# The Reliability Predictions for the Avionics Equipment

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Reliability Predictions for the Avionics Equipment"

## Transcription

2 278 The Reliability Predictions for the Avionics Equipment and algorithm process. Based on this the article analyzes the reliability through Monte Carlo experiment. Details of our system reliability block diagram and basic assumptions for our system are as follows. 2. Reliability Block Diagram Model Complex system reliability may be predicted in terms of reliability block diagram (RBD) of a system.we can predict the reliability because it is a graphical snapshot and evaluation tool to model the system reliability. An electronic system can be considered to be a network of components, all interlinked to one another in complex ways; so it is best viewed by RBD.RBD is the logical interaction of failures within system and its successful operation [7]. Between input and output nodes blocks are arranged either in series, parallel or combination of these. RBD can be used as a prediction tool for both basic as well as mission reliability. For modeling the system reliability, in depth knowledge for structure and functional processes is required. Through probability s rules and mathematical models we can then assess the system reliability. This article analyses the prediction for mission reliability model. For observed system we assume the following: I. Connectors of system are highly reliable. II. Each component and whole system are bimodal that is either good or failed, there is no third state. III. System is independent of input error IV. Failure rate of different components is statistically independent. By understanding the composition, principles, functions and other aspects of system, the reliability block diagram for our system is designed in Figure.1.Mission reliability is then evaluated in section 4.MIL-HDBK-217 predictions are based on complex methods to estimate the failure data. A brief introduction of both methods is as follows Part Count Prediction Technique This method used in early design phase, provides the estimate of failure rates. As it requires less information about system s design than part stress analysis hence it is mostly applicable in design phase [3].It is based on the generic failure rates of the anticipated quality and type of parts to be used in the assembly. The method assumes that successful function of the system is supported if its entire components are operating, that is if the system s components are in series network. System failure rate is then obtained by the following equation n λ= λj j=1 where λ j is the reliability failure rate of jth component. This method has been highly criticized; details can be found in [8].Parallel to MIL-HDBK-217, many other advanced methods have been developed in other reliability databases Part Stress Prediction Technique This technique requires knowledge about the stress levels on each part to find their failure rates. It is usually applicable later in design phase and it requires detail information about design configuration to find actual stress level for each part application. In addition to base failure rate, it also includes different other factors like power factor, quality factor, environmental factor and other application related factors, for estimating a part s failure rate [9]. Date on various factors and basic failure rates are present in MIL-HDBK-217.Following are some parts stress mathematical models for different electronic components [10].In short, there are many sources and other relevant information about application environment that may be considered in predicting the reliability of a system at the early stage of their production. 3. Mathematical Models Deterministic expressions for micro-circuits, gate, arrays and micro-processors are essentials for estimating the failure rates of required system. The following models are generally applied in different military hand books such as MIL-HDBK-217 for micro-circuits that include Bipolar and MCC devices, digital and different types of arrays either linear, programmed or logic [11].Equation-1 gives data on failure rate. Failures/ Hours Where: 1 λ P= ( C1T A+C2E) Q L (1) C = This factor is based on number of gates or transistors, in other words based on die complexity. A look up table gives a value based on how many gates or transistors in device under studied, keeping in view the type of arrays like linear, programmed etc. T = Temperature based factor which can be calculated from a specified model. C 2 = Packaging failure rate factor applied for micro-circuits, this takes into account the reflection of device packaging. E = This factor capture the environmental operational aspect. This factor changes according to given environment of operation. This includes number of factors such as ground benign, naval sheltered, airborne inhabited cargo, canon launch etc. A = Application factor i.e. used for application of device for MMIC appliances applied in a high power environment a factor of three will be used whereas digital device will utilize a factor of one.

3 Universal Journal of Applied Mathematics 2(8): , Q = Quality factor i.e. appliances are for commercial or military level specification purposes. = This factor is used to reflect the age in years that L an appliance has been in production. Equation-2 gives Micro-circuits, Gate / Logic Arrays & Micro-processors data as: λ P= ( C1 T+C2E) QL Failures/10 Hours (2) Equation-3 is for Gaas Mmic and Digital Devices. λ P= ( C1T A+C2E) Q Failures/10 Hours (3) Equation-4 is for Resistors λ =λ /10 P B T P S Q E Failures Hours (4) For transistor,(4) is modified as λ =λ P /10 (5) P B T A R S Q E Failures Hours and for capacitor the modified failure rate equation will be λ =λ P /10 () P B T C V ST Q E Failures Hours Reliability Data Calculation for Resistors The common factors are as follows Family = CHIP Base failure Rate ( ) B Temperature Factor ( T ) Power stress factor ( ) Quality Factor ( Q ) Environmental factor λ = = 1.3 S = 10 =different values E = 4.0 Part no Resistance Tem ( ο C ) Table 1. Reliability Data Calculation for Resistors Rated power Actual power Opr. Voltage Power stress ( S ) Power factor ( P ) Part failure - P (λ )10 hrs K 50 ¼ w k 50 1/10 w /10 w k 50 1/10 w k 50 ½ w k 50 ¼ w Board part no Tem ( ο C ) Table 2. Reliability Data Calculation for Transistors. Power rating factor ( R ) Applied voltage Rated voltage Voltage stress factor ( ) S Part failure rate ( )10 hrs Q Q Q Q Q Q Table 3. Reliability Data Calculation for Capacitors Part no Capacitance ( µ P ) Capacitance factor ( C ) Tem ( ο C ) Operating voltage (volt) Voltage stress ( S ) Voltage stress factor ( V ) Part Failure hrs ( ) μf μf μf μf μf

4 280 The Reliability Predictions for the Avionics Equipment Reliability Calculation for Transistors The common factors are as follows Family =PNP Base failure Rate ( ) B λ = Temperature Factor ( T ) = 1.7 Application Factor ( A ) = 4.3 Quality Factor ( Q ) = 5.5 Environmental factor ( E ) =4.0 Component Reliability Calculation for Capacitors The common factors are as follows Family = Ceramic λ Base failure Rate ( B ) = Temperature Factor ( T ) =2.9 Stress Resistance Factor ( ST ) = 0. Quality Factor ( Q ) =10 Environmental factor ( ) E =10 The last column of each table contains time dependent reliability R(t) of different parts, resulted from the exponential distribution model. It is not only reckoning the basic failure rates but clearly illustrates that the system failure rate λ is also adjusted by considering various multipliers namely π factors. These π factors reflect those parameters which can affect the system and component failure rates like, quality, environment, stress level and temperature. The part count technique is implied to be appropriate near the beginning in the design stage. By assigning values to different parameters which are used in early period of design, models can be established from this prediction technique. Part stress technique is based on the assumption that there is perfection in basic design and failures are resulted from manufacturing stage defects which are accelerated by different operational stresses. Design, manufacturing, storage and transportation all play a significant role in the reliability estimation of any electronic equipment and all these processes differ from company to company. External failure mechanisms and flawed report writing methods may also become sources to affect the failure data. Consequently no statistical confidence is attached with values which are resulted from these models. Development of these models is based on assumption of constant rates of failure. This means that component failure rates are age independent. This assumption is taken on the ground that system will start its mission after discarding early failures and before wear-out period mission will be completed [11].The modern prediction techniques are available today which can be used to analysis thousand of components for months and possibly years to get sufficient data in order to establish a precise empirical model. 4. System Reliability Evaluation System reliability now can be estimated by taking into account the individual parts failures Reliability Block Diagram is an important tool used for estimating the failure probability of a complete system which is briefly discussed in previous section. In our case, failure of the system is defined as intersection and union of individual failures as shown in Figure 1. As the individual failure modes of our system have been identified, now the system reliability involved, evaluating the probability of union and intersection of events and considering the statistical dependence between them. The corresponding failure probabilities are mentioned in Table-4 below. Table 4. Failure probabilities of system components. Units Resistors Capacitors Transistors Failure rate * * * System Failure rate: * The reliability of the system and units are calculated on probabilities laws of union and intersection for events. As mission reliability model is looked complex to derive the general equation for solution so Monte Carlo simulation methods can be used to find the interval estimate for the failure of the system. In our case these bounds have been estimated by assuming that all the events are statistically dependent. The first order bounds for our system based on simulation study of Ang and Cornell [12], are [ , ]. We have also calculated the second order bounds for more accurate and narrowest estimate, based on study of Ditlevsen [13].These estimated bounds are [ , ] which is approximately the same failure probability as mentioned above.

5 Universal Journal of Applied Mathematics 2(8): , RESISTOR 003 = RESISTOR 001 RESISTOR 002 RESISTOR 005 = = = RESISTOR 00 = RESISTOR 004 = TRANSISTOR Q200 CAPACITOR 1 CAPACITOR 1 CAPACITOR 1 CAPACITOR 1 CAPACITOR 1 = 0.01 = = = 0.18 = 0.18 = 0.18 TRANSISTOR Q201 TRANSISTOR Q202 TRANSISTOR Q203 TRANSISTOR Q204 TRANSISTOR Q205 = 0.01 = 0.01 = 0.01 = 0.01 = 0.01 Figure 1. Reliability Block Diagram of Avionic Electronic System. 5. Conclusions This work has briefly described how reliability prediction methods can be applied in any avionics industry to predict the failures in the operational life of a component. Currently none is most accurate for determining the reliability values for electronic components but due to rapidly changing impact of technology, highly effective predicting techniques are being introduce that have also influence even in extremely short failure data on electronic components. Reliability Prediction is a technique used all over the world to predict failures. It can be easily applicable in any avionics industry and helps in product performance enhancement. REFERENCES [1] D. Montgomery, "Introduction to Statistical Quality Control," th ed, New York: John Wiley, [2] Z. Liu, "Optimal Reliability and Price Choices for Products Under Warranty," Proc Annu Reliab Maintainab Symp, 200, pp [3] J.Jones and J.Hayes. Joness, A Comparison of Electronic-Reliability Prediction Models, IEEE Trans Reliab., vol. 48, no. 2, [4] J W. Harm, "Revision of MIL-HDBK-217, Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment," Proc Annu. Reliab. Maintainab. Symp (RAMS), 2010 pp. 1 3, Jan [5] Y.Liu, and W.Wu," Research on the System of Reliability Block Diagram Design and Reliability Prediction," International Conference on System Science, Engineering Design and Manufacturing Information, [] R.Billlinton, R. Allan, "Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Concepts and Techniques,". Springer, [7] E. Zio, An Introduction to the Basics of Reliability and Risk Analysis, Ser. Qual. Reliab. Eng. Stat., vol. 13, [8] J. G. Elerath and M. Pecht, IEEE 1413: A Standard for Reliability Predictions, IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 1, no. 1, pp , [9] J. G. McLeish, Enhancing MIL-HDBK-217 "Reliability Predictions with Physics of Failure Methods," Proc Annu. Reliab. Maintainab. Symp., pp. 1, Jan [10] A. Goel and R. T. Graves, Electronic system reliability: Collating prediction models, in IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, 200, vol., no. 2, pp [11] G. A. Klutke, P. C. Kiessler, and M. A. Wortman, A Critical Look at the Bathtub Curve, IEEE Trans. Reliab., vol. 52, no. 1, pp , 2003.

6 282 The Reliability Predictions for the Avionics Equipment [12] C.Cornell, Bounds on the Reliability of Structural Systems, J. Struct. Eng. ASCE, vol. 93, pp , 197. [13] O.Ditlevsen, Narrow Reliability Bounds for Structural Systems, J. Struct. Mech., vol. 3, pp , 1979.

### Chapter 6. a. Open Circuit. Only if both resistors fail open-circuit, i.e. they are in parallel.

Chapter 6 1. a. Section 6.1. b. Section 6.3, see also Section 6.2. c. Predictions based on most published sources of reliability data tend to underestimate the reliability that is achievable, given that

### In data sheets and application notes which still contain NXP or Philips Semiconductors references, use the references to Nexperia, as shown below.

Important notice Dear Customer, On 7 February 2017 the former NXP Standard Product business became a new company with the tradename Nexperia. Nexperia is an industry leading supplier of Discrete, Logic

### 3.3 V 256 K 16 CMOS SRAM

August 2004 AS7C34098A 3.3 V 256 K 16 CMOS SRAM Features Pin compatible with AS7C34098 Industrial and commercial temperature Organization: 262,144 words 16 bits Center power and ground pins High speed

### AN922 Application note

Application note Using a Super Cap to back up the M41T56, M41T00 M41T11, M41T81, M41T94, and M41ST84W (16-pin) Introduction The M41T56, M41T00, M41T11, M41T81, M41T94, and M41ST84W (16-pin) real-time clocks

### Lab 4 RC Circuits. Name. Partner s Name. I. Introduction/Theory

Lab 4 RC Circuits Name Partner s Name I. Introduction/Theory Consider a circuit such as that in Figure 1, in which a potential difference is applied to the series combination of a resistor and a capacitor.

### In data sheets and application notes which still contain NXP or Philips Semiconductors references, use the references to Nexperia, as shown below.

Important notice Dear Customer, On 7 February 2017 the former NXP Standard Product business became a new company with the tradename Nexperia. Nexperia is an industry leading supplier of Discrete, Logic

### Rel: Estimating Digital System Reliability

Rel 1 Rel: Estimating Digital System Reliability Qualitatively, the reliability of a digital system is the likelihood that it works correctly when you need it. Marketing and sa les people like to say that

### In data sheets and application notes which still contain NXP or Philips Semiconductors references, use the references to Nexperia, as shown below.

Important notice Dear Customer, On 7 February 2017 the former NXP Standard Product business became a new company with the tradename Nexperia. Nexperia is an industry leading supplier of Discrete, Logic

### 5 V 64K X 16 CMOS SRAM

September 2006 A 5 V 64K X 16 CMOS SRAM AS7C1026C Features Industrial (-40 o to 85 o C) temperature Organization: 65,536 words 16 bits Center power and ground pins for low noise High speed - 15 ns address

### In data sheets and application notes which still contain NXP or Philips Semiconductors references, use the references to Nexperia, as shown below.

Important notice Dear Customer, On 7 February 2017 the former NXP Standard Product business became a new company with the tradename Nexperia. Nexperia is an industry leading supplier of Discrete, Logic

### STM1831. Voltage detector with sense input and external delay capacitor. Features. Applications

Voltage detector with sense input and external delay capacitor Features Voltage monitored on separate sense input V SEN Factory-trimmed voltage thresholds in 100 mv increments from 1.6 V to 5.7 V ±2% voltage

### Silicon N-channel dual gate MOS-FET IMPORTANT NOTICE. use

Rev. 4 2 November 27 Product data sheet IMPORTANT NOTICE Dear customer, As from October st, 26 Philips Semiconductors has a new trade name - NXP Semiconductors, which will be used in future data sheets

### Wet Tantalum Capacitors, High Energy, Ultra High Capacitance, -55 C to +125 C Operation

Wet Tantalum Capacitors, High Energy, Ultra High Capacitance, -55 C to +125 C Operation FEATURES High energy, very high capacitance design All tantalum, hermetically sealed case Available Utilizes proven

### 74HC1GU04GV. 1. General description. 2. Features. 3. Ordering information. Marking. 5. Functional diagram. Inverter

Rev. 5 1 July 27 Product data sheet 1. General description 2. Features 3. Ordering information The is a high-speed Si-gate CMOS device. It provides an inverting single stage function. The standard output

### Wet Tantalum Capacitor, Button Assembly or Array, All-Tantalum Case, - 55 C to 125 C Operation

Wet Tantalum Capacitor, Button Assembly or Array, All-Tantalum Case, - 55 C to 5 C Operation FEATURES All-Tantalum electrodes eliminate silver migration Withstands high ripple current Long life reliability

### DATA SHEET. BC369 PNP medium power transistor; 20 V, 1 A DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS. Product specification Supersedes data of 2003 Nov 20.

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET book, halfpage M3D186 Supersedes data of 23 Nov 2 24 Nov 5 FEATURES High current Two current gain selections. APPLICATIONS Linear voltage regulators High side switches

### DATA SHEET. BC817DPN NPN/PNP general purpose transistor DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS. Product data sheet Supersedes data of 2002 Aug 09.

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET book, halfpage M3D302 NPN/PNP general purpose transistor Supersedes data of 2002 Aug 09 2002 Nov 22 FEATURES High current (500 ma) 600 mw total power dissipation Replaces

### Dual 3-channel analog multiplexer/demultiplexer with supplementary switches

with supplementary switches Rev. 03 16 December 2009 Product data sheet 1. General description 2. Features 3. Applications 4. Ordering information The is a dual 3-channel analog multiplexer/demultiplexer

### 74HC1G02; 74HCT1G02. The standard output currents are half those of the 74HC02 and 74HCT02.

Rev. 04 11 July 2007 Product data sheet 1. General description 2. Features 3. Ordering information 74HC1G02 and 74HCT1G02 are high speed Si-gate CMOS devices. They provide a 2-input NOR function. The HC

### TC74HC155AP, TC74HC155AF

TOSHIBA CMOS Digital Integrated Circuit Silicon Monolithic TC74HC155AP, TC74HC155AF Dual 2-to-4 Line Decoder 3-to-8 Line Decoder TC74HC155AP/AF The TC74HC155A is a high speed CMOS DUAL 2-to-4 LINE DECODER

### DATA SHEET. BC368 NPN medium power transistor; 20 V, 1 A DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS. Product specification Supersedes data of 2003 Dec 01.

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET book, halfpage M3D86 Supersedes data of 2003 Dec 0 2004 Nov 05 FEATURES High current. APPLICATIONS Linear voltage regulators Low side switch Supply line switch for negative

### 2-input AND gate with open-drain output. The 74AHC1G09 is a high-speed Si-gate CMOS device.

74HC1G09 Rev. 02 18 December 2007 Product data sheet 1. General description 2. Features 3. Ordering information The 74HC1G09 is a high-speed Si-gate CMOS device. The 74HC1G09 provides the 2-input ND function

### In data sheets and application notes which still contain NXP or Philips Semiconductors references, use the references to Nexperia, as shown below.

Important notice Dear Customer, On 7 February 217 the former NXP Standard Product business became a new company with the tradename Nexperia. Nexperia is an industry leading supplier of Discrete, Logic

### An Autonomous Nonvolatile Memory Latch

Radiant Technologies, Inc. 2835D Pan American Freeway NE Albuquerque, NM 87107 Tel: 505-842-8007 Fax: 505-842-0366 e-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com www.ferrodevices.com An Autonomous Nonvolatile Memory

### 3.3 V 64K X 16 CMOS SRAM

September 2006 Advance Information AS7C31026C 3.3 V 64K X 16 CMOS SRAM Features Industrial (-40 o to 85 o C) temperature Organization: 65,536 words 16 bits Center power and ground pins for low noise High

### Highlights. 25, 35, 50, 63, 80 Vdc. RoHS Compliant A (± 0.2) L ( ± 0.3) D (± 0.5) Capacitor Markings Voltage Code

For filtering, Bypassing and Power Supply Decoupling with Long Life Requirements Rated for 15 C, type HZA combines the advantages of aluminum electrolytic and aluminum polymer technology. These hybrid

### i.mx 6 Temperature Sensor Module

NXP Semiconductors Document Number: AN5215 Application Note Rev. 1, 03/2017 i.mx 6 Temperature Sensor Module 1. Introduction All the i.mx6 series application processors use the same temperature sensor

### Thermal Resistance Measurement

Optotherm, Inc. 2591 Wexford-Bayne Rd Suite 304 Sewickley, PA 15143 USA phone +1 (724) 940-7600 fax +1 (724) 940-7611 www.optotherm.com Optotherm Sentris/Micro Application Note Thermal Resistance Measurement

### AT Series. High Temperature MLCC 200ºC & 250 C Rated HOW TO ORDER ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS DIMENSIONS AT10

Present military specifications, as well as a majority of commercial applications, require a maximum operating temperature of 25 C. However, the emerging market for high temperature electronics demands

### Chapter 5. System Reliability and Reliability Prediction.

Chapter 5. System Reliability and Reliability Prediction. Problems & Solutions. Problem 1. Estimate the individual part failure rate given a base failure rate of 0.0333 failure/hour, a quality factor of

### PHD/PHP36N03LT. 1. Product profile. 2. Pinning information. N-channel TrenchMOS logic level FET. 1.1 General description. 1.

Rev. 2 8 June 26 Product data sheet 1. Product profile 1.1 General description Logic level N-channel enhancement mode Field-Effect Transistor (FET) in a plastic package using TrenchMOS technology. 1.2

### SuperTan Extended (STE) Capacitors, Wet Tantalum Capacitors with Hermetic Seal

SuperTan Extended () Capacitors, Wet Tantalum Capacitors with Hermetic Seal FEATURES SuperTan Extended () represents a major breakthrough in wet tantalum capacitor Available technology. Its unique cathode

### AVAILABLE OPTIONS PACKAGED DEVICES CHIP CARRIER (FK) CERAMIC DIP (JG) TL7702ACD TL7715ACD TL7702ACP TL7715ACP TL7702ACY TL7715ACY

Power-On Reset Generator Automatic Reset Generation After Voltage Drop Wide Supply Voltage Range Precision Voltage Sensor Temperature-Compensated Voltage Reference True and Complement Reset Outputs Externally

### INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. 74F154 1-of-16 decoder/demultiplexer. Product specification Jan 08. IC15 Data Handbook

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 1-of-16 decoder/demultiplexer 1990 Jan 08 IC15 Data Handbook Decoder/demultiplexer FEATURES 16-line demultiplexing capability Mutually exclusive outputs 2-input enable gate for strobing

### Solid Tantalum SMD Capacitors TANTAMOUNT, Hi-Rel COTS, Low ESR, Metal Case

Solid Tantalum SMD Capacitors TANTAMOUNT, Hi-Rel COTS, Low ESR, Metal Case PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS Operating Temperature: -55 C to +125 C (above 85 C, voltage derating is required) Capacitance Range:

### BCM857BV; BCM857BS; BCM857DS

BCM857BV; BCM857BS; BCM857DS Rev. 05 27 June 2006 Product data sheet 1. Product profile 1.1 General description in small Surface-Mounted Device (SMD) plastic packages. The transistors are fully isolated

### 25, 35, 50, 63 Vdc. RoHS Compliant. Size Code ± 0.5 ± 0.3. F to

For filtering, Bypassing and Power Supply Decoupling with Long Life Requirements Using a ruggedized construction, type HZC_V withstands a 30 G vibration test. As the main countermeasure to vibration, the

### 74VHC08; 74VHCT08. The 74VHC08; 74VHCT08 provide the quad 2-input AND function.

Rev. 0 30 June 2009 Product data sheet. General description 2. Features 3. Ordering information The are high-speed Si-gate CMOS devices and are pin compatible with Low-power Schottky TTL (LSTTL). They

### DATA SHEET. BCP69 PNP medium power transistor; 20 V, 1 A DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS. Product specification Supersedes data of 2002 Nov 15.

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET dbook, halfpage M3D087 Supersedes data of 2002 Nov 15 2003 Nov 25 FEATURES High current Three current gain selections 1.4 W total power dissipation. APPLICATIONS Linear

### FG Silicon N-channel MOS FET (FET1) Silicon P-channel MOS FET (FET2) For switching circuits. Package. Overview. Features. Marking Symbol: V7

FG6943 Silicon N-channel MOS FET (FET) Silicon P-channel MOS FET (FET2) For switching circuits Overview FG6943 is N-P channel dual type small signal MOS FET employed small size surface mounting package.

### WCAP-AS5H Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors

A Dimensions: [mm] B Recommended hole pattern: [mm] D1 Electrical Properties: Properties Test conditions Value Unit Tol. Capacitance 0.25V; 120Hz C 10 µf ± 20% Rated voltage U R 16 V (DC) max. Leakage

### S-5743 A Series 125 C OPERATION HIGH-WITHSTAND VOLTAGE HIGH-SPEED BIPOLAR HALL EFFECT LATCH IC. Features. Applications. Package.

www.ablicinc.com S-5743 A Series 125 C OPERATION HIGH-WITHSTAND VOLTAGE HIGH-SPEED BIPOLAR HALL EFFECT LATCH IC ABLIC Inc., 2015-2017 Rev.1.1_02 This IC, developed by CMOS technology, is a high-accuracy

### Safety and Reliability of Embedded Systems

(Sicherheit und Zuverlässigkeit eingebetteter Systeme) Fault Tree Analysis Mathematical Background and Algorithms Prof. Dr. Liggesmeyer, 0 Content Definitions of Terms Introduction to Combinatorics General

### PSMN005-75B. N-channel TrenchMOS SiliconMAX standard level FET. High frequency computer motherboard DC-to-DC convertors

Rev. 1 16 November 29 Product data sheet 1. Product profile 1.1 General description SiliconMAX standard level N-channel enhancement mode Field-Effect Transistor (FET) in a plastic package using TrenchMOS

### In data sheets and application notes which still contain NXP or Philips Semiconductors references, use the references to Nexperia, as shown below.

Important notice Dear Customer, On 7 February 217 the former NXP Standard Product business became a new company with the tradename Nexperia. Nexperia is an industry leading supplier of Discrete, Logic

### Passivated ultra sensitive gate thyristor in a SOT54 plastic package. Earth leakage circuit breakers or Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI)

Rev. 2 31 July 28 Product data sheet 1. Product profile 1.1 General description Passivated ultra sensitive gate thyristor in a SOT54 plastic package. 1.2 Features Ultra sensitive gate Direct interfacing

### DATA SHEET. PMEM4010ND NPN transistor/schottky diode module DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS. Product data sheet Supersedes data of 2002 Oct 28.

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET book, halfpage M3D302 NPN transistor/schottky diode module Supersedes data of 2002 Oct 28 2003 Jul 04 FEATURES 600 mw total power dissipation High current capability

### DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET. ok, halfpage M3D302. PMEM4020ND NPN transistor/schottky-diode module. Product data sheet 2003 Nov 10

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET ok, halfpage M3D302 NPN transistor/schottky-diode module 2003 Nov 0 FEATURES 600 mw total power dissipation High current capability Reduces required PCB area Reduced

### 5-V Low Drop Fixed Voltage Regulator TLE 4279

5-V Low Drop Fixed Voltage Regulator TLE 4279 Features Output voltage tolerance ±2% 15 ma current capability Very low current consumption Early warning Reset output low down to V Q = 1 V Overtemperature

### Lecture 6: Time-Dependent Behaviour of Digital Circuits

Lecture 6: Time-Dependent Behaviour of Digital Circuits Two rather different quasi-physical models of an inverter gate were discussed in the previous lecture. The first one was a simple delay model. This

### S-57P1 S Series FOR AUTOMOTIVE 150 C OPERATION HIGH-WITHSTAND VOLTAGE HIGH-SPEED BIPOLAR HALL EFFECT LATCH IC. Features. Applications.

www.ablicinc.com FOR AUTOMOTIVE 150 C OPERATION HIGH-WITHSTAND VOLTAGE HIGH-SPEED BIPOLAR HALL EFFECT LATCH IC ABLIC Inc., 2015-2017 This IC, developed by CMOS technology, is a high-accuracy Hall effect

### SN54HC682, SN74HC682 8-BIT MAGNITUDE COMPARATORS

SCLS0C MARCH 9 REVISED MAY 99 Compare Two -Bit Words 00-kΩ Pullup Resistors Are on the Q Inputs Package Options Include Plastic Small-Outline (DW) and Ceramic Flat (W) Packages, Ceramic Chip Carriers (FK),

### April 2004 AS7C3256A

pril 2004 S7C3256 3.3V 32K X 8 CMOS SRM (Common I/O) Features Pin compatible with S7C3256 Industrial and commercial temperature options Organization: 32,768 words 8 bits High speed - 10/12/15/20 ns address

### PC Card (PCMCIA) Dual Interface Switch

Product is End of Life 3/204 Si9707 PC Card (PCMCIA) Dual Interface Switch DESCRIPTION The Si9707 offers an integrated solution for dual PC Card power interfaces that require only V CC switching. This

### The Growing Impact of Atmospheric Radiation. Effects on Semiconductor Devices and the. Associated Impact on Avionics Suppliers

Atmospheric Radiation Effects Whitepaper Prepared by: Ken Vranish KVA Engineering, Inc. (616) 745-7483 Introduction The Growing Impact of Atmospheric Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices and the

### INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. 74ALS30A 8-Input NAND gate. Product specification 1991 Feb 08 IC05 Data Handbook

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS -Input NAND gate 1991 Feb 0 IC05 Data Handbook TPE TPICAL PROPAGATION DELA TPICAL SUPPL CURRENT (TOTAL) 5.0ns 0.5mA PIN CONFIGURATION A 1 B 2 14 13 V CC NC ORDERING INFORMATION C 3

### DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET. BLU86 UHF power transistor

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET September 1991 FEATURES SMD encapsulation Emitter-ballasting resistors for optimum temperature profile Gold metallization ensures excellent reliability. DESCRIPTION NPN

### Temperature range Name Description Version XC7SET32GW 40 C to +125 C TSSOP5 plastic thin shrink small outline package; 5 leads; body width 1.

Rev. 01 3 September 2009 Product data sheet 1. General description 2. Features 3. Ordering information is a high-speed Si-gate CMOS device. It provides a 2-input OR function. Symmetrical output impedance

### 74AHC02; 74AHCT02. The 74AHC02; 74AHCT02 provides a quad 2-input NOR function.

Rev. 04 2 May 2008 Product data sheet. General description 2. Features 3. Ordering information The is a high-speed Si-gate CMOS device and is pin compatible with Low-power Schottky TTL (LSTTL). It is specified

### INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. 74ALS138 1-of-8 decoder/demultiplexer. Product specification 1996 Jul 03 IC05 Data Handbook

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 1996 Jul 03 IC05 Data Handbook FEATURES Demultiplexing capability Multiple input enable for easy expansion Ideal for memory chip select decoding DESCRIPTION The decoder accepts three

### TPC8203 TPC8203. Lithium Ion Battery Applications Portable Equipment Applications Notebook PCs. Maximum Ratings (Ta = 25 C) Circuit Configuration

TOSHIBA Field Effect Transistor Silicon N Channel MOS Type (U MOSII) TPC8203 Lithium Ion Battery Applications Portable Equipment Applications Notebook PCs Unit: mm Small footprint due to small and thin

### DATASHEET CA3162. Features. Description. Ordering Information. Pinout. Functional Block Diagram. A/D Converters for 3-Digit Display

DATASHEET CA A/D Converters for -Digit Display Features Dual Slope A/D Conversion Multiplexed BCD Display Ultra Stable Internal Band Gap Voltage Reference Capable of Reading 99mV Below Ground with Single

### MLCC with FLEXITERM. General Specifications GENERAL DESCRIPTION APPLICATIONS PRODUCT ADVANTAGES HOW TO ORDER C 104 K A Z 2 A

General Specifications GENERAL DESCRIPTION With increased requirements from the automotive industry for additional component robustness, AVX recognized the need to produce a MLCC with enhanced mechanical

### Surface Mount Multilayer Ceramic Chip Capacitors DSCC Qualified Type 05007

Surface Mount Multilayer Ceramic Chip Capacitors DSCC Qualified Type 05007 FEATURES US defense supply center approved Federal stock control number, Available CAGE CODE 2770A Available Case size 1206 Stable

### Bay Linear. 1.0Amp Low Dropout Voltage Regulator B1117

Bay Linear Inspire the Linear Power 1.Amp Low Dropout oltage Regulator B1117 Adjustable & Fix (.4olt Dropout) Description The Bay Linear B1117 is a three terminal positive NPN regulator offered as adjustable

### In data sheets and application notes which still contain NXP or Philips Semiconductors references, use the references to Nexperia, as shown below.

Important notice Dear Customer, On 7 February 217 the former NXP Standard Product business became a new company with the tradename Nexperia. Nexperia is an industry leading supplier of Discrete, Logic

### SY10/100EL11V. General Description. Precision Edge. Features. Pin Names. 5V/3.3V 1:2 Differential Fanout Buffer. Revision 10.0

SY10/100EL11 5/3.3 1:2 Differential Fanout Buffer Revision 10.0 General Description The SY10/100EL11 are 1:2 differential fanout gates. These devices are functionally similar to the E111A/L devices, with

### Maintenance/ Discontinued

Cs for CD/CD-RM Player AN886SB 4ch. Linear Driver C for CD/CD-RM verview The AN886SB is a 4ch. driver using the power operational amplifier method. t employs the surface mounting type package superior

### DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET M3D065. BLF242 HF-VHF power MOS transistor. Product specification Supersedes data of 1997 Dec 17.

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS DATA SHEET M3D65 Supersedes data of 1997 Dec 17 23 Oct 13 FEATURES PIN CONFIGURATION High power gain Low noise Easy power control Good thermal stability 1 4 Withstands full load

### Surface Mount Multilayer Ceramic Chip Capacitors for Safety Certified Applications

Surface Mount Multilayer Ceramic Chip Capacitors for Safety Certified Applications FEATURES Approved IEC 60384-14 Specialty: safety certified capacitors Wet build process Reliable Noble Metal Electrode

### PART. Maxim Integrated Products 1

9-79; Rev ; 9/ SC7 Inverting Charge Pumps General Description The / monolithic, CMOS chargepump voltage inverters in the ultra-small SC7 package feature a low Ω output resistance, permitting loads up to

### 8-BIT RIPPLE COUNTER SY10E137 SY100E137 DESCRIPTION FEATURES PIN NAMES

8-BIT IPPLE COUNTE FEATUES ESCIPTION 1.8GHz min. count frequency Extended 100E VEE range of 4.2V to 5.5V Synchronous and asynchronous enable pins ifferential clock input and data output pins output for

### Contents. Introduction Field Return Rate Estimation Process Used Parameters

Contents Introduction Field Return Rate Estimation Process Used Parameters Parts Count Reliability Prediction Accelerated Stress Testing Maturity Level Field Return Rate Indicator Function Field Return

### Question 1. Question 2. Question 3

Question 1 Switch S in in the figure is closed at time t = 0, to begin charging an initially uncharged capacitor of capacitance C = 18.2 μf through a resistor of resistance R = 22.3 Ω. At what time (in

### Standard Products ACT Channel Analog Multiplexer Module Radiation Tolerant & ESD Protected

Standard Products ACT8513 48-Channel Analog Multiplexer Module Radiation Tolerant & ESD Protected www.aeroflex.com/mux November 17, 2008 FEATURES 48 channels provided by three -channel multiplexers Radiation

### Chapter 15. System Reliability Concepts and Methods. William Q. Meeker and Luis A. Escobar Iowa State University and Louisiana State University

Chapter 15 System Reliability Concepts and Methods William Q. Meeker and Luis A. Escobar Iowa State University and Louisiana State University Copyright 1998-2008 W. Q. Meeker and L. A. Escobar. Based on

### DATA SHEET General Purpose Thick Film Chip Resistor CR Series

Towards Excellence in Quality, Service & Innovation DATA SHEET General Purpose Thick Film Chip Resistor 1% TO 5%, TCR -200 TO +600 SIZE: 01005/0201/0402/0603/0805/1206/1210/2010/2512 RoHs Compliant Jan

### DS0026 Dual High-Speed MOS Driver

Dual High-Speed MOS Driver General Description DS0026 is a low cost monolithic high speed two phase MOS clock driver and interface circuit. Unique circuit design provides both very high speed operation

### Small, Gauge Pressure Sensor

Small, Gauge Pressure Sensor SM5G-GG Series FEATURES Improved stability with integrated field shields Small SO8 surface-mount package 90 millivolt output Constant current or constant voltage drive Ported

### Low Pressure Sensor Amplified Analog Output SM6295-BCM-S

Low Pressure Sensor Amplified Analog Output SM6295-BCM-S-040-000 FEATURES Pressure range from 0 to 40 cmh 2 O 5.0 V operation Amplified analog output (10 to 90%Vdd) Compensated temperature range: 0 to

### THERMAL DESIGN OF POWER SEMICONDUCTOR MODULES FOR MOBILE COMMNICATION SYSYTEMS. Yasuo Osone*

Nice, Côte d Azur, France, 27-29 September 26 THERMAL DESIGN OF POWER SEMICONDUCTOR MODULES FOR MOBILE COMMNICATION SYSYTEMS Yasuo Osone* *Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 832-2

### Design for Manufacturability and Power Estimation. Physical issues verification (DSM)

Design for Manufacturability and Power Estimation Lecture 25 Alessandra Nardi Thanks to Prof. Jan Rabaey and Prof. K. Keutzer Physical issues verification (DSM) Interconnects Signal Integrity P/G integrity

### HV CAPACITOR SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR THE GYROSCOPE SUSPENSION SYSTEM (GSS) HV AMP/BRIDGE (HVA) BOARD. GP-B Procedure P0688 Rev -

W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory STANFORD UNIVERSITY STANFORD, CALIFORNIA 94305-4085 Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission HV CAPACITOR SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR THE GYROSCOPE SUSPENSION SYSTEM

### P D = 5 W Transient Voltage Suppressor. Package. Description. Features. Applications. Typical Application. (1) (2) (1) Cathode (2) Anode

P D = 5 W Transient Voltage Suppressor Data Sheet Description The is a power Zener diode designed for the protection of automotive electronic units, especially from the surge generated during load dump

### Assessment of the Performance of a Fully Electric Vehicle Subsystem in Presence of a Prognostic and Health Monitoring System

A publication of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS VOL. 33, 2013 Guest Editors: Enrico Zio, Piero Baraldi Copyright 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l., ISBN 978-88-95608-24-2; ISSN 1974-9791 The Italian Association

### Thermal Characterization of Packaged RFIC, Modeled vs. Measured Junction to Ambient Thermal Resistance

Thermal Characterization of Packaged RFIC, Modeled vs. Measured Junction to Ambient Thermal Resistance Steven Brinser IBM Microelectronics Abstract Thermal characterization of a semiconductor device is

### High-Voltage Types Ordering Information, Mica Capacitors

High-Voltage Types Ordering Information, Mica Capacitors Ordering Information Ordering Information: Order by complete part number, as below. For other options,write your requirements on your quote request

### STATISTICAL FAULT SIMULATION.

STATISTICAL FAULT SIMULATION. JINS DAVIS ALEXANDER, GRADUATE STUDENT, AUBURN UNIVERSITY. ABSTRACT: Fault simulation is used for the development or evaluation of manufacturing tests. However with the increase

### Wafer Charging in Process Equipment and its Relationship to GMR Heads Charging Damage

Wafer Charging in Process Equipment and its Relationship to GMR Heads Charging Damage Wes Lukaszek Wafer Charging Monitors, Inc. 127 Marine Road, Woodside, CA 94062 tel.: (650) 851-9313, fax.: (650) 851-2252,

### PDN Planning and Capacitor Selection, Part 2

by Barry Olney column BEYOND DESIGN PDN Planning and Capacitor Selection, Part 2 In last month s column, PDN Planning and Capacitor Selection Part 1, we looked closely at how to choose the right capacitor

### Hybrid Capacitor Applications

Hybrid Capacitor Applications David A. Evans, President Evans Capacitor Company 72 Boyd Avenue East Providence, RI 02914 401-434-5600 davalev@aol.com Scott Rackey, CEO Burstpower Technologies 23 Crescent

### 5-V Low Drop Fixed Voltage Regulator TLE

5-V Low Drop Fixed Voltage Regulator TLE 427-2 Features Output voltage tolerance ±2% 65 ma output current capability Low-drop voltage Reset functionality Adjustable reset time Suitable for use in automotive

### OEM Silicon Pressure Die

OEM Silicon Pressure Die SM9520 Series FEATURES High volume, cost effective Gauge configuration Constant current or constant voltage drive Millivolt output Available in 0.15, 0.60 & 1.50 PSIG full-scale

### BCD to 7-segment latch/decoder/driver

Rev. 04 17 March 2009 Product data sheet 1. General description The is a for liquid crystal and LED displays. It has four address inputs (D0 to D3), an active LOW latch enable input (LE), an active HIGH

### Application Report. Mixed Signal Products SLOA021

Application Report May 1999 Mixed Signal Products SLOA021 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make changes to their products or to discontinue any product

### INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. 74LV00 Quad 2-input NAND gate. Product specification Supersedes data of 1998 Apr 13 IC24 Data Handbook.

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Supersedes data of 1998 Apr 13 IC24 Data Handbook 1998 Apr 20 FEATURES Wide operating voltage: 1.0 to 5.5 V Optimized for low voltage applications: 1.0 to 3.6 V Accepts TTL input levels

### SERIALLY PROGRAMMABLE CLOCK SOURCE. Features

DATASHEET ICS307-03 Description The ICS307-03 is a dynamic, serially programmable clock source which is flexible and takes up minimal board space. Output frequencies are programmed via a 3-wire SPI port.

### Surface Mount Multilayer Ceramic Chip Capacitors for Ultra Small Commodity Applications

Surface Mount Multilayer Ceramic Chip Capacitors for Ultra Small Commodity Applications FEATURES High capacitance in unit size High precision dimensional tolerances Suitably used in high-accuracy automatic

### Application of Grey Prediction Model for Failure Prognostics of Electronics

International Journal of Performability Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 5, September 2010, pp. 435-442. RAMS Consultants Printed in India Application of Grey Prediction Model for Failure Prognostics of Electronics

### Surface Mount Multilayer Ceramic Chip Capacitors Prohibit Surface Arc-Over in High-Voltage Applications

Surface Mount Multilayer Ceramic Chip Capacitors Prohibit Surface Arc-Over in High-Voltage Applications ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS FEATURES For this Worldwide Patented Technology Specialty: high-voltage