Pol-InSAR Calibration of ESA s BIOMASS Mission

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1 Pol-InAR Calibration of EA s BIOMA Mission K. Papathanassiou & J-. Kim German Aerospace Center (DLR (DLR-HR biomass Primary Mission Objectives. Reducing the major uncertainties in carbon fluxes linked to Land Use Change, forest degradation and regrowth. Providing support for International Agreements (UNFCCC and REDD+ 3. Inferring landscape carbon dynamics and supporting predictions 4. Initialising and testing the land component of Earth ystem models TO OBERE FORET BIOMA FOR A BETTER UNDERTANDING OF THE CARBON CYCLE 5. Providing key information on forest resources, ecosystem services, biodiversity and conservation Fully polarimetric P-band AR with 6 MH bandwidth centered at 435 MH (acccording to ITU operated in 3 configurations: x x x un synchronous with a dawn dusk o o o or near dawn dusk (6:±5 min equator crossing time. PolAR (Polarimetry y y Pol-InAR (Polarimetric Interferometry y Tomo AR (Tomography

2 biomass TO OBERE FORET BIOMA FOR A BETTER UNDERTANDING OF THE CARBON CYCLE Mission Requirements: The absolute radiometric bias:.3 db at sigma. The radiometric stability:.5 db (T /.7 db (G at sigma. The Noise Equivalent igma Nought (NEZ: -7 db (T / -3 db (G. The Total Ambiguity Ratio (TAR: -8 db ( AMB =.98. The Cross Talk of the instrument: -3 db. The Channel Imbalance: -34 db (Tx and Rx. biomass TO OBERE FORET BIOMA FOR A BETTER UNDERTANDING OF THE CARBON CYCLE Interferometric Phase Requirements : The repeat cycle of the interferometric phase: 4 days. Three consecutive acquisitions to support dual baseline interferometric processing. The spatial baseline between the i-th orbit of cycle n and the i-th orbit of cycle n+ shall be 3% of the critical baseline over the Equator. The orbit ground track shall be controlled to within ± % of the critical baseline Bc. The ratio of the interferometric Doppler common bandwidth and the AR Doppler:.98.

3 biomass TO OBERE FORET BIOMA FOR A BETTER UNDERTANDING OF THE CARBON CYCLE Interferometric Phase Requirements : The TD of the residual phase error over the synthetic aperture time: 3. The TD of the residual phase error over the data take time (min:. Height to Biomass Allometry Boreal / Tropical Forests Remingstrop Krycklan ungai Wain Mawas Biomass [t/ha] Biomass [t/ha] Biomass [t/ha] Height [m] Height [m] Height [m] > 3.5.6

4 Interferometric Coherence ( InAR Coherence ( ~ Deco ol ol volume decorrelation ol (w,κ e hv iko o hv f(,w o f(,w iκ d d f(,w vertical reflectivity function e olume Coherence f( ertical Wavenumber: κ κ θ sin(θ > Layer Inversion Model olume Layer Ground Layer f(,w mf( mg(wδ(,f m(w ol(w,κ exp(iφ m(w ol (w,κ m(w exp( iφ ( m(w ol(m exp(iφ ~ ol (m lim ~ m ol exp(iφ with ol(m f ( f ( > 3.5.6

5 BIOAR-I Forest Height Inversion Results: ingle P-band [m] 5 Intensity Image Lidar Reference (H Exp. Prolfile & m3 > Interferometric Coherence ( InAR Coherence ( ~ Deco olume > 3.5.6

6 Interferometric Coherence ( InAR Coherence ( Pr op RFI Geo ~ ys Pr o Temp olume Pr op RFI Geo ys Pr o Temp olume Atmo A Quan Cal Rg Int Iono Amp Cor propagation decorrelation RF Interference decorrelation NR geometric decorrelation system decorrelation system decorrelation temporal decorrelation volume decorrelation A Rg Atmo Iono Doppler Deco (= Range Deco (= Atmospheric Deco Ionospheric Deco Calibration Deco Cal NR Quan Amp Int Cor NR Decorrelation Quantisation Effects (Rg/A Ambiguities (.98 Interpolation Effects Corregistration Effects > BIOAR-I Forest Height Inversion Results: ingle P-band [m] 5 Temporal Decorrelation Level:.8 H Intensity Image Lidar Reference (H Exp. Prolfile & m3= > 3.5.6

7 Temporal Decorrelation: calar olume Decorrelation Temp m(w ol(w,κ exp(iφ m(w Temp R, Temp ol (w,κ m(w exp( iφ Temp ( Temp m(w ol(m exp(iφ ~ Temp ol (m lim ~ m ol exp(iφ with ol(m f ( f ( > Temporal Decorrelation: calar olume Decorrelation Baseline : Temp,h,σ( m(w ol(w,κ exp(iφ m(w (w(m κ : exp(iφ,σ( Baseline : Temp,h,σ( m(w ol(w,κ exp(iφ m(w (w(m min Temp κ : exp(iφ min Temp,h,h,σ( -D Inversion Problem: f ( f ( (w(m min * (m κ min h,σ (w(m min * (m κ κ κ Temp Temp (h,σ κ (h,σ κ > 3.5.6

8 BIOAR-I Forest Height Inversion Results: Dual P-band [m] 5 Intensity Image Lidar Reference (H April-May / March-May Exp. Prolfile (only + & m3= > ystem Decorrelation: Complex Decorrelation m(w ~ (w,κ ys ol(w,κ exp(iφ ys m(w Temp C ( w,κ m(w ~ exp( iφ ys ( m(w (m exp(iφ ~ ys (m lim ~ m ys exp(iφ with (m ys f ( f ( > 3.5.6

9 Temporal Decorrelation: Phase creens m(w (w,κ Temp ol(w,κ exp(iφionoexp(iφ m(w Temp ( w,κ m(w exp[ i(φ φ Iono ] ( m(w (m exp(i[φ φ ~ Iono] (m lim ~ m exp(i[φ φ Iono ] with (m f ( f ( > O O H O O H e 4π (i R λ R R H R R H cos(ω sin(ω sin(ω cos(ω H H cos(ω sin(ω sin(ω cos(ω T T H T T H X-Talk Correction Transmit [Tx] / Receive [Rx] distortion matrices Ô Ô H Ô Ô H e 4π (i R λ cos(ω sin(ω sin(ω cos(ω H H cos(ω sin(ω sin(ω cos(ω FR Correction Ω, Ω Estimation O ~ O ~ H ~ O O ~ H e 4π (i R λ H H (single image FR angles A hift Estimation A hift Correction A hifts A TEC Gradients Orbit Geometry (TEC to - Phase ystem Parameters (ampling A / Rg Focussing Parameters Orbit Geometry (TEC to - Phase Height of the effective ionosphere Interferogram Form. > 3.5.6

10 ystem Param. Geom. Param. Cal. Param. (Opt alid κ Ranges 3 i i H i H i k i 4 DEM (or lope Orbit Info [T 6 ] Covariance Matrix Formation (DEM Corrected k Estimation [T ] k 6 6 k *T 6 [T ] [Ω ii ji] [Ω ] [T ] jj κ Θ Forest-Non Forest Map Complex Coherence Calibration Dual- Baseline Inversion i j [Tii ] [Ω ] [ T6 ] CAL k3 k3 [Ω ] [Tjj ] i,,3 and j i k i CAL ik i k [Tii ] [Ωik] [ T6 ] CAL k3 k3 [Ωik] [Tkk] CAL Forest Height Maps: h, h, h 3 3 Extinction (hape Maps: σ, σ, σ 3 Multi-Baseline Height Fusion Forest Height Map: h (Product > Pol-InAR Calibration of EA a BIOMA Mission K. Papathanassiou & J-. Kim German Aerospace Center (DLR (DLR-HR

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