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5 5 ;R " 1) A4 >G% W PQ4 ] s 9% s #] TQH \ PMq7 /.P;!6# 1;=O ;/ S;6 4 ; ;e #H # 4 &9)š \ " 9B E#) 4 ^ O. (Sword, 2003) P;1 P;p #aq QR PMYM) EF* & I?= s:4. % i9pr X 9 S 9N & c N1# O RQH ` 9pR "agr% & - O SB# &=4 P #aq QR ",=?%!F # œ:x6 ER Q ",=?!/M EF* k #R 9: E z9% #R 9: E (! #]e -# (1) i Q YR aag W4 \ T œe# j.oœ #3 G!H9 W4 &p #a: EF* h6 Ze ž (Ma,1999,P.12;Morelock,1992,P.11;Smutny,1998;PP.10-15;Roedell,1984,PP ) &; ;#R - s # C- " & ZHH ` "M R% & 9e smr $9 5(V.7 Z7 T!% r#6#%.4 B) >9 9e # Š T!% P Ÿ# 3 56 (+H.4 C QR Ÿ# 3 *.(10 C 2002C P6 1Q!) Mn Z U Ž?R 97 4 CA c ]R CY a 1% 4 a!6#% @ O N, #H (3). c " K) "e.a QR #R 1Q,: Ap ' '#/ ' 1- " ( % sah (4) O ; #R B) QR H1 rq/ xa EF* k e9% s Ze!% A6 k-h (5).[N# Pw DGl / -# # xa QR H1 96p S xa!a: Q " H xa 1-N Mq7 &#=H 14 ŠO EF* ZQH xa agm 1 A6 / (6).QU c " K) U G?R 1?% œ: -U M ŠO xa 5H K* s \ (7).QR 0Q/U A & r#6#% P6aH / PaF 9G 1R% ", xa >9 & E4 ( 4 ) ; U i#q #R O O r#6#% a / SG "#a: 5 P<e4 --1 Pa s:4 k-hh.4 &= (r) 9;: E 9% #R 9: E #] #R 6 NO 4 C9% #R 9: E \ fq%.(g) #a: Q " H \ #R 56 xa sa ) Pa% A ApR A#.4 &= g O Ec c "(+4 &;6 #] X/ z,h O S!Q #6 ' '- O % ^% Pa% >9 RH E,) & #] ;1 R Pa% w A# ` 1 -* O RH9p \:#H O c xhh R6 & #a: Q ",=? &!/M DpR. ZY -4 #] C H1 #Ra Bn ZH/ ( 4 ) ZH! :1L Za 1 9: O ZH/ \ 7 # xa!7o d1 N `?% -% M Ze9 6 9 ` Š T!% -9 xa $9e Et ` Bn ZH!aG Z \ ž ZQ [N# T!% r#6#% ( ). i H 4 > 9 Sa Z R k C mq? 6 " ^% S fa S C &9)š f/ 4 ZQ f/ T!%!=H9 N ` Mq? G)* & 6 (-). "!a ƒfn S s:4 Mq? *

6 6 1#; O "-4 ` E a= 9pR 1FO ;::* Pa,H & EF* k M; f;g E;e S) RH.4 & 9B% a "# k-rh \ '? C 92 C C 2002C P6 1Q! \ 1 ).QR Q;R mym;n S; EF* i RH Pa% 1-4, P64 P:1 c N1# Eg 9;: E 9% #R 9: E (! #]e -# & ": 1 & (= JY Za "4 \ P #aq ;N ` #aq QR ",=?% & (= 1 &=H #] d 9e Z M L EF* i #R ; Q % '(! '!Q 'j GH ` 9B% 9pR "/9F* \ '34 'NQH EF* h6 R y aq;.4 Pa 6 f -u ' ' 1-4 Paa.4 d9% Social-Emotional learning.1 w ZN "!ag :!"# $%&$'()*+ : : xa #aq " 97h% mymn g Cr#6#% SG!6#% I1H R fagrh ` 9pR S) % k 9 "-H : D::4 D6 EF*!6#% I9H S) &= C^!6#% I: H9 E)9" FG : BC D&1 (1) ;Š!Q; 4 1- [H1 a=e C 0N " -4 -H 1#GH \ B) a xa h x;a ';#N ' 97h Š. a C^!6#% xa " 1% " 1 & 5B1 TH1 xa ' - Š. a mq? ';: -;* SM C " Z: a 1 H ZaC!6#% " /4 ^ -* ]R x R% 6!6#% agm AqQ C xa >9a AqQH ` a ::* "=l & :1% SM " ;Š xa C B) " '/4 C 'E -4 4 C & - 9e* & # a a 9#=Q " -* 0H - (V B) a 1N" H!6#%.4 5- i I9 w!6#% xa P6% [G!H1 A#;% x;p/ EF* & I?= :1% PpR Pp qqh ` s:«::* l 5 6.".-4.;(H ;6 94 `; #G : 1 (LewisTerman,1925).(H # S & k9#=q E#M/ #6 i ::* l. &jk% 4 &^% - 9e«a 1#G #R & (Terman & Oden, 1947) xa -9 Š!Q - S 6 & J N -1#H: 1!) 0H Š!Q xa -9 H9 1- xa E#Mc 4 fy 1! O e$o #!6#a k9#=q 1#M 59+4 =4 L! k% 1# \ A# X/ i 1#Ga ] EF* g / xa >9 ^ 9]/ RR% " 1!) ;# 1 E;4 C a 1 xa a A xq % Z/ 9N (Spearman,1923).(!: ^1?H 1 fe SYQ (? ~/) Crystallized 1#a! Š Fluid SY: Š O a ZRMH (Cattel,1963)SH ;1#+ -1 -OC (v K) 9+ i s O (? 1#a!% C & Pa% (V i9g s O SH.#;:9+ " 1#M;H C -9; ;Š =;= ;Š ; ;Š O ;a ZQH (Throndike,1927) ;=% "N, 1-U 9: E: - 1 pa y% SH ` "#=% (Thurstone,1952) O (?; i s?% 4 k! >9 % Ze$O (Guilford,1967) -1#a X# C # a N,G 9

7 7 a " 1!) ZQH i A, 4 1 (= B4 e 9 #R O xa -9 1N -1#a X# JY 1FO % &.#= N Za C M 6 fy/ & KH -u -9 & sagh `. (376 C C1996 C.9) xa!! u) s?% (= 4 H 9e a D3H "; " ; ;a 1.4 O C # ^!6#% A# xa k9#=q x R% (+H 1 9: & PV9 xa &; ; ;hh ~;/ CEF* \] 97! Ž!H9H R% 6 1M4 k 1 sq/ 9Q " Š ; \ $9 56 fqh. EF* 1 B k B) PY ( a \3 (V -9 Š.4 4 S.4 xa ": 1 Z;H 1 ZH 1N 0:4 xa P SG Š S PH.4 6- R Pa GK v 94 / : 1- JY ZR [?. RR% " 1!) a Z1- O e$o &9)š \ O SH "N, NO ZH 1 ZH 1N ab # (British Association of psychology, 2003; Hutchins et al, 1988; Maccoby&Jacklin,1974) : K )0 ' :J&6 D&1 (2) S fe# 61! )H EF* k # ^!6#% 0N /xa >9a S) k 1 O c [^ h6 k Bn " 1 xa " 97h% "/ T#R Ca/9% 56 EF* YR "=U ( H T#RH "/ & 4 ; -u [Q!6#%.4 xa EF*!6#% : 1- E DMMq%!V H Z!7 #.EF* œ: # R xa #!6#% I9 a! 9pR S) % $#H &=.#R " Q & KH R= C / I:K &LM EK9+ N &O P ' ( ) 694 & S)% <, "1 &!6#a =9* 09 #=a A% 99 s= I9H fy \H9% -* xa kš DN#% 4 EF* I9H &= " Z4 xa Ze mr ##=Q r-* ' 1? '#7 -* - : C( ) a 1 : " & 94 4 / H9% ^% a Pv=O Pv 1N 1; C9M! a=?.#r C- xa "JR% ",n 4 (= CD E] -l 4 n. (Marland,1979,p ) 9/ R -t Z# O P6^ P!6# EF* w K ` " 9+ 'QH I9 6 jk ;6 O " -; & [ Š \. Y a "=U " 1 & - Z - Za Z²e ^!6#% " I9.# ZN i ::* R S CI9 6 ir & (Renzulli,1979) a³1 C I9." -4 e" Performance -* agm [g 1R e9 Process a #6 5K Ža T!% 4 fy 4 r#6#% #aqa ::* " -l.4 xa Ze hc # 4!6#a "ac +,+ ',) a³1 9G : S. $ - Ž:#% #e 4 - (V s6 # 4 " 1N.^ B) "=O 4 " 1N.% 4 % \ /# ;!6#% " A# xa B) a 9 e " ( % >9 4 % \ /# ( xa a³1 H x$4 N EF* JR N ŠO CB) # " 4 '# EF* #a: QH A E/ (QH Š Q ~/ " #.D! (V PW4.1#M &9)š S N L IN#% SBH & (=.#a6] (!

8 ;a³9 ;+, 8 Š#R & Davidson,1986 (Steinberg ).#:e - K(: & S > 9 \ " agm% ( Meaning ) Za af4 "! : '(.==? W4 O C!6#a n P9H P# VB &; Pv 1#MH " % " agm Š $# Š \ C^!6#% " IaŒ E,) 4 K a³9 X,.-%!6#% " % Š >,) 4 9F I: K< -" &L 8 >)*9 ' () &;) Taxonomy of giftedness!6#a 'B) 'RMH (Sternberg&Davidson,1986) & S 9F œ: R #3 & - 1! e µq H # "#= -g.4 s ` "#aq " 1% xa DMMq% AH H # Z4 *."#=% 56 -t!6#a I9H VB R a6 P.4 d9 ` 7* fa.9 Bn Z Z=/4 \ i4 C k 9 9+!6#% A#.4 * a " 1% (4)œ:6 -u " I?=H!6#a #=% " 1% S ::4 IRM 6 PpR (;;)"... ; 1- x;:# P:1" #4 R " 1% aœ = p" #4!G Y,% Y^ QR ƒ! & S S=?H SH" S #4 S "!ag g S ^ 4 - U " 1 " 1% (-). # ]R xa QH S O k-h Š S C"...:R< CsG Cl S" mq? S 9e #H r# O(Arieti,1978) `1 (?. aq% Y^ >9p \ S " 1 " 1% " #4 Z;R K; C U 4 ^% ZR K i # œ:x6 51! &= / SG mym) X,+ &; -;: ;=O &3 i - : C ',B4 '(=H R3 S=.#= ' 7* \$ s9 4 s?% Ž!H9H ` 1 [ B ` mymn "Q PY #N & O e$o!6#a 9pR ŠR & 9) - ##=Q X 9 # ^% O "#a% 56 g &= EF* i!6#% 0N O >9 Pp 4 ŽG) VB "#a 9e#H ()* " #RQ ( Heller & Feldhusen,1985) &:#6ae 9aa6 & S ˆ/ N.QR H1 1Q \ s:r S 9% & Š# i* ::4.#= em " ( &3 I9H E4 #6 (Tannenbaum,1983) A#!RH Z/9F i!6#% I9H.4 C ;e9% (;V " ( ;% C;Bn " 1 C a 1 œ:!6#% (QH A#!RH 9p [R3H C!6#% (Q i9p C ;Y^ ;G!H9% " ( ;% Ce9% C " ( % & a (!= (+ e 4 o Cƒ! " ( % &;:#6ae 9;aa6 &; S; 9F Za.DN#% &^% 4 EF* -4 xa (+ 6 0N 4 xa ;!6#% E D/! &9pR% & k 1 xa ZVB!6#a ' 'Š# ( Heller & Feldhusen,1985) " 1N &3H!6#%.4 xa 4 & (Bloom;Sosniak;Gardener;Sternberg)E4 a " 1 # " 1 >9H ` e9% 1 " 1 CS=? 4 G!H9% " >9 xa h K(:.4 ]Re CYe ",=? S/ 4 A -* ZMH R+4 mq? w A# ` " #Gn (= a!f Ž!H9H ` (= 1 Š#; 9;F ;.;< ZMH R+4! ` " #Gn " 9U "]H 9: & pa (! xa ' 1-N.#=.4 R " 1;% " 1 xa B) multiple intelligence theory -% " 9p & (Gardner,1983) j; O O E#B# self-concept " A#% P:c 1 CD E ^a EF«i 0:* v ` &; S;= ;c A;:U S; &;=.j; U P;a ;e " ( ;% 1- k#q;% \e1,) E; (= " 1:S ' H 94 s # S? " 1 - \:#H ( Heller&Feldhusen,1985)

9 9 1 ; " 1; C",=?% " 1M!: 1#GH 4 # C"]H 9: & w Ž!H9 "#a% ^ " 1N JR%.e9% 4 (= i4 & W!Q W4 O -* 4 j U xa e " ( % " A# (+H xa(1985) &:#6ae 9aa6 H \!:R 'e 64 H e " ( % " A#.4 Š &^% EF* g 4!6#% 0N 4 xa >9a Pp 1#;p k#;n.$ Pa e - 1+O -9 k O k#: " Š A# R J K kme J Ka RH Za fag 4 ^% fy j G!H9% " 1% " 1 H1 & i4 T!% fy ^% j U O \eh self-image " a #: $ 1#B O k-hh ` -9 Pv 1N Pv 1 j O k#q R r Z: Ye /#F > 6* -9 \$ O 56 " 1#B k-hh ~/ ^ ".^ fye \H9 : mymn " & 94 4 / ' ^ -4 9p i SG " #6 r#6#% E# &= =6. a 1 1.\H9% : 1 SM a 1.$9 4 # a 4 R " 1% B) " ^ " 1% Z,.6(V H9% e S R Mq7 " 9e#H : %&$7.9 \ag.(h # ": 1- KH EF«#aQ QR mymn ": 1 & ( "MH N. /, X#! ": 1 & (=,G G ": 1 56 JY [a=7 ŠO mymn 56 S g ^ 9]/ &9? :D &1#l a Tj#H 3 5< "MH ` X#! ": E# &=.Mq?a 1FO EF«#aQ QR mymn [p ` X#! ": 1 :2C Q &; Š ^!6#% a #aq " >9 1FO mymn 56 [p ` X#! ": 1 :J&6 & I?= PY #N 9#GH E,) : # R a 1995 j# a^ & S Mqae E* 1#l X# ": 1- fa e A% \ S S3H C-9 (= & H9 "#Q CT#R 9 7 "#a CYe 9 Š :e9% mymn (= & H9 "#Q C"#a% ^ - (V " 1N C% " C6;H i#q; 4 a & 9pR Pa #:C\H9% : 1 -* :: 1 G!H9% mymn (2).Pa & &= >9 O E#B# C",=?% S/ 1N.a " 1! " 1 :! mymn (3) # Z# C^9 7 e C 1 C&9)š "/ sg% - (V :Q/ :#aq mymn (4)."! "N#% & 9pR > 6* fg ;a ;# a " -9% & \H9 B1 C "MU " 1 & &= Ci# a #R & H9 "#Q:SB # mym) (5) (Ysseldyke&Algozzine,1995,PP ).!:U a (! a i#q

10 DN#;% ;!ag.4 &; (65 C 1995 Cy;R= &Qc 10 ;! Sa!) : 1- JY [? G;:# ;: 1 A;% Sg 5! 6 97!% N, " Š QR mymn P D- PW ) 49 j U R a - : 1. :1% S PpRH : 1 mym;) 9e #;H O e$o. \9Q h 01 r: ^ M?NRa 1=e* 9F :1% A6 Da% A 9/ :1a 1#3c a 9c S (! # h6 i Mq7 s; A &9)š \ º N, fg!v9 :1% G?* 1?% 9GQ d 9V* -!V9.* & 9N* \ A]Q &9)š \ N, M &9)š A4 X `; Y S EF«#aQ QR mymn 9Mc.#/! /9F ` PY # "-H y fa e 4 œ k; #; ^a & I?= <,) & &= ' (12) &.#=H ` (Tutlle&Becker,1980) SH#H 64 -#R! & y!.#= D/ C xq (7 O 1) & -#R! E* P3 E#/ Y 56 1H SG œ: 6 -#R! 56 C &9)š \ SG xq (12 O 8 ) & I;aŒ 9;p 1 s/b(3). xa 1 (2). 9% I? T,G: s/ E#3 (1) 94 (6). pa "a B) 6=a!u /9 1 Z (5). San 1#M s # 0Q/ N (4). 3 "#$#% S 1š S! (8). -N " 1 E# Z(7). A Mq? k#q% xa ¼ ' :Q/ `; "N, >? xa ^ 1N Z (10). ½-!% P (9). IN #% 4 X /«GQ " S3 (12). Za d9h ` ",=?a E#ac 1=e* & 1M (11). 3NR!H ` "#$#% 4 4 #!G% M & 94 A,U SY: f9f & + /4 ƒ!a 4 h!ra amh ` #aq " 97ha (20) &.#=H YN (Martin,1986) &H1 9F Q z "#$#% & r: xa 1 ^9 & E k#q 9p(1) œ: Sl SGe C &^% Z;# \;$# 7* "#$#a B) p/,% -/ (3). \H9 T,G: s/ Z E#3 7(2). [N# 4 A9 C Xt S \ fe # C 7 9= ŠO C R6 p #c & E 1N Z(4) Z6 sm & C p A,/4 Za 9GQH - (6) ZH9g xa 9GQ Ž!$ 9c 1j¾ xa 1N Z (5). &7 9 &;* s/9 st (7). DH9 1 9= & 9]3 S Z4 ŠO RH9 aq A% E* ^9.4 Za &; (;= sm aƒ:4 9G - (9). n >9 4 i# a En A q: 1N 9p (8). 3 k9 C ZH1Q) 4 Za? " 1K% 4 1 * fa Z4 1Qn 4 S? S! (10). A;% -4 s;t (12). ZH -# 4 ZH M #6.#= - (11).S? sr] /# S!Q 1 9BU 7* "#$#% fqr I# xa 1N Z (13). P 4 P61 &9)š 9H C w Ia=% 1 -* 9? C Z ' 9=! Pa= (15). 'R: ZR K4 P6 & \ S S S#F [N 3N st (14). 3NR% 5;6 S xqr - ŠO RH9 SYQ% \YN#a [Q &= #N 9 Š Z (16). &9)š \ "+-l " 1 #c. Z; &9;)š 5! r '! N Bn "c T!7O 4 $1O & 1 ~! (17). X /* \YN# 1N 9e #H C a= 9= P S= IB#a T: O (19). "a= A% j O 4-4 Za (18). ",=?a E#a/ O E#B# Sa E: f (= xa 1 (20). %* RG & E r#;6#% 4 T!% a mymn YN (Denton&Postwaithe,1985) &H#R- 9G 1FU z I9H O -R: D i9 k -u (V x6, h6 xa >9 Daa '#.#= Pe CY^ #R fyc & P C" -9 \ S E: Ye 1N (1)œ : 6 mymn 56 Cr#6#% SG

11 11 (3) (! a 9 I 7 E#3e Š (2).P6% IN #% X ;/* 1š "N, O ŠR 4 "N, 1Cy% T#RHC",=?% & \: k \ S ^9 & ZR= : 5! : Z(5).#R "6 Z (4) 9: Pa 9;=! 9 Pa(8).p/,% -/ k#n ZC:1% &: S!N ' 9=! 9 Pa(7).p/,% -/ k#n Z(6)."6 (10). $ k# 9+ Z i4 Z9 a/9% I= P= ~/ & # a " -9% & k9+ B1 Z(9).:1% &: S!N.9 ab* a 4-!% & E 1N 9p(11).&9)š & aq E* & j O xa 1 Z Z;(14). 6Š 1#3/ Z i4 9 xa 1-N(13). SY! & % "a \!(16).k- (V E) a (15).-## (M% SB* ",=?.#=.QU (! A6!=% AqQ(20)."#$#% & \: k xg H Y 9N "6 Z(19).- " #6 Z(18).I \9: ½1N (17).$9 ",=?% S/ B) "$9 ^(21)."19=" 9H &= (2). EF«Y! e j9e " -4.#=H.4 &= (1) œ: ŸR O 17U &= 4 PY # 56 S%. D E ^a - Ž!H9% #aq T #4 " 1 Ÿ * Y!% " 97h% xa >9 Q 61! :!"# Gn O ZR Y? GR " 1#M 1-U #: i-4 e r#6#% SG i #aq QR fa e.4.;= * & i-mn k#q% T#R " ( W!Q/ )H G, j9e i 9* CZe #.9p P6, & k9)4 # i4 S (! >,) Z!7 Z4 xa i#grh Q] (V # 9 Ca >9 &= mymn & -u #!6#% E ^) D/! xa sm L "6 " 1 " - : & (! PW4 Š s!q C #a: ",=? W4 xa O 9pR N #a: T #4 A6, (% "N1% & Z4 O T#;$#% O E Pa]H 4 P) Pa rm4.(e C PW 9N4 & K4 9: " 1%.#a ;R P;Y,j p/ '34.( P6 C i- < N, #aq & T #4 P: 4 ;n A;6, 9Q " "1 xa4 xa P<#Mc C SM 1H ` "?NR% xa 9GQ.#t mym) # ƒfn "6 "9 N (181 C C2003 C.9) 9 Ij#). Da% & Z#a i! N C c 1? SN4 C &9)š & ^ 94 PW4 :E% S!: xa R #Mn Z xa C.;:9 1;e) ;a \j# R D xmn4 O.# & ƒ4 B) ' B Š #;R 9;: E C9% #R 9: E (! #]e -# & a ": 1 & [? (52 C C1996 ;B) #aq; Q;R 9G$ 1#B & & EF* O k-h L EF* k ",=?% 1?!Q.4 E 6 [94 ` ": 1 S JY 9pH ŠO C Emotional problems ",=?% D-; EF* % 16 O % 6 9H 1 % 25 O % 20 9H EF* œ :1u +,+ xa ",=?% 56 Tj#H (Cassandra Ma,1999, pp ) SG N, behavior indicators #aq v 97h xa]h ",=? :E* Personal intelligence M;q? ; xq [g E c 9pR #$ Z$ &= 4 R 4 CR (!a 1 Z.#=.4.- ( >1 "#a r#6#% SG a R B) Ÿ!/U 9? 9G: ZQ;H &= EF* h6 9? 9) C0#a Q/ S >1% "#a% 56 Á9H &! Pv 1N ^]H.Ye 'e9 Z# \ Sa &Q (V 6R C Infantilized #G :&9)š \ "N, E #aq v 97h xa]h ",=? :y

12 12 >9 Za sh9 N L social intelligence ; ; xq [g Z$ &= 4 #a: Q " H & /4 xa x r#6#% SG \ "N, E#)a peer refusal. 9N* ªe1.SG < QR R! xa (G) : S :1% SM S) - #aq v 97h xa]h ",=? ~ 6H :1% A% A r#6#% SG ªe9 N ŠO underachievement : 1 j U dâ 4 ÃH œ4 ";H ZaH S B) self-esteem " 9H dâ 4 ÃH " 97h Z 1#GH N 61=O / 4 Z!6# )O O SG S N C6j O & QR ZHR=L ZH ZR= N A Za=H Za Pv/#F.9Q% TM O ` S " 9O T#7 S ;a] O ;Š Pw k-h 1 Pv 1N ^ EF* 1./* & (= e Arrogance :KM Š a] œr i-;71u CP r Q " 97h 1#GH! k% xa PW 9N4 \ S E/ KM Š. #R E ",=? & EF* h6 Ã.4 &= M.PW 9N4 & PQ4 E^ '1#7 EF* 1 9: S B) Alienation r 9V œ; ; ; ; ; E; -* JH Ž!H9;H ",=?; E# &= ",=?% 56 O ; ; 9$c [N# Q 1FO RH.4 56, 9F P64 /4 EF* i Social-Emotional Competence ;, & 61B Sl & `!aq "#aq & p/, & 6(V ",=?% 56 & I?= SQ - R+4 ZF (2). -R (1) œ: ŸR (183 C C2003 C.9) 9 Ij#) Mqa ` ( 9 (6)../* T  #: (5). fgr% z (4). pa ³ O r9< (3). A,=. ";c # (9). Ÿ?R A 4 AH j 9/O A R 1#? (8). " 9 (7). ;::* "6 " " 1% & a c (12). 1 9= DH9 6 9 (11). -# xa '/4-9 (10). Z e9 Á ªe1 R 59? 9 #: Ra :Qc 1#? ]R j 9/U c (13) \ xa / 94 R 9 mym) O c ": 1 (?H ŠO 7 1#M 56.4! ; / #;R &; 1 9;: 9;4 C ",=?a :Q/ '1? 94 C P<#/ k9 % ' 94 1n 94 ': 94 C &9)š 9?% ':Q/ 94 C Y -4 e - 94 C PO a#% ' ^ 94 C JY; Z;R "9:4 \ 1#M 56 ªNRH (53 C C1996C.:9 1e). E* IY # Pa:!H1!7 i#; a #;R E; S 9% a s ~/ & ' ^ 94 D- PW [!H ` a ": 1 #;N s ~/ &C...CPpR% (= xa 1 Cp/,% N- C9 xa 1 C +-l C5 #Q C; # 1?;% C ^% c 1 9: CE 9% C#ƒQ% Sg CRG C C ^ ªNR 6 xa sh9h 281 C1998 Cº4 S (: ": 1 56 \ 1).&9)š S? :Qc E;F* k fe # #: ",=?% Etiology Ä!Q mq? xq [g - \$# 5 œ: Da xa A [j#h W4 O ",=?% 5<!!Q " (Q "-H Situational factors :1) ZN# " ( œ:e*! (Webb,1993) #aq; QR ",=?% & r#6#% SG '::4 ' 1- N#% " ( % & sah " 1#M; C"3;NR ",=?a :Qc C% ^9 7 S EF* mym).4 & PV9 xae S N W#= [N# #! 4 au (V.#=H N W4 O C\ & 9H Su 1Q: E Q & I= A C%

13 13 T 9M 9H# s # & 9* \N Sg Z] T!% N,e > 9* " - >#a 'N9) IN #% & (=!M.9)š x= \ 1 9: 'ae '- Ÿ?R.#=.4 i193 & C P;a O 1!= S Cc R^ P614 & 'R: K4 PW.! EF*.4 C ªe9a '#$# x;a Ž 3; O PQ4 EF* S.9 C::* Pv/ [N# \!?H fe #.#GQ Q:h W* # YH1 Pv=O #H " j O "#a: PR.#N# & 1!= -:O $1O S!: PQ4 PQ4 EF* 1-O A i4 j U 'YaH Pa6hH EF* h6 k Y e9%!6#% 4 PaQ xa ; -U Pv/.#a 'R^ 'an P 1#G 1!= "N#H fg & ;Re?; a PN#H P6^ ' 9pRe CBn Mq? Pv,=?% Y^ ] 6 EF* k QU "N, C;º4 S; (:). ªe9 B) PY,j k e mr 9?% '( # 6.#=.4 (! E/ 9N* " IN#% 6 (926 C1998 CSRN G 97) $# ( ^;] C;e# (V ' 1=e4.( C!9V " QH E,) & PQ4 &.K - PW* &9=! EF4 \.#a D/.9R P6(=H.#Q P#a:.#M Ce#% (V aƒ:* 4 C P<#/ & 1!=. PW#!BR N PR Internal factors :a) - " ( œ:y ` ": 1 Pp.4 O 17U 1 CZ QR #aq r#6#% SGa QR G!H9 " ( x6! A6 ^ C -* R SM #6 B) a xa e! "^1 EF* [RH [!+ N CY a 1 G!H9% personality factors (e9% (V " ( % ) Mq? " ( c [N# 130 &; P6 ;Š ",; ;^H &; E;F«#aQ; -* S; x;a 'e '(+H " ( % 5<.4.(Silverman, 1993, Webb, 1993, Winner, 2000) M;n (;V #aq; E;F* mym) N, B1 &=4 N œ: # R xa (Silverman, 1993, Webb, 1993,) ½-!% C /? >9G 6 " 97h xa]h :E* A% A 9 : C? >9G (1). r Q CGaQ 1M \ -3 C. 9N* \ T 9M z Ca IM O & SN* xa.9pr ": 1 & JY [Mn N &9)š \ " \ KM Š (2) L C< mmq% [N# IM 4 :1% E* A%.^]R PW4 i4 PW 9N4 Pw f a :1% : 1 SM [N# D-;. 9;N* \; ; ";N, r 9G;$ ' 1M; ;Š.; ; 1 P; ;^ S;a% EF* h6 9]R e "N % C a C" #B* ", Extreme sensitivity F9% :Qc (3) Å...1!)*.^u X/ P E/ 99 E Q; CP; G!H9 x6 œ : N,)* Ÿ9% A6 Y ^ % (4) A-M rƒ Cfa O B) >9 S 3H 1 % ³ 56 CSY! "/ 1 xa 1 ~!."6 56 PW#1? & &9)š \ PY!

14 14 E#); s3; a S% Y ^ e mym) &; A#% 6 ZR3 E 1:, (5). (137 C C2002 C P6 1Q! ). 1K (V " 9B Q; ",=? & Pv E/ '!!: U #aq QR mymn.#=h.4 s9 & 6;H ";!ag ;e 9e # mymn 4 (V "N: EF* h6 #H ŠO B).#/! N C1 (Clark, 1992,pp ; Seagoe, 1974,p.p ,Ysseldyke&Algozzine,1995,P.215).(1) $# #6 a sh9h 4 w Ž!H9H.4 Sl ",=?% EF«-u mym) a!h9% ",=?% r#6#% SGa #aq QR mymn (1) PN1 E <9Q!"# 8&RS %&$7 &9)š Sg Aœ.RH9 GR "R9 "!1 ªe1œ ::* " 1% rq ªe1 =Oœ. 7 P6% \ S O S% œ. "#a% T9: rq 9: 1.(l 3 aƒ:* & 1U O S%.Mq? Q!aM - 1U."a "# ªe1.e A 9 : A6 E#% T#RH.E#% "6 P< &9)š 1? \N#H.P69p & < A^ ` SB >/ ªe1.RH9 19=% F9% :1% s1.ia 1 " 9O xa PY d 9 G!H9% fa GR% (V 1=e* S!H Y!% PaQ 4 IF a (V.QU fa e Pp #$ \$ VB -!: C p C 9GQ O S%.9c IN #% sr 4 r9a»* AqQ 1.,^ :1% & 1#R.7 S >9 &9)š S!N & k9 N.P< TŠ, R Z#H &9)š \ Q A &9)š \ ž S*. P 9H 4 1 ~;! C;a) e C>?, 5 C9% E#3 2 % & r A T: s9 9] P xa 1 3 ",=?% S/ a ]R s!q "N, i1# 1-U xa 1 4 IpR sa Q% c & \# 5 SQaQH " Š "ƒe 9?! 7* T: \# QH & r ~! GR 9+ "#a Cp C Pq$ k# B1 Z - e9 " S% C % 7 "N#H VB NR (= xa Ye 1N.&9)š #H C" O 6 7 8

15 .rƒ, 4 " 97h 1#GH.E#ac >M4 S!H A.HU O ³ 4 % \ /# 1 A ^9 Ÿ 9eU.S r#6#%.#= 9p Z ) 4 Za E/ SQ &. 1 Za d9 \ & S.&9)š F E/? ^ 9H# ^9 E/ DGl "! # E O O S%.A6 "#$#. -R Q?% O PY S%.. 9N* S!N & ªe9 4 Ra F9% :Qc.ZY-! 4 ZN \N#.9 > 9 ]R O 1#7 P.#aŒ.! 1 15 (V 7* \# Cp/,% xa -/ 1N 1N 9e #H \ C " Kn xa PY Ce#% a 9% & \H9 xg 5! >9 - \ ^9 & H9 1- CC-u > Z# #a: C#R A6 " & 1- S!!V9 &9)š \ IFa CF9% :Qc &9)š & Ÿ?R A 4 SQ= " 9e Ÿ!/U & à 1.&9)š S DH1 Ap 9) S : 6 N 1+U ^ a Y c.s% H9 #.Y j 9/ Ÿ? k9 4. 9N* S) fag% ªe9. non- conformity 9 %. 1š fy a i1# S! 4 TRN A.PpR (V '?! N.[N# Ž $ 0Q/U & JHR Ÿ!/U. I= -* ' 1 9:.9)š ZR \N# N ˆ & M C' H9 S NF.a#F % I=H ]a PY I? 5! i-9 S S3H C" xa - E,: O S% " & 1- \ & 94 \ T#R 7 " 1N "6.E ;< Q;R M Pe 1#MN E/ a f O E/ 9Y - & ",=?% 56 E# H - O #H PN & ZpR S IN # G!H9% Ÿ# 3 O 6H 1 "!ag (e#h A mymn &9;)š \; ;-!% ; ";N, E ",=?% & O k-h Š S! 9Q% 4 1 Ž:# J^; ÆSF Z4 ZR E. miss - label r#6#% SG ŽRH :O w Ž!H9 - ` interpersonal problems 1#M; "ƒe #$#. EF«Fn mq? O k-h N L CsG% ( #c S?a ( Ci9; 0 #:# rm 4 r 9G$ C ^% 9G$ C\]a -3% #aq r 9G$ CY ^ 9c r# M% 5!.SB # 9G$ C&9)š \ "N, r 9G$ CA#R 9G$ CPa

16 16 Webb,2000;Webb&Latimer,1993;Willard-).(Holt,2000;Baun,1990 O ";: 1 56 Pp JY [Ma) xae 6-# r!:4 ",=?% 56 1-M X#! & [94 N œ: # R a r!:* 1-M% P64 g h;6 d9 - EF«lack of understanding and support : Q% P m 1#MN œ1.&9)š S!N &!R a EF* P;1 P; R D- (V I9 P= EF*e School culture and norms ::1% ( e+ œ2 ;aœ " K;) O ;: ;/ Pe Ce9% " 1 SN* xa Z9 a/9% & D- PW r#6#% SG R6 R^ P614 sq/ "# O EF* Tj#H 01 % (Kleine&Webb,1992) ";N# 56 Œ 4 i- SGa $9% "N# 9Q 4 TM QR T 9M S / j A4 ZQ.v9 4 a 9n.9 % C.9 9* EF*.4 >9 Expectations by others &9)š "N#H œ3 Žq;: - (H "#aq 56 C"N# # " - > 9*.#=R 4.#N9 Non- conformists 1;=O Pv 1N )O O -.#a PW²e &9)š Žq: s3 :Qc EF*. % C&9)š O S;% ; (;%.Q : 4 social xq F [g.',b4 6-#.v 9?; T#;R Š #R. 9N4 "Á O EF* t Peer relationship. 9N* \ N, œ4 PW 9N4 EF* h6 1 1 C'R: K* EF* O PaGH O aq% " 1 H9% Pv#Q k-hh - Pv6 \;!V9 T 9M S QR ',HN ' 1#7 Š s!q (Halsted,1994) s= 9N E,) & ªe9;a.#$9 PW4 D!% EF«(Torrance,1962) ": 1- [? N CE,: O e!% ³ &9)š D!%.4 D!H C 9 & 9=!% " 9 R r1n* S6* & S!N & /Social Rejection ( M 1* D!%.4 1#H p/ ` Ÿ# 3 96p & C B* U NG U 7 'F# $.# # C #;H ) 9qQ; M; E U.#a C = 9 PY,j &.#a #Q xa (!= 1*. (123 C2002C P6 1Q! Xg R = H1 xa P:/ 9:* 9+hH Family Relationships 9:* "N, œ5 "#a 1#MN m O k^ &= &!V1 O k^ Š.²e a=?.z # a% s:4 -c 1#M fa.9:* B) &9)š S!N & PY - EF*e :&9)š S!N & PY R œ6 I: /) )0 &&1 2&*- 3&4 : &-&. E;R.- ;c Z ;B Z;!F ;g ; ; I;9H O E#B# 1% &.#= N.; -;* E; ; ; agm;% 1# E# 1FU 6 &= CA#% 6 1#GH?R ^#% " agm 9B W #R St % "# 5 1#- :1 (Paynt,1983) s R (1983) A

17 & S E4 E,) & MMq% a "1 agm% 17 ;6 9;F.9: o 1 "Emotional Intelligence q7* " 1N 9 0N a 9#GH l :9 & C (John Mayer& Peter Salovey,1990) >9 CH Pv g /a >9 &9)š & S3e4 1N P - 9e* N 2" 1 -O Pe E &1!) VB O N " Š "#$# &3H ` ",=?% S/ C&9)š " g/ xa 4 9? +# JYR 4 * s= -* \ 4 E <* /9F 1MN 3" " =6 RQ4 xa ' 'e9 agm Za( Daniel Goldman.%# E -) P: \% 1995 A z.1? Ž;Gq 1994 A N Caq% A,U SY: O Z# ' 9p MMq% -* 9Y xa ' 9=/ x;a >#N#a 01 a - " AN r= 6 ^]R = Emotional Literacy 1#R ". Ih z#: 9 E4 49N.4 O A " E s L (= '34 49N N 9#R AqQH ` J K I M 51MH 1 (!,O M 1995 A 9? i ( )!M Ih% 6 P: ( H 19e.=9* % "# 1Q : # R xa I1 P64 ERH &= A#% w Žt E j A d#v S I1H "-H N ( Mayer&Salovey,1990, P.186) 1990 ;&T )& >)*+ I œ: & -9 &= &L & #.&9)š " H " & fn (! 9 œ.&9)š " H ", E PpR œ.> 6* j O ŽGqa " e - 1+U " A q: I #H œ ( Mayer&Salovey,1993,p.434)1993 ;&T )& >)*+ I.e9.Z: 5-4 \$ a -u g >w I9 SH AN o : & &= " PH xa 1 ": Z4 xa -M 6.e fn (= œ.a e9% " Pe œ. a 1#G N9H >w ", E PpR œ " ( ;% -; ; ; 0; P;: Z;a ;af $ I9 6 1FO z : 6 a The Multifactor emotional intelligence scale (MEIS(tm) Identifying emotions 6g " xa >9 œ1 #aq " 97h% E,) & &9)Ê " a c 1-O xa 1 SH Using emotions" A q: 4 I #H œ2 :! 1 : # 2 : $ 3

18 &=H ` " 1K% ;e9 C"; #H 4 fa_ xa 1 SH Understanding emotions " Pe œ3.9) O IN# & " ( H " >9 1-O C!9% " Pe xa 1 SH Managing emotions " 1 -O œ4.&9)š " Ž!$ z Q% ZH Ž!$ xa -9 1N SH :(Goleman, 1995,p. 160) 1995 U&V B&-? >)*+ I P= # &3 Ce 94 c & -9 &= ` " 1% & # >9 a 1 " 9) \$# >9. Na IF H Ze 0c C"e \e ; P= ; Ÿ# 3; \ S a 1 Cc!YM " 1 9 Š_ 9?% 56 A q: 59?% -9 1-O ;a 1; CZe 64 fg.qu S?e ` E S* 1 a pel R 0c 1+O a 1 C" P;RNO &9;)š 9? \ S a A#H "N, &#=H a 1 \ Pa) - 1 e9 &9)š \ IF."Pv-N ( Mayer,Salovey,&Caruse,2000,p.268) 2000 T& ;&T )& >)*+ I Pe r: 1-O R3H P B) "#a% xa 1 " #6.4 xa mr i a ::* "#=a ' 1#MH (Salovey&Stuyter,2000,p.18) 9F I9 6 1FO z."" 1 -O œ : x6 S ::4 xa Tj#H ;! 6 [g 1R perception/ appraisal and expression of emotion (! P 1-U œ1 : " 1.(= C! G!H9% H " e9 xa 1 œ4.1n 9p% P-/4 P#a: E,) & &9)š " e9 xa 1 œr." 5w G!H9% "c & (! C" & fn (! xa 1 œ.aq% " fn ^ xa 1 œ- C(=; x;a O -9 " (+H Emotional facilitation of thinking (=a (Q œ2 :! 6 [g 1R.% "#aa 5!, -9 Z#H œ4.69h " #H &Q/ xa -9 Q œr 4 X;/ i* im; R+4 -% 9pR "# " xa Z]?H E & Z!9H A? & -9 œ. a E: SQH 1FO N- e ",=?% S/ œ- Understanding and analyzing emotions; œ: ; ";#aa U I # " Sag Pe œ3 œ:! 6 [ 1R C employing emotional knowledge.a "a= " N, 1-O " IRMH QH xa 1 œ4 4 1Q;qa - s/m% x:* 4.^c S "N, 1-O " R3% y% (QH xa 1 œr..(ë6 >#n &.#= E!69.4 :E)!9% " Pe xa 1 œ

19 4 1#7 O s3 4 C x$1 O s3 E#. 19 " E!H 4 E# =O 1-O xa 1 œ-.1 Reflective regulation of emotion to promote ; ;a #;R ;N9 ", fn PpR œ4 œ:! 6 &3 emotional and intellectual growth.1q (V 1Q " S!H " xa xa 1 œ4.vye k xa " &a 4 xa 1 Bn 4 H #: xa 1 œ U " PH C!aQ " Š Bn 4 H #: " 1 -O xa 1 œ-.pq3h 4 œ: # R xa ERH &= (Q 9p "6 -M 6 [/9F ;1#+ IRM;H Z; A; 9;G : [:&<9V 3&4 XY ZV)+ 2&*- 3&4 4V U F: W H)0- D&1 (1) Pe xa 1 Ze9 i Š Ci- 4 == Š C-9 Š O a (Thorndike,1920,p.228) i (Gardner,1983) 9-1 O '#B CQU "N, Z=.#e9M Pa "R! -* CQR E9 1 -O ZQH xa agm '#:.,=? &a &9)š \ N, >9 -% & Z9p &$ interpersonal intelligence &9)š \ N, (Gardner,1983) 9-1 >9 1 Mq? >9 D/. P S P I C.#a I CP9t C &9)š Pe xa 1 ';e ŠO 5 6 1M4 & #: 9.c Ee Z q: C" a fn- Š# \$ xa C&9)š " H e9 xa 1 &3.#= Ÿ 4 & Ž Pv 1#M xa (Mayer&Salovey,1993,p.433).Ze4 mq? (=H Z# R3H ` "#a% I #H fn ^ Z#= Gardner 9p &9)š \ N, Š Mq? \F G S 9p & e Š œ :" QÌ RMH &= " 1N &3 œ.59?% Z 1-O 9% p/, &3 : # œ 4 S!N & " \ U S P. O #GH " 1 1-O &3 :" 1 -O œr..^c Cfa C>#n x;a 1 C!aQ 4? " Ž!$ > 6* f e - #N " S &3H :H e œ."e T!7O 1O 4 SH 9?;% &9)š >,) S!H CP69p " 9H Pw A6 &9)š " :Qc S? :IF œ-.". " 1% = &9)š " 1 -O &3 :"N, 1 -O œ;6 N, Š., "N, 1 -O CIF.4 CMq? S x#.4 ˆ/, " 56 O a ::4 C&9)š \ ; ". P< E 5 6 (Mayer,Salovey&Caruso,2000) 2000 #:1 #: 9 h (Q;H ability model / \]<8 >9 #VB 5 6 1FO z4 "a a "=l : % & eqi.org/fultext1.htm#emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for intelligence 4

20 20 mixed Gaq% Q i (Bar - on,1988).4 Š#.%# Š#R 9 9G.models 5; ;6 S; personality theory $_ # _)0 `&_* &as b<c 2&*- 3&4 ^&* H)0- D&1 I2 E4 51;FO!; well-being model QU 6e9 Š# B) (Bar - on, 1988) (McCrance, 2000) z C Emotional quotient S% " agm 5 1#a Z:1 Bar-on Aq: N C 0 u 9+hH ` " 1 & # a ' '9H (Bar - on, 2000 ) 9G Š#R 6 #$ œ: &3 Cƒ! sg% \ fe # mq?a a= 1 xa." & (! P # xa 1 œ 4.&9)š \ e "N, E#) # xa 1 œr.h "e " ^c Ž!$? " \ S xa 1 œ. 4 Mq?!G " Š ",=?% S/ / \ fe # 1 œ- : 6 " QÌ i(q ZŠ# (Bar - on, 1997 b ) &$ N CAdaptability Y #% I= xa 1 C&9)š \ N, " 1 CInterpersonal skills " \ S " 1 5 ; = S a C General mood A ^% CStress management Ÿ# 3 1 -O ';: 15 ::4 1u QÌ xa j# &.#=H ` Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory \ S xq) 1G! 5< E* 1#l [g 1R.##=Q P6% & ZN, 0 '9e ;# C Emotional self awareness " ; # C Self - regard " 1! : (" xq; i; ) y 1#l 4 C Self - actualization " fg C Independence E,: CAssertiveness &9)š \ N, Social responsibility #ƒq% Empathy IF :&3e (&9)š \ S Reality \;N # 1!) :&3 (e # 4 A # )~ 1#l xq D/. Interpersonal relationship &3 CŸ# 3 1 -O : 9 1#l xq CProblem solving a=?% S/ Flexibility 9% testing A xq% ()* 1#l.4 CImpulse control "e P= C Stress tolerance Ÿ# 3 Sg.Happiness -Q Optimism E :&3e Š#; 1#;F i (Goleman,1998 b, 2000) Za 3?C )08 d)* & &ay ; 2&*- 3&4 ^&* H)0- D&1 I3 Z a "!G 1FO : 1- O Z,) & Z# i -* 9p xa % Za fag i9p x;a 9GQ;a -9; Š IY # ^ #!Ra B) "Q:h% e S E e S=?H ` % ]R O -h% "N, 1 -O C x# C" 1 -O x# " 1 ";#=% k9;pr 51#MH.%# d9.emotional Competence (Goleman, 1998 b) 5 4 : E " = eqi.mhs.com : 1 * +,-./+ 0 '() 5

21 .(Goleman, 2000,p.75) U&V 21 B&-? $+ ; &*- /3&" &-" (2) = BV = Social competence : # IF œ &9)š n Z# œ. S # œ :&9)š \ "N, 1 H1 œ.&9)š (+ œ.&9)š \ SB # œ.t 9M 1 -O œ.- œ.&9)š ^g œ.&9)š \ #N 1 œ. \ S. œ H Mq? = Self personal competence : # H " 1-O œ H ", fn P œ " œ : " 1 -O." Ž!$ 0Q/U 1#? œ.= 1 œ.j ¹ \e œ.1-!% œ = -* "; >9 1-O Emotion Recognition " PpRH Emotion Regulation : e8 B&af %&$7&8 9!: ; 2&*- 3&4 :&6&. x;a. artistic expression >9 97! & X P6.(= -4 ";a P;p.4 ŠO C!6#% a= 1#M xg Z²e G!H9% % " 97h% /4 (!.4 & PV9 ; /.#= O R a=? g R CA# S # ` ",=?% D, S/ R+4 3H!6#% Ï;% ;N The limbic system µa j Ž?RH?% 9H# >#n.4 >9 S a SN* xa Zƒ 56 19t - # sc E.4 Cq% 9? ",=?% S/ & #ƒq% ffr% fav O Š k-h CÃQU (Freeman,1983,PP ;Freeman,1998). ",=?% S/ & ^ O \e L ffr% E;F* ; # ;N ",=?% T #4 amh (Cassandra Ma,1999,PP.23-24) 1R: [RH N * 7 ' 1- sah " ( %.4 xa "4 N C #R 9: & z9% #R 9: E - -^ R ';H9 F!H1 Ž!H9H a!6#% e9% 1.4 O [Ma) a ": 1.4 [p/.9=!% #G a/9 1 RH i193 & Za Cc U 4 -Q e9%!6#%. e c S; O EF* k QR H1 E#B# 14 ŠO A6 1-

22 22 ;c " K;) U 1?% xa 1 " ; ; &; 1- xa &7 1 #!M g s; Za EF* k #R rq/ xa z9% A6!% & 1R: 1g C [Ma) N.QR &* S!: r#6#% SG T 9B E/ 9G 1R% ",a :Qc i7 ##=.4 xa ` " Š " ( % g O EF* k #R z9% #R N, =7U aag & '34 : x6 A c ]R : 1 ]R e9% " ( % PQH i ÄQR.j#a Ð Q PQH Confidence : œ1 O k-h L 1?!: 0Q/U O e$o C" Ž!$ 9GQ xa -9 0Q/O H `. ]R xa 1 j U xa 0Q/U : Curiosity z9% E#3 T,G: s/ œ2 fy;c xm;h u PaH R >? w Z: 7«a >? E/ E#3 6 P.E#]a km 9Fq% a E!NU C : Intentionally >-< #aq R 1 9: M / > 6* fg xa 1 9BU P L Cƒ! >9p S xa (+!V1 EF* 9p.4 w M.a sa ",=?% S/ O EF* h6 S P CER% : Relatedness Ÿ!H1 œ4 " 1;% &; ; rq :1% ]R =O P L C&9)š EF* \ xa 1 O (?H. :Capacity to communicate SB # xa 1 œ5 -;O C -,q: 'e9 xa 1 C&9)š \ "#a% E-!H Pe xa 1 SH.&9)š \ U S & O VB :Cooperativeness œ6.&9)š "/ CH "c # & T# X /O w M xa 1 PMRH PW4 O R ^ k^h EF* R à ` ",=?% Pp.4 '34 ( 1R:) k9h C&9)Ê c H c C&9)š " CH Pv S " Š "#a% ^ &; ; JY; "9 4 ŠO C 1 N- z9% " Š "#a% ^ xa.1-n PW4 Pv1N.²e ƒ! & "#a EF* xa Re C"#a% ^ % Ye " 1 EF* k.4 ": 1 Ca=?;% S;/ E#F4 Rj 3N O EF* S ŠO CEF* & P6(V & Ia_ "#a% 56 ^ xa 1 global.#=h.4 O EF* >1 S CR "R: 4 "-,q: S!N A IN#% Sag Iaq F/U #$#% (= xa 1-N r#6#% a / SG.4! ŠO CSB xa D- EF* a -* & 94 % -4 4 a=?% S/ "!ag Pe u [N# & a#f % CZa d9h ` a=?% 4 % &; \H9 1N 1 O \ ah (V #R E#a/ 9F O EF* S Ca=?a a Sc 4 a S;Ga 9eR & T# s!qh N W4 O Y 1 mymn 56.4 & PV9 xa.a 9% 4 R6 # ( H xa 1 xa &9)š S!N & SG 1 - C: 1 j U & G:# "#Q kš,h \ SMe SG \$# R B)

23 23 k9h # xa k-hh L Cr 9V 0Q/U O 1#?; 6 P H k-h mymn 9e #H.Z!6# )O 4 1=O O (Carol Morreale, 1999) 14 ŠO!7O xa S EF«^% 9 "c 1-O 1FU 6 Da% xa s & EF* h6 &=!7O "/ EF* h< s &3 CO 17U f!: ",=?% & Sa.;H Pv 1;N S;!H P;aH O ;c 1;!= \; ; U S; C. 9;N* \; ;e ; "N, NO (Ysseldyke & Algozzine, 1995, p. 218) :=*9 > ; X&*- 3&4 <+ :&*8 & 6(V # J3R = " 1% S QR " ( % & -.#/! 01- ` " mq?a #aq -* & &Qt N RH.4 ª! i9 am " Š " ( % [N# ZO 1? :1% Pa G?4 " K) "e D3H P.4 GR% &..< #aq " 97h% e Q]H M " -u Sag & 6 6 H Emotional-Social Learning Pa Q 9$c P= a ::4 +,+ -# O D/! & ( (? ŠO CB) PR EF* U QR " & (! PpRH Ž!$ a EF* 1N i (1) 6 EF«QR M 4 QR c -# a >?=: Pa a EF* 1N i (3).&9)š \ O "N, &#=H a EF* 1N i (2).9?% Pa.4 C Pa \ >- 9 EF* 1 M QR M E# M #R 1#MN 4 9)H.::* -* " 1% # a " 1% 4 & :1% c ]Ra Z 4 SH 4 fa 9G$ Crƒ S (Gn QR 9G$ 1#B & (= 9FŒ & a '/ 94 EF* S 6 d 94 &3H.!M >9p d9a /, 9G$ a fag ` Ma 9G$ Ÿ!H1 IN #% # & s ##Q 9G$ Mq? "N, r 9G$ 9% ž#? y # r 9G$ Cfa O =9* % i#ro F [94 / : 1- JY (?H Š & 94.sQ=% 0 1#? /,.# ` #aq ",=?% J K 56 &.-9G 9 Pp J a% EF* d9 a/9 EF4 & '(.4 ",=?% a sa a 1 A J K 56 & P<F4 s : EF* h6 9:4 & %42 & sag R Ñ 9M =! C7* s9_ Cr93 C1K% (V ÄM < s3 ª ) S SGa Š O >3. ",=?% & & 1 M EF* & %24 O %16 y.(a#r ",=? C $ c J K $ # 1#M, YN# S) J 1R.(Shonkoff,&Phillips,2000,P14;Zeanah,etal.,2000,P.35) w K 9G.²e QU Mq? s # & PV9 xa Z4 Hc " Kn X#! JY 9pH ;R+4 R#a: xa 9G: 'G!$ 01 RR= CRMYM) 1 & 9) CMq? RH 1) xa IN#H Mq? RM) & w S 9G a RR= CR Xg X /* & 1 & C&9)š \ -! "N, NO ;% 7* & &h R# & xhh Ò 4 5- E h: 9F ŠO Za CX /* \ E/ / CIF # 97! Ž!H9H a ]R ]! $9 -Q - # sc :QU c C A q: E,) & a SMt.4 &=.QU.²e CE% =% 9GQ # #6 c - \; SB # R RH S R / f 9MR P64.* C 1 A6 P 19H i.=% #6 (! j.o Ï%.4 C xa R ^ H 1#G Pa " S.4.&9)š

24 S; ": ' N.#F,e4 EN N CG?* "6 "#4 24 w»/ 1 ` "#a% 9 7* Ze.(Freedman, 1999) 0:4 Z Pa A;6 x;a E,) & Pa JR >9 1# S ½-! 1H.#a% N ;% ;]R 0:4 6 ` >9 N9 Mq? Pa fa% i9pr X 9a I #.#QR Š xa \ "N, ]R 6 E* - 9 & (Goldsworthy,2000). R!:R% Pa VB J Š ";#=% P;64 ;/ ; " 1;% D3;H 4 xa 5H (.%# E ) 9pR " 1#Ma S E ; ';::4 A#;=u PaQ Š : 1 J6R% a ::* " 9O S '(! 'g Z # Pa PMH E.O O 174 N.learning is a socially conceptualized ; y; Pa; G?4 A Pa 6 fg =O O ' CEe PaH ft PaH fa). collaborative and cooperative learning activities I: e8 B&aC E X&*- 3&4 <+ ; =*? :&&' 'Q; ;Bn ;-9 " A6 #ƒq Aa 6(V.- 79% š #6 Pa v;h [? ŠO vg P H v=o xh9h.4 &=.š ( M SG =a!6#%e C #ƒq% 56 \ S; ;H O k-h C ^ \e - ah ÑR S R 9 (V ŽY: 51;.#=;: ;YRe ' ^ 'a. ŠO O Š f 1 c "#% 041 xa Pa% 6H R!H 5,H & Y: xa S 4 9H C 5,H "=U & I?=.(4C C1999 C Qn Z,: Q ) -* " 1% PaH :1% Pa ]R C #R N, D/! & (= 1 ";pr% Emotions ".4 D/! ::* 9H Su R4 Pa R S3e4 w Ia= ` A% E* i-h &.(Hyson,1994)Pa #R " S= ::* ; S "N, H.'34 EF* a c 56 f!grh.rh/ =% * iš B) &9)š S!N & A 9/ Pw DGl 1!=.4 EF* 9? Re.EF* i i#q QR #R Pw DGl 1!= 4 &7 9 EF* #Q ; S EF* S.94.#a &9)š S!N & R O PW#9t PW1 5#;a A q: EF* 9Q.4 Sl & 9G 5w.# Pv/ & ' ^ S=?H ` Ee* G!H9% 9pR "#a% S#g xa Pa% Q% " 1#M & - ()* š [/9F.S!Q% c IN #% k#q;% \e9 1% =U P Da%.4 Su xa )h C 6 RH <,) & &= ":1L O &;= CD-; EF* "/ \ '!9H EF* "/ S+H ŠO B), k a A œ: # R xa RH Pa% 1-4 g A : ŸR ƒ! 56 mym) mqah O PaH ƒv œ1 A; :U QR * & #an CQ 4 i- 51M. #: >#) i4 & #an 4 19 R œ 4.\9 Ÿ# 3 CE, : 5 9U r 1!U & A #an.g?* IaŒ #G 97 1) / 9/,a Š 9c œr.>,) T#R E#!N " 9?% >,) E#!N, Da% E-!% A 9/ œ

25 S;= -9 "/ Š :mymn " 1 25 &! P P Q%.P Q% E=74 IaŒ H ah J ^.#=.4 C?NR aq% " 9H E,) & : a ( - œ;6. 9 (V 9 J6R% I;aŒ S/ a Pa " -4 - # S Š :a " Š % $ > 6* -u PaH œ 1 9: E#) " 1 ZaH Caq% Hc " 1% Cc IN # IaŒ < d9 ",=?%.&9)š \ 1?% C&9)š " a Pa% & S Pe Š :A6 IF œj.pa & ^%!V9 z9% E#3 I?a a Pa - # Š :Pa e - 1+O œ.c R Pa xa Z1?H 1H ",H Š :9% œÿ œ: xa 5,H Q.4 Pa% xa œ2." IRMH QH <,) & &= " 1! " -9% PaH œ 4.9H A6 1 Su 0Q/U œr.< (% IN #% X N, 1-O e H Pv g œ.pa% " 9H Pe œ- œ: E Y 9O " -71U 56 Á9H &=.(Hein, 1999 & ', ) EF* k RH " 9O (3) PN1 E 6C 3)VS œ-.. Q kšhh.4 x?)4 E#H.4 &= C SH aa E#H.4 & '!e œ1 J^ 1 H#B.4 x?)4 E#H.4 &= C... & I aa E#H.4 & œ2. Y,j 5! [?.PvN B H.4 x?)4 C. ƒ:.- Y,j & 7* )H 1 Ã: œ3 H & 9B K œ, xa 9 * 9F &.'jo '$ P!!: E#H.4 & CA# A 9 xa [Q 974 E#H. ;H #ƒq S H.4 PaH œ, A# & ah & aa E#H.4 & E#H. œ E#Q ah & Z E#H.4 & Cs #a a 974 E#H. œ &; H H P6 "; Ze!% A6,. A# ' 9H# 4 k14 Z E#H. œ a 9? xa >9H.4 E/ œ Z#a: xa P=c S!N. H#B ª 'e9 O [:4,6 aa E#H. œ d9e & #G. \]7 œ 5 1? \]?H \ " 9M 56 & X xa Š." 9M 5< E#a/ \$ S/,a Ÿ9? (V '# AN œ H Pv 9B œ

26 26 &; (!; & #R= k# a P6B1 RH, / & PY Š.Pv &; 9;c (! xa, \]?H œ # a Pv -9 A Pv h B&aC H 2&*- 3&4 <9 G9&8 *M =*< b"g H4 & E hq ;9F 4 #: 1.EF* A# Ÿ? 4 Se S ' R 4 'R3 '#= " H r; U 4 ;O E;F«; #aq "9q% a EF* 9? "#a: 5 P=e ; ;ah J6R - O #R a EF* Q sagh.(raver&knitzer,2002) PH Su "#$#% A6.#=.4 =6 " 1% E#/ 6 #u " "N, 56 & JR SH "N, : Xt 7 S.4 R6Š \$ CEF* PaH J IN # S.(Elicker&Fortner-Wood,1995)B). 1=e4 Becoming Aware of Emotion Style : 1-4 a & (1) 9? 1 EF* & D#ƒQ RR=.RQ4 & (!a 9 9G & ' / (! 4 1 O a RH1N.š G) 1#? 'a C# c IN # IaŒ &9)š sg \ S R TGQ% 1N 9? )O P% & CEF* i #R PH H P64 &!:R </ >9M H 9? g >? aœ "#Q P.#a%. Y, >9M I RH & 9Ó! PÔ I 1.4 ' Ca ž ` mq?a r#a:* 9+ 1 C " Kn Ÿ 4 Iaq fa e S & ;H1 i#q R 3 1.(Hyson,1994)Mq? " % CZ R#= ^% C9:* c.s A a EF* Q 9F sq4 g =O O 9? RH 9 i : aƒ:* a s4 A* & A# H 9? &H 9H E/ :Ä1H Ÿ? = Ò 9?% " 56 "1+4 ` >9p (4) Ò R6Š "1 - ` 1=e* C! e4 --1 IB Ò9?% 56 a "9+4 1#e 'ƒ7 [ae S6 Ò'! RH a6 [/ S6 E% S!: a Ò9?% " 56 "1-4 I ( ) ÒS Š e P ŠO C< Ò.9)š r]: I ÒP< [an Š Ò Š & "K [ ŠO Ò&9)Ê H 9? & "K S6 (-) i4 [!Q; 4 Ÿ; 4 i4 [;41 S6 C</ e4 --1 Z,) [?H ` " A# 6 W \ 4 s3; ) w? H [ ŠO E% S!: a ÒH 9?% " & (!H fah " 1M!: #R " [? 4 [ # Xt Š ÒP SH P69H & Š Š (', Ÿ!/U ;# Z4 Pa.ÒA# Š E,) " 4 9? 4 1- a &=H # Š Ò!:R &9)Ê R KH 4 i#q 4 94.#=H.4 a Q s1 6 &= Caƒ:* 5< ƒf) i9)4 B 9;% t 1.(9:* CP SH P69H & EF* CS,j) #/ & &9)š a a r#a:* 6 9+h c G?4 & " E^ 4 SMe &= E# f!:. PH & &= ( A* s1 6 :1% ZH,H,: Ap 1Q ::4 #G) " & K ž 4 1- a 9%.#.# ::* 3 B) Pw DGl 1!= U S "N,.4 7.&9)š \.EF* h< #R P :EF* \ O SH "N, RH (2)

27 27 1; O.i#Q #R a EF* Q Ö9) ' '( -9 SG S!H \ S a H1N H 1; O \;e (Elias et al.,1997)paa EF* S6hH SH "N, R! '::4 '!ag #6 Za!H A6 "N, NO S.4 Ra.Pa & ^a e - R PaH 9e# EF* 1 B / 9M S! A6 / 9 C Ce9a P/ B) EF* " 9? Š #4 EF* \ i#: SH A# 9+O '# # c DH1 G?4 E,).!:R / R (! Pv QH a EF* Q (; 'B9e DH9 Š G?* 56 H.Pw DGl Ee* --1 &.#a.9 EF* ˆ/,.(Hyson,1994)';L 4 ',: Pa S. R 5w A & S.4 Ra.!F " R '.Pa; ;a EF* Q% ' 9F IN #%!aq " 1 -O Ž!$ Ae #R a 9H (+H " Š '# 9H # Xg ` ( M Ee* 7*e sm% [ Z4 9H RH/ ' 9H = P< CPe r#v9 EF* h6. ŠO ", "ƒ K RF4 KÂ A# S=e EF«QR ; 9;p & ÒP Zae 4 ZaN e 9=e EF* ", & \9QH.4 E/. = 4 S ZRH 59RH S6 C" #R: 9 & a! i af s=: ŠO ÒEF* O E #N* Ee* 56 S arh ` :9.(Warren,1997) Ò CS% CÄ "#aq & P IN #% EF* \ ah 1- a 4 d9r :j+ k&#- = :S6 ÒA# S EF* h< 69pH Pa i-rh PN R EF* a ah (4) ÒP X E/ EF* \ SB #H PH (r) ÒP69H & EF* S= - # C9 CS! CA 9/ 9pH ( ) ÒA 9/ a - "#B EF* \ SH (-) Òa% IR #Q s:4 O #]a.- X- #/ G)* EF* r=h1 S!H (;6) Ò'!:R Š.#= R sa EF* \ 1?H () EF* O [MRH (j) ÒEF* " S! IF 9pH ( ) Ò'!:R / Pv 1 -O C(! C 1-O a EF* QH (Ÿ) Ò" 9?% 1=e* &9)š 1? SQ% (= a EF* QH ( ) ÒEF* a!aq A=/* 1 BO sr]h (E) ÒR!% PMYM) PvMq7 EF* "/ A9g (A) Òaq% SY! & 1) EF* -^H (.) Òc R Že PvQ P6-9 ",=?% Sc EF«9e H (Ë) ÒP1 #H & EF* \ SB #H (1).(Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning,1998 & 1M% ) PH >-< f9f &e. #R PH ` IN #% 1-4 a.#=.4 P% &.EF«i#Q QR H1 9e & ^.4 &= "#aq 56

28 28 O '#a: 'Š#.#=H I (3) -#H [R R `»* --9 af [ S6 ÒZ Z#H.4 a D. Z4 PaH 'ƒ7 ag '# [an S6 S 9 EF*e.9=! &: R.#e.#p/, EF*.4 EF* \ S 'N 3 mq7 S P Ò ` "a= [ ŠO 'RQ/ ' 94 Š.#=.4 W6? ` "#aq ah O.#a Pw.#Gl Za../# N Wa O 1- Š 1* S EF* O W9 ` Ee* W#Q Š A,U A# C$9 C% 9:* 34 C. DGl & 1 Š & EF* ~! \N # / & 9=!% Z9 a/9% * Š D::* S?.9=! Z9 a/9 R EF* w O EF* t 9 & 9pR A#. 9N* Á 1- Š &.#! 1 9 EF* AH \.EF* #a: a (+ & RR= ' 9e 'N# &.Z# MRa '!af O.H9 O 1- Š. O #a: Š Ra N ` " -71U & # a e.#: EF* :Se4 E#N4 9 Se4 4! fe EF* \ S sr (4) O i-h '!a: 'G :hh [e = SH 'ƒ7 E#H Re.1!= #a: ªNR >? a.1-n EF*.4 Pa ' & IpRH sh9h P% & Z4 F4 "K)4 Š²e. ]W EF* JW ŠO ~/ "a= i#q a Pv-N & e 94 Ee* f9f & EF* -e.s+l N E/ S A#H 4.E #N* & 'Y - 'H#B a4 Ee* :EF* \ 'R4 & (r) SGa 97 CSG A4 w [6#H.4 f!: Y (V "a --9 SG [ ŠO E% S!: >9 G) [!=H1 ŠO EF* T.4 Ra.S SG S.4 \N#H 4 '+ 9 Gn 6 19=H & 4 a 56 A q: ' GŒ [R 4.G)* 1 9=H sr] E.4 ' P% & &= 1!= / G mq7 S.4.#e9 :&9)Ê 9/ 9 4 ( ) 1=e4 9? A9g S6 [4 S6.[N# &9)š A9g.4 '4 P9g.4 a EF* 9t.4 "-14 ŠO A 9/ agm ZR PH ',#F 'N EF* ) e Ò&9)š O A9g S6 P69H & Z9 R Z#1 PR= :P4 '#a: mymn 56 Q 4 & H EF*!Q=.4 -#H U mymn 9=e (-).4 "-14 ŠO.P9g.4 '4 [4 a EF* 9t.4 "-14 ŠO.'4 PO [4 \: O EF* \Q.4 "-14 ŠO '4 [4 & G? EF*.#=.4 "-14 ŠO. B AG P4 '4 [4 ERH B AG EF* ER. 9 &.QU a SM ` % P< EF* P.4 "-14 'G? ƒv & &= & \H9 Z 4 R mym) Ze 9e 1 -* 56 S Pa% A# = ZH1N k SH Pa% -4 xa (+ " Š " ( P64 C, k a N9 - xb PaH ZH Ž!$ 1 -O xa 1- #6 R E Pa%e CR!aQ " B) H ZH \ S 1 -O œ: # R xa 1FU 6 Pa% 1- mqah.4 &= CN #: : E,) & Š œ : H H 1 -O Ž!$ œ1

29 29 œ: f9f & :Bn H -/ œ4 Ò 974 I : Q :r 4!H "a A s4 *.IN#% 4 a " H H P6 * : H #ƒq / [4 Sg œr. H EF«'# Z#H *. H a) - r!:4 & ~!H.4 E/ *. e /Q% 56 E, : H#N &=H (% /Q #H Z4 9H * : Mq7 & (= Pa # Aq: œ2. H/ & I?=H!aQ H.4 Pa4 *. H/ T!7U, I #H 4 \N#H,e C, "/ T!7O O E## 4 9H &= * :, S & S! /Q & ^ NF S4 œ3 k-h; L C' 6 94 C'R4 94 C'Q : 94 C',!H 94 : 4 Pae A 9 9?H R Z4 ˆ/ *.k#: " Š 9H O R A#; ppcarabic.com B xa 1#?R ' )*' +! *******..1+9,.#a3.#:1%. (2003) R Pa GK. 2003œ8œ26 (1)

30 30 CE* ^ (32) - a a Cr#;6#% SG Pa & :(1999) Qn Z,: Q (2).(5œ3 ) C1999 ##.T.A. 1R=:U Cr=a 1R=:U ^9.Bn "/ kš EF* ##=:.(1998) º4 S (: (3) (. 19;u) 114 D# C #:1# r,g. (2003) D C 114 D# C 9 Ij# (4) œ177 ) C 9? i-c SM C Da% S= r C Bn "/ kš PaH ;Á9a A 9;6* ^9. yr u Á9 9 C.9)? º4 C Á9H. (210. 9?R QR -71U ^9% n 9 h% " 1 BU C-71U ZH!aG C9=!% SG ##=: (1998) SRN G 97 (5) KQ;- 3 O 1 &; 9; R% "9?! R QR -71U " C D.( ) Cy a C1998 9?;R!Ga 9= 1 - C!G. : D- (V EF* ##=:. (1996).:9 1e (6)..-1* C. C \j# D9Q;%!aGa : 1 SM QR mymn 9:* an #H.(1995)yR= &Qc! P6 CSa! (7) 1995 KQ-/; !7) y - C9? n a. pr%. (76 œ55) (A C C e9% Pa. \ QR r 9G$ C Y3 =c. (2002) P6 1Q! (8). [#= C r -š.#r ea F# a & I?= 0 & H 1U 1#M. (1996) E, : º4 C k-m -#u SÁ C xa!! u (9) -; C 0-Q a C Q ": 1-.(% 9#=Q mymn C a/9%. 9M% DQR DYM)* 1 (507œ475) C 1996 C 9 C(3) ^; (22)a C D a a Cr#6#% SG Mq7 "R- (1998) x a I:# xw (10).96 C 9? 96j!= :97R ( ) :Á9H Ck9?! a 1#MH xa sh9 Cmq7 S= s:r% &! 1 : #6 (11).( ) C1997 K!: C3 - C(27) a C"a!Q a C u -* )*' +. *********

31 31 1) Abraham,R.(2000).The Role of Job Control as a Mediator of Emotion Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Applied Interdisciplinary Psychology, Vol.134, Issue 2, PP ) Arieti, S. (1976). Creativity: The Magic Synthesis. New York: Basic Books. 3) Bar-on, R. (1988). The development of an operational concept of psychological well being. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rhodes University, south Africa. 4) Bar-on, R. (1997). The emotional quotient inventory (EQ-I): technical manual. Toronto, Canada: multi- health systems. 5) Bar-on, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: insights from the emotional quotient inventory in R. Bar-on & J.D.A parker (eds.), handbook of emotional intelligence, san Francisco. Jossy Bass. 6) Baum, S. (1990) gifted but learning disabled: Apuzzling paradox. Eric clearinghouse on disabilities and gifted education. Available at: / kidsourcs/ content / gifted- learning- disabled.htm# gredits. 7) Brown, A, L., & Delocge, J.S.(1978). Skills, plans and self-regulation. In R.S. siegler (ED.) children s thinking: what develops? Pp Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 8) Calsted, J.W. (1994), some of my best friends are books: Guiding gifted readers. Dayton, OH: Ohio psychology press. 9) Clark, B. (1992). Growing up gifted: Developing the potential of children at home and at school, (4 th ed.). New York: Macmillan. 10) Denton, C., & Postwaithe, K. (1985). Able children identifying them in classroom. Philadelphia, PA: infer nelson. 11) Elias, M J., Zins, J.E., Weissberg, R.P., Frey, K.S.,Greenberg, M.T., Haynes, N.M., Kessler, R. 12) Schwab-Stone, M.E., & Shriver, T.P. (1997). Promoting social and emotional learning: Guidelines for educators. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). 13) Elicker, J., & Fortner-Wood, C. (1995). Adult-child relationships in early childhood programs. Young Children, November 1995, ) Freeman, I. (1983). Emotional problems of the gifted child. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(3), ) Freeman, J. (1998). Creativity for emotional intelligence: Ideas and activities, Available at: / kid sources/ content / creativity.eq. Html# credits. 16) Freedman, J. (1999). Emotional intelligence: why you should care, what it is, and how you can build more! Available at: / kidsourcs/ content4 / emot.intel. Html credits. 17) Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: basic books. 18) Cassandra Ma (1999). Understanding the tension between the cognitive and the emotional development of gifted children. the family Institutes North Western University press. 19) Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning,(1998). Inventory of Practices for Promoting Children s Social and Emotional Competence. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 20) Goleman, R. (1987). Cognitive development, Annual review of psychology, 29, ) Gentner, D. (1977). Children s performance on spatial analogies task. Child development 48, ) ladsworthy, R. (2000). Designing instruction for emotional intelligence. Educational Technology, vol 40, #5, p ) Goleman, D. (1998 b) what makes a leader? Harvard business review, November December. 24) Goleman, D. (2000) An EI-based Theory of Performance, Available at: www. Eiconsortium.org/research/ li-theory-performance.htm

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