, p2 p 3 p 4 p 6 (0, pp 4, p 6 p 6 p 5 p4 (0, pp4 p 3 p 4 (0, pp 4 p 6, p 6 p 5 p 6 p3 (0, p2 p3 (0, pp 3 p 6 p 5 p 4, p 6 p 5 p 6 (0, pp 4 p 3 (0, pp 3 p 5 p 6 p 4, p 5 p 6 p 6 (0, pp 4 p 4 p 3 p 5 p 4 p 6. p 5 p 6 p 6 Another possibility is to write down the possible Hermite normal forms and determine which have the desired Smith normal form. A subgroup of Z n generated by at most m elements can be represented as the row space of an m n matrix, but two matrices represent the same subgroup when they are left equivalent (in the same orbit under the action of the n n unimodular matrices). Therefore subgroups of Z n correspond to orbits under the action of unimodular matrices, that is equivalence classes of left equivalent matrices. There is exactly one Hermite normal form in each equivalence class so subgroups of Z n generated by at most m elements are in bijective correspondence with m n Hermite normal forms. In particular each subgroup K Z 3 is the row space of a unique 3 3 matrix in Hermite normal form. When Z 3 /K is finite, its order is the product of the diagonal entries of the Hermite normal form matrix corresponding to K. Therefore the index = 2 6 subgroups of Z 3 are each uniquely expressable as the row space of a matrix of the form c c 21 c 22 0 c 31 c 32 c 33 where each c ij is nonnegative, c 11 c 22 c 33 = 2 6, c 21 < c 22, c 31, c 32 < c 33. By considering the diagonalized form, we see that if d i is the greatest common divisor of the set of i i minor matrix determinants, then Z 3 /K is isomorphic to Z/d 1 Z/d 1 1 d 2 Z Z/d 1 2 d 3 Z. We want d 1 = 2, d 2 = 2 3, d 3 = 2 6. In particular 2 d 1 so each c ij must be even and then the possible diagonal entries are permutations of 2, 2, 16 or 2, 4, 8 or 4, 4, 4. We already see that 2, 2, 16 is impossible for in that case a 2 2 minor matrix would have determinant 4, but we want 8 d 2. In the case of matrices with diagonal entries 4, 4, 4 we find that the

13 13 possibilities for the lower left are 0 2 0,, , 0 2, Finally we consider the six possible diagonals with entries 2, 4, 8. In this case the only condition on the Hermite normal forms is that the entries in the lower left are even (this ensures d 1 = 2 since 2 already appears on the diagonal) and every 2 2 minor matrix has determinant determinant a multiple of 8 (which is sufficient to ensure d 2 = 8 since the triangular minor matrix with diagonal entries 2 and 4 has determinant 8). Order: 2, 4, 8. The possibilities for the lower left are 0 0 z for z {0, 2}, but we must have 8 2z so z = 0. The 1 possibility is Order: 2, 8, 4. The possibilities for the lower left are 0 0 z for z {0, 2, 4, 6}, but we must have 8 2z, that is 4 z. Thus in this case the possibilities are and Order: 4, 2, 8. The possibilities for the lower left are of the form x y 0 so in order that the lower left minor matrix have determinant divisible by 8 the lower left entry y cannot be 2 and must be 0. Thus the possibilities for the lower left are x0 0 for x {0, 2} so there are 2 in this case. Order: 4, 8, 2. If the lower left is x y z then 2x must be divisible by 8 so x = 0, but otherwise there are no further restrictions. Thus the possibilities for the lower left are 0y z for x {0, 2, 4, 6} and y {0, 2} so there are 8 in this case. Order: 8, 2, 4. If the lower left is x y 0 then y {0, 4} and x {0, 2, 4, 6} so there are 8 in this case. Order: 8, 4, 2. If the lower left is x y z then 8 2x so x {0, 4}, y {0, 2, 4, 6}, and z {0, 2} so there are 16 in this case. We have found the 42 sublattices and found generators for them. Problem 6. Let M be an n m matrix with entries in the PID R. Let K be the submodule of R n spanned by the columns, and S the submodule of R m spanned by rows. Prove that the torsion submodules of R n /K and R m /S are isomorphic. Solution. Let A be an element of GL n (R). Then AM is obtained from M by elementary row operations so the row spans of M and AM are the same. Write ϕ A for the element of GL(R n ) corresponding to A with respect to the standard basis. We have R n /K ϕ A (R n )/ϕ A (K) =

14 R n /K where K is the span of the columns of AM. Therefore the result is invariant under left multiplication by an element of GL n (R). Let B be an element of GL m (R). Then MB is obtained from M by elementary column operations so the column spans of M and MB are the same. Write ψ B for the element of GL(R m ) corresponding to A with respect to the standard basis. We have R m /S ψ A (R m )/ψ A (S) = R m /S where S is the span of the columns of MB. Therefore the result is invariant under left multiplication by an element of GL m (R). We now show that there exist matrices A in GL n (R) and B in GL m (R) such that AMB is zero except for the diagonal entries (which can be chosen so that each diagonal entry is divisible by the one before it). 4 This is equivalent to performing elementary row and column operations on M to obtain the desired form. Consider a fixed column (resp. row). If the ith and jth entries are a and b, then it is possible to perform elementary operations to rows (resp. columns) i and j to transform the ith entry to a generator of the ideal generated by a and b and transform the jth entry to 0. With these operations we may make every entry in the first row or the first column to be zero, except possibly the (i, j) entries for i + j 3. Along with induction, this reduces to the case where m = n = 2. Row operations can transform a 2 2 matrix to the form ( ) 0 and column operations can transform a 2 2 matrix to the form ( ) 0. Alternately apply the two operations above. Each time, the upper left entry is replaced by a divisor of itself. Since increasing sequences of ideals must stabilize (consider a generator of the union of the sequence), the ideal generated by the upper left entry eventually stabilizes. Then the upper left entry divides both the lower left and upper right entries and so the matrix can be made diagonal. When M has all nondiagonal entries equal to 0, the result is clear, so this completes the proof I believe this was proved in lecture.

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