Thermal simulation of a complete vehicle using manikin models

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1 Thermal simulation of a complete vehicle using manikin models Dr. Stefan Paulke, Dr. Daniel Köster, Dr. Regina Hass (P+Z Engineering GmbH) Dr. Viktor Bader, Dr. Stephan Menzel, Andreas Gubalke (Volkswagen AG) SIMVEC Simulation und Erprobung in der Fahrzeugentwicklung November 18th -19th, 2014, Baden-Baden, Germany

2 Motivation Promoted Project STROM BMBF (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research): Sponsorship in the topic "Key Technologies for Electromobility (STROM)" Project group: Innovative air conditioning and thermal comfort concepts for the range optimization of electric vehicles (E-Komfort) Time span: 3 years up to June 2014 e-golf Partners/ Competence: Volkswagen AG Vehicle OEM Fraunhofer IBP Measurement of thermal comfort (DRESSMAN) P+Z Eng. GmbH Thermal cabin simulation (THESEUS-FE + OpenFOAM) page 2

3 Overview 1. Creation of baseline thermal simulation model 2. Simplified simulation model 3. Concepts for zonal climatization 4. IR radiators and local thermal comfort 5. Validation of coupled cabin simulation page 3

4 Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Starting point: FE model for side impact crash simulation material names, thicknesses, density connector elements: welding spots, adhesives Model enhancement: Remeshing of missing parts Volume meshing of important parts Thermal contacts and bridges Cavity convection effects Thermal/solar radiative heat transfer Creation of a thermal material database:,, c p,,, Detail: B-column section page 4

5 Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Connector elements Heat bridges Adhesive lines Welding spot page 5

6 Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Shell element remeshing page 6

7 Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Remeshing with volume elements Seals: page 7

8 Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Example of: Volume element meshing Contacts Firewall Carpet Liners Sheet metal Thermal contacts page 8

9 Conduction Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Mechanisms of heat transfer Reflection, transmission, absorption of wind screen solar shortwave radiation direct H 2 O diffuse convective exchange with surrounding air T sky longwave radiation exchange with sky... with cabin air T cabin T air v air solar ground reflection page 9

10 Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Example: Transmissivity (standard glass) dependency on wave length and incidence angle page 10

11 Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Climate chamber model (summer load case) page 11

12 z pipe Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Cabin air zonal modelling each airzone has an average air temperature and humidity as degree of freedom Dash board Cabin air (top) Engine space Trunk z x Cabin air (bottom) page 12

13 [mm] Cabin air average temp. Temperatur [ C] Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Validation of summer load case Pull-Down - Baseline Messung Measurement Simulation Simulation with manikin Simulation mit Manikin t [sec] t= Temperatur[ C] page 13

14 z pipe Cabin air average temp. Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Sommer-Lastfall Validation of summer load case Pull-Down - Baseline Solar roof panel powering passive ventilation, t<0 Reduction by 6-7 C t [sec] page 14

15 z-rohr Temperatur [ C] Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Validation of summer load case Solid part temperature, t=t max (Simulation) t max Messung T Simulation Simulation mit Manikin t [sec] T max E 6.10E E E E+07 T min 5.70E E+07 FE Energy 5.50E page 15

16 Creation of baseline thermal simulation model Baseline model statistics Number of FEs # Shells: 2.1 million # Facets: 4.2 million # Solids: 1.1 million # 1D-Verbindungen: 0.2 million # DOF: 4.3 million Material data # Properties: # Materials: 90 Computation time # 4 CPUs: 2-5h Model creation effort Several months, including research of material parameters page 16

17 Part 2: Simplified simulation model page 17

18 Simplified simulation model Cabin average air temperature Winter load case "Heat up" Area correction factor x A A Generator GeneratorModel (no area correction) Generatormodel (with area correction) Baseline model GeneratorModel (THESEUS-FE) Airzone 2 Airzone 3 Time[sec] Airzone 1 Airzone 4 page 18

19 Simplified simulation model 1D heat conduction modelling Layer configuration: mm steel sheet (c 1, 1, 1 ) mm liner mm air mm canvas Air layer:. T in Kelvin page 19

20 Airzone 2 Airzone 3 Airzone 1 Airzone 4 occupied zone Part 3 Concepts for zonal climatization page 20

21 Concepts for zonal climatization Winter load case "Heat up" Face outlets Zone 1+2: Driver + Passenger Zone 3+4 T env = -7 C Bottom Fond CFD: with OpenFOAM Steady-state flow assumed CFD Volume flow rates through zone borders Constant outlet temperature assumed Overall goal: raise temperature in driver zone to 24.7 C after 10 min (corresponds roughly to PMV=0) page 21

22 Concepts for zonal climatization Winter load case Variants Baseline: Variant 1: Fond Bottom Bottom T env = -7 C Variant 2: (assym.) Variant 3: (assym.) Bottom Bottom page 22

23 Concepts for zonal climatization Winter load case Variants 55 C 55 C 38 C Baseline: Variant 1: Zone 2 Passenger 24.7 C Zone 1 Driver 24.7 C Zone 3 Rear = 20.2 C Energy usage = 100 % Variant 2: asymmetric Zone 2 Passenger 5.1 C Zone 1 Driver 24.7 C Zone 3 Rear =13.5 C Energy usage = 73 % 44 C 44 C T env = -7 C 54 C Zone 2 Passenger 24.7 C Zone 3 Rear Zone 1 =13.1 C Driver 24.7 C Energy usage = 83 % Variant 3: asymmetric Zone 2 Passenger 11.3 C Zone 3 Rear Zone 1 =16.7 C Driver 24.7 C Energy usage = 98 % page 23

24 Concepts for zonal climatization Basis Variant 1 Variant 2 Variant 3 page 24

25 Part 4: 1. IR radiators and local thermal comfort page 25

26 IR radiators and local thermal comfort Winter load case Variants with reduced outlet temperature Baseline without IR emitters Var. 1 with IR emitters above Var. 2 with IR emitters above and below T eq ISO page 26

27 IR radiators and local thermal comfort Coupled comfort simulations Q convection A h T fluid T wall h CFD Data exchange with OpenFOAM via mapping Simulation Thermophysiology model: FIALA-FE (OpenFOAM) - Heat conduction within body - Circulatory system, metabolism, shivering - Contact heat flow, clothing, respiration, transpiration, sweating (incl. humidity exchange with OpenFOAM),T fluid T wall Therm. Simulation (THESEUS-FE) Thermal comfort evaluation for human model FIALA-FE: PMV, DTS, Teq, ISO , Zhang 3D heat conduction in solids with THESEUS-FE 3D radiation thermal and solar in THESEUS-FE page 27

28 IR radiators and local thermal comfort Coupled comfort simulations What data is exchanged during co-simulation? Parameter Units Source Target Wall temperature T wall C THESEUS-FE OpenFOAM field Local convective coefficient of heat transfer h W/(m 2 K) OpenFOAM THESEUS-FE field Adjacent fluid temperature T fluid C OpenFOAM THESEUS-FE field Current time increment Δt S THESEUS-FE OpenFOAM scalar Rate of water vapor generation J kg/(m 2 s) THESEUS-FE OpenFOAM field Mass fraction of water vapor Y H2O - OpenFOAM THESEUS-FE field Air pressure p Pa OpenFOAM THESEUS-FE field Avg. inlet temperature T in C AC model OpenFOAM scalar Avg. water vapor fraction X H2O,in - AC model OpenFOAM scalar Avg. outlet temperature T out C OpenFOAM AC model scalar Avg. water vapor fraction X H2O,out - OpenFOAM AC model scalar PMV (=global comfort index) - THESEUS-FE AC model scalar page 28

29 Part 5: Validation of coupled cabin simulation OpenFOAM THESEUS-FE page 29

30 Validation of coupled cabin simulation Local air temperature Local air temperature Validation summer load case ("pull-down") page 30

31 Validation of coupled cabin simulation Lokale Lufttemperatur Validation summer load case VDA_Kopf_vo VDA Head front VDA Head rear VDA head front VDA front rear page 31

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