# Solid State Physics FREE ELECTRON MODEL. Lecture 17. A.H. Harker. Physics and Astronomy UCL

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1 Solid State Physics FREE ELECTRON MODEL Lecture 17 A.H. Harker Physics and Astronomy UCL

2 Magnetic Effects 6.7 Plasma Oscillations The picture of a free electron gas and a positive charge background offers the possibility of plasma oscillations a collective motion of all the electrons relative to the background. 2

3 3

4 If electron gas, n electrons per volume, moves a distance x relative to the positive background this gives a surface charge density σ = enx on the positive x side. But this gives an electric field E = σ ɛ 0, which tries to restore the electrons to their equilibrium position by exerting a force F = ee = ne2 ɛ 0 x on each electron. So mẍ = ne2 ɛ 0 x, 4

5 which is a simple harmonic oscillator with angular frequency ω P ω 2 P = ne2 ɛ 0 m. For example, if n = m 3, ne ω P = 2 ɛ 0 m = ( ) = rad s 1. This corresponds to an energy ω P = 8.9 ev. 5

6 If high energy (1 to 10 kev) electrons are fired through a metal film, they can lose energy by exciting plasma oscillations, or plasmons. Volume plasmon energies, ev Metal Measured Calculated Li Na K Mg Al Another success for free electron theory. 6

7 6.8 The Hall Effect In a Hall experiment a magnetic field applied perpendicular to an electric current flowing along a bar. We need to extend our previous equation by including the Lorentz force qv B. 7

8 Signs always cause problems in the Hall effect: avoid some confusion by writing q for the charge on the particles carrying the current q includes the sign. The new transport equation is ( dvd m dt + v ) d = q(e + v τ d B). Asssume that B = (0, 0, B z ) and E = (E x, E y, E z ) so m dv dx dt m dv dy dt m dv dz dt + m v dx τ + m v dy τ + m v dz τ = qe x + qv dy B z, = qe y qv dx B z, = qe z. 8

9 Now we know that current can only flow in the x direction, so v dy = v dz = 0, and so in a steady state m v dx = qe x, τ 0 = qe y qv dx B z, 0 = qe z. 9

10 m v dx = qe x, τ 0 = qe y qv dx B z, 0 = qe z. The first equation is one we have seen before: v dx = qτ m E x, giving the current along the bar. The third equation states that there is no electric field in the z direction. The second equation states that an electric field is set up in the y direction: E y = v dx B z. Physically what happens is that the charges are accelerated in the y direction by the magnetic field, and pile up on the edges of the bar until they produce enough of an electric field to oppose the effect of the magnetic field. 10

11 We know that the current density J x in the x direction is so J x = nqv dx, E y = J xb z nq, and we define the Hall coefficient as R H = E y. J x B z For a free electron metal with n electrons per volume, then, R H is negative, R H = 1 ne. Note that measuring Hall effects in metals is difficult: even with high current density (10 6 Am 2 and magnetic fields of order 1 T we have to measure fields E y = = V m 1, or a potential difference of less than 1 µv on a typically-sized sample. 11

12 12

13 Metal Valence RH theor Li Na K Rb Cs /R exp H 12

14 Metal Valence RH theor Li Na K Rb Cs Cu Ag Au /R exp H 12

15 Metal Valence RH theor Li Na K Rb Cs Cu Ag Au Be Cd Zn Al /R exp H Alkali metals OK, noble metals numerically incorrect, higher-valent metals wrong sign. Major problem for free-electron theory. In addition, R H depends on B and T. 12

16 6.9 Free electron approximation final comments We have still not explained how we can justify the assumption that electrons, charged particles, do not interact with one another. There are two effects electrostatic screening and the exclusion principle. 13

17 6.9.1 Screening If the electrons are free to move, they arrange themselves so as to make the metal locally neutral but if they try to pack together more densely this will increase their energy because E F, the energy relative to the local potential, increases with n = N e /V. As a result, the electrostatic potential round a point charge q in a free electron gas is not V 0 (r) = q 4πɛ 0 r, but V(r) = qe r/λ 4πɛ 0 r, a screened Coulomb potential, with 2ɛ0 E λ = F 3e 2 n m for our usual set of parameters, so that electric fields inside a metal are screened out within a few interatomic spacings. 14

18 6.9.2 Electron-electron scattering At absolute zero, scattering cannot occur, because of the exclusion principle: The two electrons are initially both in occupied states inside the Fermi surface. To conserve energy and momentum, either both final states lie inside the Fermi surface but those states are all occupied or one lies outside but then the other lies inside. Scattering is forbidden at T = 0. At finite T there is a layer of partly occupied states near E F, amounting to a fraction about k B T/E F of the electrons, giving weak scattering with probability T 2. See contribution to electrical resistivity T 2 in very pure metals at very low T. 15

19 6.9.3 Binding energy of metals The terms in the energy are: Electronic kinetic energy (reduced by allowing them to be delocalised) Attraction of electrons to ion cores (less than in free atoms as electrons are further from nuclei) Mutual repulsion of ion cores (screened by the free electron gas) Electron-electron repulsion (reduced by spreading out electrons) Quantum mechanical exchange potential between electrons Correlation energy (beyond single-electron wave-functions) Balance of effects typically a few ev per atom. 16

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