Lab #4 Capacitors and Inductors. Capacitor Transient and Steady State Response


 George Sparks
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Capacitor Transient and Steady State Response Like resistors, capacitors are also basic circuit elements. Capacitors come in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and sizes, and they can all be represented by the following symbol. v c (t)  Note the curved line in the symbol for the capacitor shown in Figure 1. You will sometimes see a capacitor symbolized by two parallel lines instead of one curved one. This is poor practice because that symbol is normally reserved for a relay. Many capacitors have a polarity associated with them. On a circuit diagram, this is sometimes symbolized with a small next to the flat line. The curved line of the capacitor symbol is usually associated with the more negative voltage. It is critical that the polarity requirements of a capacitor are observed, or the capacitor is likely to fail in a violent, and possibly, explosive fashion. Capacitors also have a maximum voltage that can be applied across the terminals before the electrical insulation between the plates breaks down. Unlike resistors, which dissipate electrical energy in the form of heat, capacitors store energy in the form of an electric field. The amount of energy stored in the capacitor (in Joules) is given as 1 2 W = CV (1) 2 where C is the value of capacitance in Farads, and V is the voltage across the capacitor in Volts. The current and voltage in a capacitor (as seen in Fig. 1) are related by dv i(t)= C dt (2) and t 1 v(t) = idt v(t0). C (3) t 0 i c (t) Figure 1: Typical Capacitor Circuit Symbol. One conclusion that can be drawn from the above integral is the fact that if a capacitor is charged to some initial voltage, it will remain at that voltage forever if there is nothing that provides a current path for discharge. Thus, for safety reasons, discharge capacitors with a resistor before touching any circuit with capacitors present. 1
2 t=0 R V s C v c (t)  Assuming the capacitor didn t have an initial voltage across it at t=0 when the switch is closed, the voltage across the capacitor in Fig. 2 over time is given as: t/ τ v (t) = V (1 e ) (4) c s where, τ, is the time constant of the circuit. The time constant is given by: i c (t) Figure 2: Capacitor Charging Circuit. τ = RC. (5) A time constant of a circuit is an important property of a circuit. It provides a useful measure of how fast a circuit responds to change. In the above equation, when the time is equal to one time constant, the exponential is raised to the power negative one. 1 ~.63. It is customary to measure this point on the charge or discharge curve to determine τ experimentally. For two time constants, the power is negative two, and so on. After one time constant, the voltage across the capacitor is 63.2% of its final value and after five time constants has 99.3% of its final value. Similarly, we can solve for the current in Fig. 2 at any instant after the switch closes as: Vs t/τ ic(t) = e. (6) R When the initial voltage on the capacitor is nonzero the voltage across the capacitor over time is given by: V C t =V s (V 0 V s )e t τ (7) Where: V 0 is the initial voltage across the capacitor and V S is the source voltage at time 0. i c t = (V 0V S ) e t τ (8) R Equation 7 can be written in terms of the initial and final voltage across the cap. 2
3 V C t =V [V 0 V ]e t τ (9) Where: V 0 is the initial voltage across the capacitor at time 0 and V is the final or steady state value of the source voltage. We can determine the current running through a capacitor by measuring the voltage across a resistor in series with the device under test (DUT). The current going through a set of components that are in series is always the same phase in each component. Therefor measuring the current through any one of the components will be the current through any of the components. If the component is a resistor then we can measure the voltage across the resistor and divide it by the resistance to give the current. This is easy as long as there is a resistor in the right place in the circuit. You are lucky because there is a resistor in the right place for you to measure current with it. Note this only works with a resistor because the current through it and voltage across it are always in phase. You can actually use the scope to measure the current through a device and the voltage across it to see what the phase relationship is between the current and voltage. You actually measure the current through a different device which is in series and the voltage across the actual device. Here is how to do it. VPULSE 20mS 10mS Vin R1 1K Vout C1 0.1uF A2 A2 A1 A1 A2 SUBV A1 SUBV Vr Vc Math1 ADDV Vsource Figure 3: Current measurement with the Analog Discovery. You measure V R1 using the A1 input. The A1 voltage gets divided by the resistor to scale the measured voltage to current in Amps. WARNING: MEASURING PHASE ANGLE IS NOT A TRIVIAL TASK. Measuring phase angle was covered in the first lab it will not be repeated here. 3
4 Instructional Objectives Determine the time constant of a simple RC circuit. Measure the phase angle between a voltage and a current. Measure the transient response of an RC. Measure the steady state phase response of a C. Procedure Parts needed for this lab: 0.1uF film capacitor (Red one), A 1K (1.05K) and 10K resistor. That s it. For all experiments in this lab you will be using a breadboard and the Analog Discovery measurement system. Measuring the transient response of an RC network. Before we actually measure the RC time constant there are a few things that need to be determined about the circuit and the measurement instruments. The theory section talks about the initial and final conditions of the voltage on the capacitor. We will investigate these conditions, since they influence the measured results. The initial conditions are not difficult to set or measure. To make it easy to measure τ we force the initial voltage across the capacitor to a known voltage. Then we can use Eq. 7 or 9 to measure τ with the scope. We are going to drive the RC with a very slow square wave. We do this so that the capacitor has time to get extremely close to the voltage that is driving the circuit. This defines the initial and final conditions for us because we wait long enough before the square wave repeats the waveform so it is almost like at time. Another issue we need to deal with is the influence the input impedance of the Analog Discovery has on our measurement since we will use it to measure the τ of the RC circuit. The Analog Discovery has an input impedance is 1MΩ. The A1 and A1 or A2 and A2 get connected across the resistor and across the capacitor so the impedance will always be in parallel with the resistor or capacitor. 1. What is the input impedance of the Analog Discovery A1 to A1 and the impedance of R1? Analog Discovery input impedance Ω. Resistor value R1 Ω. 4
5 The input impedance discharges the capacitor while R1 charges it. Does this input impedance discharge the cap at a rate high enough to influence the measureable charging through R1? To determine this compare the R s. If the input impedance is >> than the charging R, R1, there won t be a problem unless you are trying to measure with incredible accuracy. 100:1 ratio is a 1% error. 1000:1 ratio is a 0.1% error. It all depends on the accuracy you need for your tests. Do you need to worry about the input impedance when determining Ƭ? 2. Measure the charging of a capacitor to determine τ charge : Build the circuit shown below. A2 A2 A2 Vr Vin R1 1K Vout SUBV Math1 Vsource VPULSE C1 0.1uF A1 A1 A1 SUBV Vc ADDV Figure 4: RC circuit. Setup the source to put out a 0 to 4V (2V 2V OFFSET ) square wave at 200Hz. Set triggering to C2 Rising edge at about 2V Set the time base to 500uS/Div. Measure the initial and final voltages, V INIT, V FINAL across the capacitor. 3. Use the cursors to measure the time constant τ charge. Put cursor at the most negative across V C, (V INIT ) right where the voltage starts rising. Change the Horizontal Time Base to 20uS or 50uS/Div. Set the other cursor to the voltage which is 1 ~0.63 the way to V FINAL. This is 63% from V INIT to V FINAL = V INIT 0.63(V FINAL V INIT ) V. From Eq. 9 above. Capture the resulting display for your report. τ charge. Figure 5 shows the display I captured. 5
6 Figure 5: Captured RC transient measurement. Calculate the frequency that the time constant Ƭ represents. 1 ω Ƭ rads/sec, f Ƭ Hz. 4. Use the cursors to measure the time constant τ discharge. Change the Horizontal time base to 500uS/Div. Put one cursor at the most positive voltage across V C, (V FINAL) where the voltage starts falling. Change the Horizontal Time Base to 20uS or 50uS/Div. Set the other cursor to the voltage which is 1 ~0.63 the way to V INIT. This is 63% from V INIT to V FINAL = V INIT 0.63(V FINAL V INIT ) V. From Eq. 9 above. Capture the resulting display for your report. τ discharge. 5. Measure the peak current values during charge and discharge. First measure V R. Pos, Neg. What is R Ω. Calulate I CHARGE I DISCHARGE. 6. Measure V OUT and V IN to determine the transfer function of this circuit. Replace with AWG2. Set AWG2 to a 2.0V P sine wave to the same frequency (Hz) calculated from Ƭ above. Change the time base to display at least 3 cycles. Measure V IN and V OUT. See Fig. 6. V IN, V OUT. Calculate the transfer function gain A. A = V OUT /V IN. Convert the gain to db. A db = 20log10(A). 6
7 7. Calculate the phase difference between the voltage across the capacitor and the current through the capacitor. Measure the time difference between the positive to negative zero crossings. Hint the time difference will be less than or equal to Ts/4. T S = 1/F S. t. Does the voltage or current waveform occur first?. Calculate the phase angle between the voltage and current with the correct sign on the angle. f Ƭ, θ = t*f Ƭ * (2) Change R1 from 1.0XK to 10.0K. The following steps are similar to steps 27. Replace AWG2 with. Setup the source to put out a 0 to 4V (2V 2V OFFSET ) square wave at 20Hz. Set triggering to Ch2 Rising edge at about 3V Set to the time base to 5mS/Div. Measure the initial and final voltages, V INIT, V FINAL across the capacitor. 9. (3) Use the cursors to measure the time constant τ charge. Change the Time Base to 200uS or 500uS/Div. Put one cursor at the most negative across V C, (V INIT ) right where the voltage starts rising. Set the other cursor to the voltage which is 0.63 the way to V FINAL as in step 3 above. Capture the resulting display for your report. τ charge. Calculate the frequency that the time constant Ƭ represents. 1 ω Ƭ1 rads/sec, f Ƭ1 Hz. 10. (5) Measure the peak current values during charge and discharge. First measure V R. Pos, Neg. What is R Ω. Calulate I CHARGE I DISCHARGE. 11. (6) Measure the V OUT and V IN to determine the transfer function of this circuit. Replace with AWG2. Change AWG2 to a 2.0V P sine wave of the same frequency calculated from Ƭ. Change the time base to display at least 3 cycles. Measure V IN and V OUT. V IN, V OUT. Calculate the transfer function gain A. A = V OUT /V IN. Convert the gain to db. A db = 20log10(A). 7
8 12. (7) Calculate the phase difference between the voltage across the capacitor and the current through the capacitor. Measure the time difference between the positive to negative zero crossings. t. Does the voltage or current waveform occur first?. Calculate the phase angle between the voltage and current with the correct sign on the angle. f Ƭ1, θ = t*f Ƭ1 * Set up the circuit and Analog Discovery as shown in Figure 6 below. Connect 1 from the Analog Discovery to the protoboard. Remember is in the Analog Discovery so you only need to connect W1 to R1. A1 R1 10K A2 VIN 20Hz20KHz 5.000Vpp C1 0.1uF   VOUT A1 A2 Figure 6: RC Bode plot measurement setup. 14. Measure V C /V S : Run the Bode (Network Analyzer) application. The Help menu is quite good for this app. Use it if you want to play with the app. The suggested Bode Analyzer settings are listed here and shown in the figure below: Use as the signal source as shown in Fig. 6. Connect A1 to and A1 to. Connect A2 to C1 and A2 to. Set the waveform source to 5.0 V. Set the Start frequency to 20Hz. Set the Stop frequency to 20KHz. Use 200 Steps. Use AWG offset of 0V Set MaxGain = 1X 8
9 Adjust the Bode Scale to give a good looking plot which allows you to see the whole curve. Perhaps: Amplitude 0 to 50dB. Phase 0 to 90. Leave the Scope Channels set to the default values. What is the 3dB frequency in Hz? Zoom in if you have to. What kind of transfer function is this? High Pass, Low Pass or Band Pass. 15. Swap the capacitor and the resistor. The circuit should now look like the one shown in Figure 7. A1 A2 VIN 20Hz20KHz 5.000Vpp C1 0.1uF R1 10K   VOUT A1 A2 Figure 7: CR Bode plot measurement setup. Measure the Bode plot again. Capture this plot for your post lab report. What kind of filter is this? What is the 3dB frequency? Hz. How does the 3dB frequency compare to the frequency calculated from τ? <, >, = 9
Experiment Guide for RC Circuits
GuideP1 Experiment Guide for RC Circuits I. Introduction 1. Capacitors A capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field. The unit of capacitance is
More informationLab 5 AC Concepts and Measurements II: Capacitors and RC TimeConstant
EE110 Laboratory Introduction to Engineering & Laboratory Experience Lab 5 AC Concepts and Measurements II: Capacitors and RC TimeConstant Capacitors Capacitors are devices that can store electric charge
More informationProf. Anyes Taffard. Physics 120/220. Voltage Divider Capacitor RC circuits
Prof. Anyes Taffard Physics 120/220 Voltage Divider Capacitor RC circuits Voltage Divider The figure is called a voltage divider. It s one of the most useful and important circuit elements we will encounter.
More informationPHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 6. Transient Response of An RC Circuit
PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II Experiment 6 Transient Response of An RC Circuit Equipment: Supplies: Function Generator, Dual Trace Oscilloscope.002 Microfarad, 0.1 Microfarad capacitors; 1 Kilohm,
More informationClass #12: Experiment The Exponential Function in Circuits, Pt 1
Class #12: Experiment The Exponential Function in Circuits, Pt 1 Purpose: The objective of this experiment is to begin to become familiar with the properties and uses of the exponential function in circuits
More informationEE 40: Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits Spring 2008: Midterm 2
EE 4: Introduction to Microelectronic Circuits Spring 8: Midterm Venkat Anantharam 3/9/8 Total Time Allotted : min Total Points:. This is a closed book exam. However, you are allowed to bring two pages
More informationExercise 1: Capacitors
Capacitance AC 1 Fundamentals Exercise 1: Capacitors EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to describe the effect a capacitor has on dc and ac circuits by using measured
More informationExperiment 4. RC Circuits. Observe and qualitatively describe the charging and discharging (decay) of the voltage on a capacitor.
Experiment 4 RC Circuits 4.1 Objectives Observe and qualitatively describe the charging and discharging (decay) of the voltage on a capacitor. Graphically determine the time constant τ for the decay. 4.2
More informationExperiment 8: Capacitance and the Oscilloscope
Experiment 8: Capacitance and the Oscilloscope Nate Saffold nas2173@columbia.edu Office Hour: Mondays, 5:30PM6:30PM @ Pupin 1216 INTRO TO EXPERIMENTAL PHYSLAB 1493/1494/2699 Outline Capacitance: Capacitor
More informationEXPERIMENT 07 TO STUDY DC RC CIRCUIT AND TRANSIENT PHENOMENA
EXPERIMENT 07 TO STUDY DC RC CIRCUIT AND TRANSIENT PHENOMENA DISCUSSION The capacitor is a element which stores electric energy by charging the charge on it. Bear in mind that the charge on a capacitor
More informationCoulomb s constant k = 9x10 9 N m 2 /C 2
1 Part 2: Electric Potential 2.1: Potential (Voltage) & Potential Energy q 2 Potential Energy of Point Charges Symbol U mks units [Joules = J] q 1 r Two point charges share an electric potential energy
More informationEXPERIMENT 5A RC Circuits
EXPERIMENT 5A Circuits Objectives 1) Observe and qualitatively describe the charging and discharging (decay) of the voltage on a capacitor. 2) Graphically determine the time constant for the decay, τ =.
More informationPHYSICS 122 Lab EXPERIMENT NO. 6 AC CIRCUITS
PHYSICS 122 Lab EXPERIMENT NO. 6 AC CIRCUITS The first purpose of this laboratory is to observe voltages as a function of time in an RC circuit and compare it to its expected time behavior. In the second
More informationOld Dominion University Physics 112N/227N/232N Lab Manual, 13 th Edition
RC Circuits Experiment PH06_Todd OBJECTIVE To investigate how the voltage across a capacitor varies as it charges. To find the capacitive time constant. EQUIPMENT NEEDED Computer: Personal Computer with
More informationRC Circuits. Equipment: Capstone with 850 interface, RLC circuit board, 2 voltage sensors (no alligator clips), 3 leads V C = 1
R ircuits Equipment: apstone with 850 interface, RL circuit board, 2 voltage sensors (no alligator clips), 3 leads 1 Introduction The 3 basic linear circuits elements are the resistor, the capacitor, and
More informationCapacitors. Chapter How capacitors work Inside a capacitor
Chapter 6 Capacitors In every device we have studied so far sources, resistors, diodes and transistors the relationship between voltage and current depends only on the present, independent of the past.
More informationChapt ha e pt r e r 9 Capacitors
Chapter 9 Capacitors Basics of a Capacitor In its simplest form, a capacitor is an electrical device constructed of two parallel plates separated by an insulating material called the dielectric In the
More informationENERGY AND TIME CONSTANTS IN RC CIRCUITS By: Iwana Loveu Student No Lab Section: 0003 Date: February 8, 2004
ENERGY AND TIME CONSTANTS IN RC CIRCUITS By: Iwana Loveu Student No. 416 614 5543 Lab Section: 0003 Date: February 8, 2004 Abstract: Two charged conductors consisting of equal and opposite charges forms
More informationLab 10: DC RC circuits
Name: Lab 10: DC RC circuits Group Members: Date: TA s Name: Objectives: 1. To understand current and voltage characteristics of a DC RC circuit 2. To understand the effect of the RC time constant Apparatus:
More informationFirstorder transient
EIE209 Basic Electronics Firstorder transient Contents Inductor and capacitor Simple RC and RL circuits Transient solutions Constitutive relation An electrical element is defined by its relationship between
More informationExperiment P43: RC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)
PASCO scientific Vol. 2 Physics Lab Manual: P431 Experiment P43: (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept Time SW Interface Macintosh file Windows file circuits 30 m 700 P43 P43_RCCI.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED
More information[1] (b) Fig. 1.1 shows a circuit consisting of a resistor and a capacitor of capacitance 4.5 μf. Fig. 1.1
1 (a) Define capacitance..... [1] (b) Fig. 1.1 shows a circuit consisting of a resistor and a capacitor of capacitance 4.5 μf. S 1 S 2 6.3 V 4.5 μf Fig. 1.1 Switch S 1 is closed and switch S 2 is left
More informationCapacitor investigations
Sensors: Loggers: Voltage Any EASYSENSE Capacitor investigations Logging time: EasyLog (20 s) Teacher s notes 01 Time constant for a capacitor  resistor circuit Theory The charging and discharging of
More informationIntroduction to AC Circuits (Capacitors and Inductors)
Introduction to AC Circuits (Capacitors and Inductors) Amin Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering Department (EECE) Cairo University elc.n102.eng@gmail.com http://scholar.cu.edu.eg/refky/
More informationE40M. RC Circuits and Impedance. M. Horowitz, J. Plummer, R. Howe
E40M RC Circuits and Impedance Reading Reader: Chapter 6 Capacitance (if you haven t read it yet) Section 7.3 Impedance You should skip all the parts about inductors We will talk about them in a lecture
More informationName Class Date. RC Circuit Lab
RC Circuit Lab Objectives: Students will be able to Use the ScienceWorkshop interface to investigate the relationship between the voltage remaining across a capacitor and the time taken for the discharge
More informationRC, RL, and LCR Circuits
RC, RL, and LCR Circuits EK307 Lab Note: This is a two week lab. Most students complete part A in week one and part B in week two. Introduction: Inductors and capacitors are energy storage devices. They
More informationIn addition to resistors that we have considered to date, there are two other basic electronic components that can be found everywhere: the capacitor
In addition to resistors that we have considered to date, there are two other basic electronic components that can be found everywhere: the capacitor and the inductor. We will consider these two types
More informationChapter 6. Answers to examinationstyle questions. Answers Marks Examiner s tips
(a) Taking natural logs on both sides of V = V o e t/c gives ln V = ln V o + ln (e t/cr ) As ln (e t/cr ) = t CR then ln V = ln V o t CR = a bt hence a = ln V o and b = CR (b) (i) t/s 20 240 270 300 mean.427.233.033
More informationSourceFree RC Circuit
First Order Circuits SourceFree RC Circuit Initial charge on capacitor q = Cv(0) so that voltage at time 0 is v(0). What is v(t)? Prof Carruthers (ECE @ BU) EK307 Notes Summer 2018 150 / 264 First Order
More informationName: Lab Partner: Section:
Chapter 6 Capacitors and RC Circuits Name: Lab Partner: Section: 6.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the physics of capacitors in circuits. The charging and discharging of a capacitor
More informationECE 241L Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Experiment 5 Transient Response
ECE 241L Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering Experiment 5 Transient Response NAME PARTNER A. Objectives: I. Learn how to use the function generator and oscilloscope II. Measure step response of RC and
More informationAlternating Current Circuits. Home Work Solutions
Chapter 21 Alternating Current Circuits. Home Work s 21.1 Problem 21.11 What is the time constant of the circuit in Figure (21.19). 10 Ω 10 Ω 5.0 Ω 2.0µF 2.0µF 2.0µF 3.0µF Figure 21.19: Given: The circuit
More informationEE1305/EE1105 Intro to Electrical and Computer Engineering Lecture Week 6
EE1305/EE1105 Intro to Electrical and Computer Engineering Lecture Week 6 Homework Passive Components Capacitors RC Filters fc Calculations Bode Plots Module III Homework due 2/20 (Najera), due 2/23 (Quinones)
More informationPhysics 405/505 Digital Electronics Techniques. University of Arizona Spring 2006 Prof. Erich W. Varnes
Physics 405/505 Digital Electronics Techniques University of Arizona Spring 2006 Prof. Erich W. Varnes Administrative Matters Contacting me I will hold office hours on Tuesday from 13 pm Room 420K in
More informationA capacitor is a device that stores electric charge (memory devices). A capacitor is a device that stores energy E = Q2 2C = CV 2
Capacitance: Lecture 2: Resistors and Capacitors Capacitance (C) is defined as the ratio of charge (Q) to voltage (V) on an object: C = Q/V = Coulombs/Volt = Farad Capacitance of an object depends on geometry
More informationCapacitance Measurement
Overview The goal of this twoweek laboratory is to develop a procedure to accurately measure a capacitance. In the first lab session, you will explore methods to measure capacitance, and their uncertainties.
More informationUniversity of TN Chattanooga Physics 1040L 8/18/2012 PHYSICS 1040L LAB LAB 4: R.C. TIME CONSTANT LAB
PHYSICS 1040L LAB LAB 4: R.C. TIME CONSTANT LAB OBJECT: To study the discharging of a capacitor and determine the time constant for a simple circuit. APPARATUS: Capacitor (about 24 μf), two resistors (about
More informationExperiment 3: Resonance in LRC Circuits Driven by Alternating Current
Experiment 3: Resonance in LRC Circuits Driven by Alternating Current Introduction In last week s laboratory you examined the LRC circuit when constant voltage was applied to it. During this laboratory
More informationSolutions to these tests are available online in some places (but not all explanations are good)...
The Physics GRE Sample test put out by ETS https://www.ets.org/s/gre/pdf/practice_book_physics.pdf OSU physics website has lots of tips, and 4 additional tests http://www.physics.ohiostate.edu/undergrad/ugs_gre.php
More informationECE 241L Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering. Experiment 6 AC Circuits
ECE 241L Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering Experiment 6 AC Circuits A. Objectives: Objectives: I. Calculate amplitude and phase angles of ac voltages and impedances II. Calculate the reactance and
More informationTransient response of RC and RL circuits ENGR 40M lecture notes July 26, 2017 ChuanZheng Lee, Stanford University
Transient response of C and L circuits ENG 40M lecture notes July 26, 2017 ChuanZheng Lee, Stanford University esistor capacitor (C) and resistor inductor (L) circuits are the two types of firstorder
More informationElectronics Capacitors
Electronics Capacitors Wilfrid Laurier University October 9, 2015 Capacitor an electronic device which consists of two conductive plates separated by an insulator Capacitor an electronic device which consists
More informationLab 08 Capacitors 2. Figure 2 Series RC circuit with SPDT switch to charge and discharge capacitor.
Lab 08: Capacitors Last edited March 5, 2018 Learning Objectives: 1. Understand the shortterm and longterm behavior of circuits containing capacitors. 2. Understand the mathematical relationship between
More informationLab 4 RC Circuits. Name. Partner s Name. I. Introduction/Theory
Lab 4 RC Circuits Name Partner s Name I. Introduction/Theory Consider a circuit such as that in Figure 1, in which a potential difference is applied to the series combination of a resistor and a capacitor.
More informationTime Varying Circuit Analysis
MAS.836 Sensor Systems for Interactive Environments th Distributed: Tuesday February 16, 2010 Due: Tuesday February 23, 2010 Problem Set # 2 Time Varying Circuit Analysis The purpose of this problem set
More information(d) describe the action of a 555 monostable timer and then use the equation T = 1.1 RC, where T is the pulse duration
Chapter 1  Timing Circuits GCSE Electronics Component 2: Application of Electronics Timing Circuits Learners should be able to: (a) describe how a RC network can produce a time delay (b) describe how
More informationMODULE I. Transient Response:
Transient Response: MODULE I The Transient Response (also known as the Natural Response) is the way the circuit responds to energies stored in storage elements, such as capacitors and inductors. If a capacitor
More informationSwitched Capacitor: Sampled Data Systems
Switched Capacitor: Sampled Data Systems Basic switched capacitor theory How has Anadigm utilised this. TheoryBasic SC and Anadigm1 Resistor & Charge Relationship I + V  I Resistance is defined in terms
More informationBesides resistors, capacitors are one of the most common electronic components that you will encounter. Sometimes capacitors are components that one
1 Besides resistors, capacitors are one of the most common electronic components that you will encounter. Sometimes capacitors are components that one would deliberately add to a circuit. Other times,
More informationCIRCUIT ELEMENT: CAPACITOR
CIRCUIT ELEMENT: CAPACITOR PROF. SIRIPONG POTISUK ELEC 308 Types of Circuit Elements Two broad types of circuit elements Ati Active elements capable of generating electric energy from nonelectric energy
More informationChapter 10 EMT1150 Introduction to Circuit Analysis
Chapter 10 EM1150 Introduction to Circuit Analysis Department of Computer Engineering echnology Fall 2018 Prof. Rumana Hassin Syed Chapter10 Capacitors Introduction to Capacitors he Electric Field Capacitance
More informationfirst name (print) last name (print) brock id (ab17cd) (lab date)
(ta initials) first name (print) last name (print) brock id (ab17cd) (lab date) Experiment 1 Capacitance In this Experiment you will learn the relationship between the voltage and charge stored on a capacitor;
More informationRC Circuit (Power amplifier, Voltage Sensor)
Object: RC Circuit (Power amplifier, Voltage Sensor) To investigate how the voltage across a capacitor varies as it charges and to find its capacitive time constant. Apparatus: Science Workshop, Power
More informationSinusoidal Response of RLC Circuits
Sinusoidal Response of RLC Circuits Series RL circuit Series RC circuit Series RLC circuit Parallel RL circuit Parallel RC circuit RL Series Circuit RL Series Circuit RL Series Circuit Instantaneous
More informationChapter 28. Direct Current Circuits
Chapter 28 Direct Current Circuits Circuit Analysis Simple electric circuits may contain batteries, resistors, and capacitors in various combinations. For some circuits, analysis may consist of combining
More informationCapacitor in the AC circuit with Cobra3
Capacitor in the AC circuit with Cobra3 LEP Related Topics Capacitance, Kirchhoff s laws, Maxwell s equations, AC impedance, Phase displacement Principle A capacitor is connected in a circuit with a variablefrequency
More informationPhys 2025, First Test. September 20, minutes Name:
Phys 05, First Test. September 0, 011 50 minutes Name: Show all work for maximum credit. Each problem is worth 10 points. Work 10 of the 11 problems. k = 9.0 x 10 9 N m / C ε 0 = 8.85 x 101 C / N m e
More informationElectric Circuits. Overview. Hani Mehrpouyan,
Electric Circuits Hani Mehrpouyan, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lecture 15 (First Order Circuits) Nov 16 th, 2015 Hani Mehrpouyan (hani.mehr@ieee.org) Boise State c 2015 1 1 Overview
More informationfarads or 10 µf. The letter indicates the part tolerance (how close should the actual value be to the marking).
p1 EE1050/60 Capacitors Lab University of Utah Electrical Engineering Department EE1050/1060 Capacitors A. Stolp, 10/4/99 rev 3/17/01 Objectives 1.) Observe charging and discharging of a capacitor. 2.)
More informationLearnabout Electronics  AC Theory
Learnabout Electronics  AC Theory Facts & Formulae for AC Theory www.learnaboutelectronics.org Contents AC Wave Values... 2 Capacitance... 2 Charge on a Capacitor... 2 Total Capacitance... 2 Inductance...
More informationBasic RL and RC Circuits RL TRANSIENTS: STORAGE CYCLE. Engineering Collage Electrical Engineering Dep. Dr. Ibrahim Aljubouri
st Class Basic RL and RC Circuits The RL circuit with D.C (steady state) The inductor is short time at Calculate the inductor current for circuits shown below. I L E R A I L E R R 3 R R 3 I L I L R 3 R
More informationECE2262 Electric Circuits. Chapter 6: Capacitance and Inductance
ECE2262 Electric Circuits Chapter 6: Capacitance and Inductance Capacitors Inductors Capacitor and Inductor Combinations OpAmp Integrator and OpAmp Differentiator 1 CAPACITANCE AND INDUCTANCE Introduces
More informationChapter 3: Capacitors, Inductors, and Complex Impedance
hapter 3: apacitors, Inductors, and omplex Impedance In this chapter we introduce the concept of complex resistance, or impedance, by studying two reactive circuit elements, the capacitor and the inductor.
More informationThe Basic Capacitor. Dielectric. Conductors
Chapter 9 The Basic Capacitor Capacitors are one of the fundamental passive components. In its most basic form, it is composed of two conductive plates separated by an insulating dielectric. The ability
More informationEXP. NO. 3 Power on (resistive inductive & capacitive) load Series connection
OBJECT: To examine the power distribution on (R, L, C) series circuit. APPARATUS 1signal function generator 2 Oscilloscope, A.V.O meter 3 Resisters & inductor &capacitor THEORY the following form for
More informationElectric Circuits Fall 2015 Solution #5
RULES: Please try to work on your own. Discussion is permissible, but identical submissions are unacceptable! Please show all intermeate steps: a correct solution without an explanation will get zero cret.
More informationChapter 3: Capacitors, Inductors, and Complex Impedance
hapter 3: apacitors, Inductors, and omplex Impedance In this chapter we introduce the concept of complex resistance, or impedance, by studying two reactive circuit elements, the capacitor and the inductor.
More informationELECTRONICS E # 1 FUNDAMENTALS 2/2/2011
FE Review 1 ELECTRONICS E # 1 FUNDAMENTALS Electric Charge 2 In an electric circuit it there is a conservation of charge. The net electric charge is constant. There are positive and negative charges. Like
More informationSwitchedCapacitor Circuits David Johns and Ken Martin University of Toronto
SwitchedCapacitor Circuits David Johns and Ken Martin University of Toronto (johns@eecg.toronto.edu) (martin@eecg.toronto.edu) University of Toronto 1 of 60 Basic Building Blocks Opamps Ideal opamps usually
More informationCore Technology Group Application Note 3 AN3
Measuring Capacitor Impedance and ESR. John F. Iannuzzi Introduction In power system design, capacitors are used extensively for improving noise rejection, lowering power system impedance and power supply
More informationPhysics 116A Notes Fall 2004
Physics 116A Notes Fall 2004 David E. Pellett Draft v.0.9 Notes Copyright 2004 David E. Pellett unless stated otherwise. References: Text for course: Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering, second edition,
More informationCapacitance. A capacitor consists of two conductors that are close but not touching. A capacitor has the ability to store electric charge.
Capacitance A capacitor consists of two conductors that are close but not touching. A capacitor has the ability to store electric charge. a) Parallelplate capacitor connected to battery. (b) is a circuit
More informationa + b Time Domain i(τ)dτ.
R, C, and L Elements and their v and i relationships We deal with three essential elements in circuit analysis: Resistance R Capacitance C Inductance L Their v and i relationships are summarized below.
More informationf = 1 T 6 a.c. (Alternating Current) Circuits Most signals of interest in electronics are periodic : they repeat regularly as a function of time.
Analogue Electronics (Aero).66 66 Analogue Electronics (Aero) 6.66 6 a.c. (Alternating Current) Circuits Most signals of interest in electronics are periodic : they repeat regularly as a function of time.
More informationExercise 1: RC Time Constants
Exercise 1: RC EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be able to determine the time constant of an RC circuit by using calculated and measured values. You will verify your results
More informationObjects usually are charged up through the transfer of electrons from one object to the other.
1 Part 1: Electric Force Review of Vectors Review your vectors! You should know how to convert from polar form to component form and vice versa add and subtract vectors multiply vectors by scalars Find
More informationChapter 13. Capacitors
Chapter 13 Capacitors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of a capacitor Discuss various types of capacitors Analyze series capacitors Analyze parallel capacitors Analyze capacitive
More informationElectrical Engineering Fundamentals for NonElectrical Engineers
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for NonElectrical Engineers by Brad Meyer, PE Contents Introduction... 3 Definitions... 3 Power Sources... 4 Series vs. Parallel... 9 Current Behavior at a Node...
More informationChapter 27. Circuits
Chapter 27 Circuits 1 1. Pumping Chagres We need to establish a potential difference between the ends of a device to make charge carriers follow through the device. To generate a steady flow of charges,
More informationREVISED HIGHER PHYSICS REVISION BOOKLET ELECTRONS AND ENERGY
REVSED HGHER PHYSCS REVSON BOOKLET ELECTRONS AND ENERGY Kinross High School Monitoring and measuring a.c. Alternating current: Mains supply a.c.; batteries/cells supply d.c. Electrons moving back and forth,
More informationWhat happens when things change. Transient current and voltage relationships in a simple resistive circuit.
Module 4 AC Theory What happens when things change. What you'll learn in Module 4. 4.1 Resistors in DC Circuits Transient events in DC circuits. The difference between Ideal and Practical circuits Transient
More informationLab 4  First Order Transient Response of Circuits
Lab 4  First Order Transient Response of Circuits Lab Performed on October 22, 2008 by Nicole Kato, Ryan Carmichael, and Ti Wu Report by Ryan Carmichael and Nicole Kato E11 Laboratory Report Submitted
More informationElectromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current. 1. Electromagnetic oscillations and LC circuit 2. Alternating Current 3.
Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current 1. Electromagnetic oscillations and LC circuit 2. Alternating Current 3. RLC circuit in AC 1 RL and RC circuits RL RC Charging Discharging I = emf R
More informationRC Circuit Lab  Discovery PSI Physics Capacitors and Resistors
1 RC Circuit Lab  Discovery PSI Physics Capacitors and Resistors Name Date Period Purpose The purpose of this lab will be to determine how capacitors behave in RC circuits. The manner in which capacitors
More informationFigure Circuit for Question 1. Figure Circuit for Question 2
Exercises 10.7 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. For the circuit of Figure 10.44 the time constant is A. 0.5 ms 71.43 µs 2, 000 s D. 0.2 ms 4 Ω 2 Ω 12 Ω 1 mh 12u 0 () t V Figure 10.44. Circuit for Question
More informationSingleTimeConstant (STC) Circuits This lecture is given as a background that will be needed to determine the frequency response of the amplifiers.
SingleTimeConstant (STC) Circuits This lecture is given as a background that will be needed to determine the frequency response of the amplifiers. Objectives To analyze and understand STC circuits with
More informationPhysics 4 Spring 1989 Lab 5  AC Circuits
Physics 4 Spring 1989 Lab 5  AC Circuits Theory Consider the series inductorresistorcapacitor circuit shown in figure 1. When an alternating voltage is applied to this circuit, the current and voltage
More informationLCR Series Circuits. AC Theory. Introduction to LCR Series Circuits. Module. What you'll learn in Module 9. Module 9 Introduction
Module 9 AC Theory LCR Series Circuits Introduction to LCR Series Circuits What you'll learn in Module 9. Module 9 Introduction Introduction to LCR Series Circuits. Section 9.1 LCR Series Circuits. Amazing
More informationECE 220 Laboratory 4 Volt Meter, Comparators, and Timer
ECE 220 Laboratory 4 Volt Meter, Comparators, and Timer Michael W. Marcellin Please follow all rules, procedures and report requirements as described at the beginning of the document entitled ECE 220 Laboratory
More informationCapacitor ESR Measurement with Bode 100 and BWIC
Page 1 of 9 Capacitor ESR Measurement with Bode 100 and BWIC by Florian Hämmerle 2010 Omicron Lab V1.0 Visit www.omicronlab.com for more information. Contact support@omicronlab.com for technical support.
More information2005 AP PHYSICS C: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM FREERESPONSE QUESTIONS
2005 AP PHYSICS C: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM In the circuit shown above, resistors 1 and 2 of resistance R 1 and R 2, respectively, and an inductor of inductance L are connected to a battery of emf e and
More informationELEC 2501 AB. Come to the PASS workshop with your mock exam complete. During the workshop you can work with other students to review your work.
It is most beneficial to you to write this mock midterm UNDER EXAM CONDITIONS. This means: Complete the midterm in 3 hour(s). Work on your own. Keep your notes and textbook closed. Attempt every question.
More informationPHY 132 Summer 2000 LAB 5: RC time constant 1
PHY 132 Summer 2000 LAB 5: RC time constant 1 Introduction In this lab we look at the transient response of an RC circuit by digitizing the v(t) waveform and fitting it to appropriate nonlinear functions,
More informationMeasuring the time constant for an RCCircuit
Physics 8.02T 1 Fall 2001 Measuring the time constant for an RCCircuit Introduction: Capacitors Capacitors are circuit elements that store electric charge Q according to Q = CV where V is the voltage
More information