Test Review: Scientific Method and Measurement ANSWER KEY

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1 Test Review: Scientific Method and Measurement ANSWER KEY Remember that in order to be eligible for a retake you must complete this review sheet before the test. Scientific Method: Problem: Must be a question, must be testable Information: Helps you to provide reasoning in your hypothesis. Hypothesis: If (explain the experiment), Then (give a prediction), Because (provide reasoning) Experiment: Materials and Procedure (numbered list) (remember to be detailed!) Results: Observations, data tables, graphs Conclusion: Must refer to the hypothesis (what was it?), tell if hypothesis was supported (was it right?) and use data to justify (how could you tell if your hypothesis was right or wrong?) Measurement The metric system is also called the International System of Units (SI) The metric system uses a consistent set of prefixes (including kilo, centi and milli) and base units meters (length), liters (volume of a liquid), grams (mass) The metric system is based on the number ten. This means that to convert between units, you only have to move the decimal point. Length: When asked to measure the length of an object, measure to the nearest tenth (0.1) of a centimeter. Units: o Kilometer, km=long distances (from one city to another) o Meter, m=medium-range lengths (classroom length, parking lot size) o Centimeter, cm=small lengths (piece of paper, height of chair) o Millimeter, mm=very small lengths (width of finger, width of pencil) Tools: o Ruler, Meter stick Conversions: 1 km = 1000 m, 1 m = 100 cm, 1 cm = 10 mm Area: Area=Length x Width Always use square units with area!! Area is measuring two dimensions Units: o Square kilometer, km 2 =very large area (size of a city) o Square meter, m 2 =large area (area a room, area of the school) o Square centimeter, cm 2 = small area (area of a piece of paper, book cover) o Square millimeter, mm 2 =tiny area (piece of confetti)

2 Tools: o Volume: Ruler, Meter stick Volume is the measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space. Different ways to calculate volume: (we will only use liquid volume in this class) o Volume of an irregular-shaped object that fits into a graduated cylinder: Fill the graduated cylinder with water to a ten number. Record the starting milliliters (ml). Place the object in the graduated cylinder, notice the water has been displaced and the water level is now higher. Record the water height (ml) with the object in the graduated cylinder. Subtract the beginning volume (ml) from the end volume (ml) to find the volume of the object. Units: ml (what we use in class) could also be liters (L) Tool: Graduated Cylinder o Volume of an irregular-shaped object that does not fit in a graduated cylinder: Fill an overflow can past the spout and allow the water to run out into the sink. The water level should now be just below the spout. Place a graduated cylinder under the spout. Put the object into the overflow can and catch the displaced water. Record the volume of water contained in the graduated cylinder (ml), this is the volume of your object. Units: ml (what we use in class) could also be liters (L) Tools: Overflow can and graduated cylinder Unit Review: cm 3 are the units for solids that are box-shaped objects, while milliliters (ml) or liters (L) are used for liquids or objects that are measured using the displacement of a liquid. Mass Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. Measure mass by placing an object on a triple beam balance and using the weights to balance the scale. Units: o Grams, g=medium mass measure (paperback book, pencil, stapler) These are the units measured with a triple beam balance o Kilograms, kg=heavy objects (table, yourself, a horse) o Milligrams, mg=light objects (small piece of string, a pinch of sugar) Tool: Triple Beam Balance, electronic balance Density Density is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance. Density=mass / volume (mass divided by volume) The density of water is 1g/mL In a column of liquids, the most dense liquid will be on the bottom If something sinks in water the density is more than 1g/ml, if something floats on water the density is less than 1 g/ml Units: You carry over whatever units were used in the calculation (the units for the mass divided by the units for the volume): o g/cm 3, g/ml (most often used in class) also kg/l, mg/ml, kg/m 3

3 Tools: Only tools used are tools to measure mass and volume. Metric Conversion Use the ladder method to convert between metric units. Review Questions 1. What is the process that scientists use to solve problems called? The Scientific Method 2. What is a variable? A variable is a factor in an experiment that can be changed. 3. Why is it important to control variables in an experiment? It is important to control the factors in an experiment so that you can determine if the ONE variable that you changed caused the results. 4. What is a hypothesis? What format must you use to write a hypothesis? A hypothesis is a possible answer to the question that you are investigating. It should be written in If then because format. That means: If give a preview of your experiment, then make a prediction because give a scientific reason. 5. What must you do in the conclusion step? In the conclusion you should say whether or not your hypothesis was supported by the results of your experiment and use data to justify your claims. 6. What is a good way to organize and analyze data? Tables and graphs are good ways to organize and analyze data. 7. What is the purpose of the information step?

4 The information step helps you to make a reasonable hypothesis AND it helps you design your experiment. 8. What should be included in the experiment step? The experiment should include a materials list and a step-by-step, detailed procedure. 9. Meters are a unit for measuring what physical property? Length 10. What are examples of things you would measure with millimeters, centimeters, meters and kilometers? (give an example for each) Millimeters the width of a paper clip or pencil Centimeters the length of a marker, the thickness of a dictionary Meters a person s height, the height of the ceiling, the length of a lab table Kilometers the distance to Lansing, the distance across the country. 11. Grams are a unit for measuring what physical property? Mass 12. What are examples of things you would measure with milligrams, grams and kilograms? (Give an example for each) Milligrams doses of medications, a feather, Grams a pencil, a small rock, a cell phone Kilograms a person, a car, a sand bag 13. What does area measure (definition)? Area measures the surface of an object. 14. What does mass measure (definition)? Mass measures the amount of matter in an object. 15. How is mass different from weight? Mass is the amount of matter but weight is how much gravity is pulling on that matter. Mass doesn t change based on the amount of gravity, but weight does. For instance, you would weigh a lot less on the moon because the moon is smaller than Earth but you d weigh much more on Jupiter because Jupiter is much larger than the Earth. 16. What does volume measure (definition)? Volume measures the amount of space an substance occupies (takes up). 17. What does density measure (definition)? Density measures the ratio of the mass of a substance and the volume that it takes up. 18. Liters are a unit for measuring what physical property? Volume

5 19. Grams are a unit for measuring what physical property? Mass 20. What are examples of things you would measure with milliliters and liters? (give an example for each) Milliliters a glass of water, a small rock Liters a bathtub, a bucket 21. The metric system is also called what? The SI System 22. Why is the metric system easy to use? The metric system is easy to use because it based on the number What tools might you use to measure length, width or height? Ruler, meterstick 24. How do you calculate area? (For rectangular surfaces) Area = (length)*(width) 25. What are your units when calculating area? (length unit) 2 For example, m 2 or cm What tools might you use to measure volume? Graduated cylinder, overflow can 27. How do you measure the volume of something that will fit in a graduated cylinder? You measure a certain amount of water in the cylinder. Record that value. Then, place the object into the water. Read the new volume. Subtract the original volume from the new volume. 28. How do you measure the volume of something that will not fit in a graduated cylinder? Use an overflow can. First, fill the overflow can till water is coming out of the spout. Place it on a level surface. Allow all of the water than can come out of the spout to drain. Place a graduated cylinder under the spout. Carefully place the object in the overflow can. Catch the water that comes out of the spout in the cylinder. 29. What tools might you use to measure mass? Triple beam balance or electronic balance 30. How do you calculate density? Density = (mass)/(volume) 31. What units do you use when measuring density?

6 g/ml, g/cm Explain how liquids with different densities would layer themselves in a column. The liquids that are more dense will sink to the bottom. Liquids that are less dense will float. 33. What are the metric base units? Meters (length), Liters (volume), and grams (mass) 34. How do you read a graduated cylinder? Read the bottom of the meniscus. 35. How do you read a triple beam balance? Read each rider individually and add them together. 36. What is the density of a liquid with a mass of 33 g and a volume of 57 ml? D = m / V D = 33 g / 57 ml D = 0.58 g/ml 37. What is the density of a liquid with a mass of 84 g and a volume of 49 ml? D = m / V D = 84 g / 49 ml D = 1.7 g/ml 38. How many milligrams are in 43.7 grams? 43,700 mg 39. How many meters would be in kilometers? 73.4 m milliliters is how many deciliters? dl decigrams is how many hectograms? hg 42. How many centimeters are in 673 millimeters? 67.3 cm Be prepared to write a testable question, hypothesis, procedure and conclusion for an experiment. Be prepared to make a graph that is appropriate for the data provided and a data table.

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