Available information on weight and inertia, aerodynamic derivatives, control characteristics, and stability augmentation systems is documented

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2 1. Reprt N. 2. Gvernment Accessin N. NASA CR Title and Subtitle ACHAFT tan)lng QUALTES DATA 3. Recipient's Catalg N. 5.Reprt Date l)ecemer Perfrming rganizatin Cde 7. Authr(s) Rbert K. tleffcy and Wayne F. Jewell 8. Perfrming rganizatin Reprt N. Technical Reprt Wrk Unit N. 9. Perfrming rganizatin Name and Address Systems Technlgy, nc. ttawthmme, Califnia Cntract r Grant N. NAS Type f Reprt and Perid Cvered 12. Spnsring Agency Name and Address Natinal Aernautics m(t Space A(lninistratin Washingtn, ).C Cntractr Reprt 14. Spnsring Agency Cde 15. Supplementary Ntes 16. Abstract Available infrmatin n weight and inertia, aerdynamic derivatives, cntrl characteristics, and stability augmentatin systems is dcumented fr 1 representative cntemprary airplanes. Data surces are given fr each airplane. Flight envelpes are presented and dimensinal derivativcs, transfer functins fr cntrl inputs, and several selected handling qualities parameters have been cmputed and are tabulated fr 1 different flight cnditins including the pwer apprach cnfiguratin. The airplanes dcumented are the NT-a3A, F-14A, F-4C, X-15, HL-1, Jetstar, CV-88M, B-747, C-5A, andxb-7a. 17. Key Wrds (Suggested by Authr(s)) 18. Distributin Statement llandling qualities, transfer functins, stability derivatives, airplanes, cntrl systems Unclassified- Unlimited 19. Security Classif. (f this reprt} 2. Security Classif. (f this page) 21. N. f Pages 22. Price* Unclassified Unclassified 343 $6. ' Fr sale by the Natinal Technical nfrmatin Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151

3 TABZ F CTERTS. NTRDUCTN. ii. NT-33A. F- A... V. F-4C v. x V. HL- 137 V. LCKHEED JETSTAR viii. CNVAR 88M D{. BENG 747 x. C-A X. XB-7A 273 APPENDX A. AXS SYSTEMS, SYMBLS, CMPUTER MNEMNCS, AND DERVATVE DEFNTNS.... A- APPENDX B. TRANSFRMATN F STABLTY AXS DERVATVES T BDY AXS B- APPENDX C. EQUATNS F MTN AND TRANSFER FUNCTNS... C- iii

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5 SECTN NTRDUCTN The purpse f this dcument is t prvide handling qualities investigatrs with readily usable data n several representative cntemprary aircraft. ncluded are thse data required t btain transfer functins relating the aircraft's respnse t cntrl inputs. An analytical descriptin f the aircraft's stability augmentr is als given. Fr thse aircraft fr which cmplete infrmatin was available, the fllwing summarizes the cntents and presentatin: 7. Flight cnditins fr which cmputatins are made including: a. Cnfigtuatins (e.g., fuel lad flaps, gear, etc.) b. Mach/altitude cmbinatins 2. General arrangement 3- Cntrl system descriptin 4. Stability augmentatin descriptin 5- Tabulatins and/r plts f nn-dimensinal stability derivatives fr trimmed flight 6- Dimensinal, mass, and flight cnditin parameters 7- Dimensinal stability derivatives 8. Transfer functins fr cntrl inputs 9" Selectedandling qualities parameters 1. Data surces A page number crss index is presented in Table -1. The intentin has been t make this reprt cmpletely self-cnsistent insfar as symbls, nmenclature, definitins, etc. The system used is described in three appendices. Appendix A cvers axis systems, symbls and ntatin, and definitins f nndimensinal and dimensinal stability derivatives. Appendix B gives the axis system transfrmatins fr the derivatives. Appendix C includes the aircraft equatins f mtin and transfer functins used herein.

6 X g i i < aa '''"...

7 The aircraft cnsidered in this reprt span a wide range f sizes, speeds, and uses. n each case transfer functins and handling qualities parameters were cmputed fr flight cnditins which were selected t cver the flight regimes f interest. A nminal cnfiguratin (generally cruise) was picked fr all up and away flight cnditins. Fr this nminal cnfiguratin, plts f trimmed nn-dimensinal aerdynamic frce and mment cefficients are presented. Als, in mst cases, a pwer apprach case is presented alng with a tabulatin f aerdynamic cefficients. The cefficients are based n rigid wind tunnel data 3 estimated flexible data r flight test results, depending upn availability. This is indicated by the wrds "rigid, " "flexible," and "flight" n each aer data plt. Als, the axis system is indicated by "stability" fr a bdy-fixed stability axis system r 'bdy" fr a bdy-fixed system aligned with the F.R.L. (Further clarificatin f axis systems used is given in Appendix A.) Descriptins f cntrl systems and stability augmentatin systems are given alng with transfer functins. Where a lngitudinal cntrl system has a significant effect n the equatins f mtin (as with a bbweight) the stick-free transfer functins and handling qualities are given. Transfer functins are always given fr bdy axis mtin quantities. Handling qualities parameters are als given in the bdy axis. All acceleratin transfer functins (a z and 4) are fr the pilt's psitin. Thrust transfer functins d nt include any engine respnse characteristics. A substantial prtin f this reprt is in the frm f cmputer printut. The mnemnics used in this printut are defined in Appendix A. The handling qualities parameters given in this reprt represent nly a small fractin f thse develped ver the years. The majrity presented here are used in past and present versins f ML-F Althugh nly SAS-ff values are shwn, the definitins given in Appendix A are general and culd be used in cnjunctin with the HAS-n transfer functins t yield SAS-n handling qualities parameters. While cmplete cverage f each aircraft including nly the "latest" and 'est" data wuld be desirable, the majr criterin used was that the data be accessible t the authr. This is why nly islated flight cnditins are given fr sme aircraft, and als why, as thse peple mre intimately familiar 3

8 with each particular aircraft will recgnize, the data presented may represent an early estimate in the design prcess and perhaps the "nminal cnfiguratin" is ne which never left the drawing bard. The data have been reviewed and, althugh nt all thse presented indicate unquestinable trends, thse data knwn t be based n nly early "guesstimates" r shwing unreasnable trends have been deleted. n smecases data were estimated by the authr. As t hw well the data can be expected t match the flying aircraft, it is assumedthat thse fr whmthis dcument is intended knwwell the difficulties f btaining derivatives frm flight test data. Every attempt has been made t insure reliable translatin, interpretatin, and transcriptin f the data frm their surce dcuments. The manufacturers f the aircraft described herein can nt be held accuntable fr the infrmatin presented, nr wuld they be bund t cncur in any cnclusins with respect t their aircraft which might be derived frm its use. 4

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10 -33A ACXSXmm "The NT-33A variable stability airplane (Serial N ) is an extensively mdified T-33 jet trainer. The elevatr, ailern and rudder cntrls in the frnt cckpit are discnnected frm their respective cntrl surfaces and have been cnnected t separate servmechanisms that make up an 'artificial feel' system. n additin, the elevatr, ailern and rudder cntrl surfaces have been cnnected t individual servs which can be driven by a number f different inputs. These servs receive their electrical inputs frm the artificial feel system (pilt's cmmands, psitin r frce), attitude and rate gyrs, accelermeters, dynamic pressure, vane and prbe. This arrangement, thrugh a respnse-feedback system, allws the nrmal T-33 derivatives t be augmented t the extent that the handling qualities f many existing airplanes, future airplanes r hypthetical research cnfiguratins, can be simulated. The riginal T-33 nse sectin has been replaced with the larger nse f an F-94 t prvide the vlume required fr the electrnic cmpnents f the respnse-feedback system and the recrding equipment."* Transfer functins are given fr nly the primary surfaces and engine thrust althugh the NT-33A als has ther cntrl surfaces and a range f cntrl crssfeed and feedback cmbinatins. Aerdynamic data, fr the mst part, was taken frm AFFDL-TR Hwever, lngitudinal data fr the high lift cnfiguratin was btained frm LAL 1 27 andmach number derivatives frm NACA-RM

11 .r- 4.r- r- 1) (1) m CD r-4 P-,.- ::".r r / t-.-.1 q bid.,rl,-4 q - Ca E,.r 4 d c) 4 i r/l.r- -,-4.r-4,'d : 4 # Q.,,-.4,} d,,,4..},rl d (\J ( c+d c q Ckl : f i i -P E,,--,i f2,-,88,- t C CL, C}.1 tk.l r -J r"-t -P 42 b[ [- 4 tl 'd \D [:: - H ll % q q cq r4,- b4] ) b. ch lc4 4 4,-- kc r4 p C'. c [. Cd d bd H > r- htg h N N N

12 .J 4. d " t qj -'4 N b.--i 8

13 NT-33A PTCH AXS Variable Feel nput Variable Stability nput FST(b)..26 s z +.89s ]ST(in) ----].3 -. Be(rd) RLL AXS Variable Variable Feel Stability nput nput FLAT (ib) ST,n a(rad) st YAW AXS Variable Feel nput Variable Stability nput FpED(b) 78 PED(in) = r(rad) Feel system parameter values shwn crrespnd t the "Frnt Seat Engage" mde (nrmal NT-33) Figure NT-33A Cntrl System 9

14 TABLE 11- Pwerach Nn-Dimensinal Stability Derivatives h = sea level VT = 228 ft/sec = 139 kt = 2.2 Lngitudinal Lateral-Directinal ( Stability Axis ) cl =.813 cd =.139 CLm = 5.22/rad CD =.94/rad % = --.41/rad Cmq : -m/raa : CL5e =.34/rad Cm6e = -.89/rad cy = -.72/r Cn =.49/rad C = /rad Cp = -.7/rad Cp = -.45/rad Cr =.2/rad Cnr = --.16/rad Cn5 a = --.9/rad C5 a =.14/rad CYSr =.17/rad Cnsr = -.73/rad C5 r = -.2/rad 1

15 ' SL NT-33A Cl w B... 2, ft 137 b ,ft.263 Rigid (deg) 1 n 8 D 6 4- D \ Z- 11

16 L r- rj J,: Q, F-r'- z (%1 -- C) d.. (..).4-- W- Jc J W.-- f..) x.lj w. j.-., :l (.) - L -- L -- 12

17 m 6- CL a (red - ) NT-33A 137 b Rigid SL... 2,ft , ft Mach 1.2 CDa (rad "l).8 l l %.4.2,4.6.8 Mach 13

18 Mach ( / (rad -i) SL... 2,ft --"-- 4,ft NT-33A 137 b.263 Rigid Mach Cm& Cmd, -4 Cmq (rd") Cmq

19 NT-33A CL M b.263 F.," Rigid " i.4 Mach.6 -. SL... 2,ft ,ft.3- CD M Mach.8 Mch Crn M

20 .4 CL8 e (rd "l ).2 NT-33A Rigid Mach Mch Cm e (rd -j ) ' 1 ;

21 Mach Cy (rad-i) SL... 2,ft ,ft NT-33A 137 b Stability Rigid Axes.2 Cn/ (rad -i ).2.4 Mach f.." / 17

22 Mach t l -.2 c.tp -.4 (rd ") m6 Ba - - SL... 2,ft --- "-"- 4, ft NT-S3A 1371b Stability Rigid Axis.4 Cnp (rd "l) -.4 4r,f -,8

23 SL NT-33A 2, ft 137 b ,ft Stability Axis Rigid.3- C.r Cn r (rad "l).2 -- \',, \. %%% " """ C.r Mach '.1 Cn r t9

24 .2 C}s a (rad "l ) ' SL... 2, ft 4,ft NT-33A 137 b Stability Rigid Axis Mach.1 Cn8 Mach (rd -j ) S is sum f bth right and left ailern deflectins 2

25 Cy r (rd "l ).? Mach Mach Cn8 r (rad") -.8.4, SL m *== ---?,ft ,ft NT-33A 137 b Stability Rigid Axis C,sr (rad "l ).2 i Mach 21

26 e <1, r,,l '- p i r+..4 j.4 1%1 <. C. - " - ' J +,P <' "41", 1%1 P 3 ell. eg ' + ; " " - + +,, r %j t+ P".. j,- (; l" t <"X G ; + 22

27 * " N l,,,ti " " T ; = " " rj H = 4" c u..,,..4. N 3 bl 4 i.i N " u " " " " ", LJ "," J" C).i.) t) -,-4 -- ff'l i " " " H A [/] -,- " lju i",4.u.t U L( 1 -- g... g) r w #q v ",,,1" - n, r'm uj..j -1" -.1- ur, N r'j,- "-,D * $ '. r l,-4,4) d u' 'd".,t ' h- -t c ( " "- " "-' N C ' r C " N c a l l " * 23

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30 v ur.-, P F.d (%1. t' m Q c N uj x p,,,,-4 m N * t i '-4 -J,m cn ' (% f. eel,- i* L * 1 26

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33 4,, '4", e D P +..- N 4,-+ ) r-- e (,n (t "%U',n r " N,N, t.%tp...4 4" a) u,,,.-4 r C 4- ",, N ', L m'j,,,, i" T B + c,,.+- u%m-..-+( -% ( w- ", N.;i-f.,. 4"-4 i + 4.,,,-+ u'%,...+ 4" '. < H c,,t -,t c, u,% N C) + ic,.,-#,,, N tn j -1" -4" N.),4 u%. e4 N.-+ J ",4 ('4 ",, g,,,, 2 ww z 7 Z

34 u, c - *, U' C u t e t - u **, u a -, " -J N t -- v" p.. - u r um * r *..t 41 P c -- (]Q 4 a c + r p e 1 1 l r - v + E t'-- r'.. -,t" - -.1" -, t-... u ",-, < H " * * + A.- J L+r',, c,.,.,+ P'--,' u",.-4 l L ('%1 +,+ %J t'%l + LU - <++. " --, <'%1,-,+, r,,.,l r, j,. 3

35 NT-33A DATA SURCES Hall, G. Warren, and Rnald W. Huber, System Descriptin and Perfrmance Data fr the USAF/CAL Variable Stability T-33 Airplane, Air Frce Flight' Dnsmics Labratry Rept. N. AFFDL TR-7-71, Aug. 197 Tests f a /5 Scale Wind Tunnel Mdel f the TP-8C Trainer, Lckheed Aerdynamics Labratry Rept. N. LAL 127, Jan. 23, 1948 Cleary, Jseph W., and Lyle J. Gray, High Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests f a Mdel Pursuit Airplane and Crrelatin with Flight-Test Results, NACA-RM-7116,.Jan. 21, 1948 Statler, rving C., et al, The Develpment and Evaluatin f the CAL/Air Frce Dyuamic Wind Tunnel Testing System Part l-- Descriptin and Dynamic Tests f an F-8 Mdel, A''DL-TR , Feb Flight Manual USAF Series T-33A Aircraft, T.. T-33A-. 31

36 SECTN F-4A 32

37 F- 14A BACKGRD'AD The F-4A is a single place lightweight supersnic air superirity fighter pwered by a single turbjet engine with afterburner. The wing has a full span leading edge flap. Trailing edge flaps have a blwing-type bundary layer cntrl system. Cntrl is prvided by cnventinal ailerns and rudder and an all-mvable stabilizer. Pitch rll and yaw dampers are incrprated hwever their effect is nt shwn here. Pitch and rll cntrls are fully irreversible while the yaw cntrl is a cable-actuated rudder withut bst. A bbweight is used in the lngitudinal feel system. ts psitin is assumed t be at the pilt's lcatin. The primary surce f data was LR Drag infrmatin was btained frm LR The nminal cnfiguratin used here is the cmbat lading fr the F-]4A based n actual weight and balance data. The PA cnfiguratin is a typical lading at flight manual apprach speeds. 33

38 \,-.H c),-t.,-4 J p r-.,r-- % ry q q d rl 1 i/] r) r--,--t f---4 H H u/ -e- -rq (1) -,- ii,rl. 4.,-t -r-t -r-t d 4 4 "d b..,- ii1.r- 111 c) J J - c -p 4-> lq 4.> + r i rh i r- ", b. b :d,--,-.h.rt 3 b.r-, ksd - h c P, 4. r-- 4 '-- U rl H 1 r.d 3 f Cb -4 H H 34

39 wu D Z m r-i c & H. q- rj). iu > C- 35

40 F-14A PTCH AXS 8SsAs(rad) FST(b) G s(rad) i F z B 8s(deg) -2 - B az assumed t be at pilt lcatin /in) RLL AXS 8aSAs(rad) F LAT -- ST (b) --i 2.7 i 2,,4 5" 8a (rd) YAW AXS FpED(b) KDR SpED(in) r(rad) 2. K ["/'b/in 1.,.4.8 Mac h Figure F-4A Cntrl System 36

41 Pwer Apprach Nn-Dimensinal Stability Derivatives h = sea level VT = 287 ft/sec = 17 kt = 2"3 s = Lngitudinal Lateral-Directinal (Stability Axis ) CL =.735 % =.263 CL= = 3.44/tad CDa =.45/rad Cm = -.6/ra Cma = --.6/rad Cmq = ->.8/ra Cyp = -1.17/rad cn6 =.5/r C2p = /tad Cp = /tad Cnp = --.14/rad Cr =.26/rad Cn r = --.7/rad Cgs =.68/tad Cms = --1.4g/rad Cnsa =.2/rad C 5a =.39/rad Cyr =.2S/ra CSr :.45/rad C r = --.16/rad CYd = 325/rad CnSd = --.25/tad Cg5 d = -.44/rad 37

42 1 G) 88

43 m. LL j- LLD J q Q J d c.l(

44 . D J. t- / q G --LD u f.j L Q 4

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61 + a.-e CY a - e.- --q.-, er * a ad * U',-4 ",-., D,... t.- i e ej i ', if- t " *.-4-4 * J C.'-4 e."4 1".4- r,. * c..4" tu, t-- u', '*,-' e *,.n a. e - " e,," * -e r. " - e C eee l ',,'l- a.,,,,t,,". u", ",t iu i t j, a ee j el%l.... N * *N,:r a, ZZ w Z Z 57

62 .F u' ().'n Q,..,, ',r.,- r,n,).-- 1', l. CP.-. wd, c l N " -:r.,f,4" 1 (xl N N,, e..,, u1..i.- "" ;..-.i,,.-4 N., ", (.-i i. ",h-.wd,, Lira er -4 (w i,g Ne. w,.- NWD(.-i " ( i le -,Ne; tn lu ".., e,,- erlc}.-,, N r-. r,, t l" r f, f, rl.. 3. ;-., rxl,d bk n,?,.- i" i'irm N (', P- P",.-4. i,,-a.,.- J r ell ii -a.(x;. ;',.',gr:, "i. " i F.-.,l"(.J w r,,,, r'- t{%,,",l),- e,l,-a, g w N.) N ZZ Z w 58

63 m., e -,, m r-..t.,, - -,,,,,4, ", -., N n,l,-,,,.4-, U',4" -,1" ", ] 1 t u u', N ",-,- m '.-..', e,.-,., " 3- H CH D3 H Pq - ',,- r- q n,i ND h...,- ',- r'- r-.. fm i,,,, Ll UJ. U') v rf % j. 59

64 F- 14A DATA SURCES Stabi? [ty and Cntrl and Handling Qualities F-4A, Lckheed Rept. N. LR 1794, 12 Dec Andrews, William H., and Herman A. Rediess, Flight-Determined Stability and Cntrl Derivatives f a Supersnic Airplane with a Lw Aspect-Rati Unswept Wing and a Tee-Tail, NASA Mem H, Ar. '1959 Perfrmance t F-4D, Lckheed Rept. N. LR-12873, May 1958 Flight Manualt F-4A and F-4B USAF Series Aircraft, T.. F-4A-, 15 Dec Technica Manual t Flight Cntrls t USAF Series F-4A and F-4C Aircraft, T.. 1F-14A-2-8, 15 Mar

65 SECTN V F-4C 61

66 F-C BACDRUND The F-4C is an Air Frce tactical fighter whse primary missin is all-weather air-t-air missile cmbat. Lateral cntrl is achieved by ailerns in cmbinatin with spilers n a swept wing. A swept stabilatr prvides lngitudinal stability and cntrl. Directinal stability and cntrl is accmplished thrugh a cnventinal fin-rudder cmbinatin. Landing speed is reduced by full span leading edge flaps and inbard plain trailing edge flaps in cnjunctin with blwing-type bundary layer cntrl (BLC). Bundary layer cntrl is autmatically induced when full flap deflectin ccurs. Features distinguishing the USAF F-4C frm its Navy cunterpart, the F-4B, are: Lack f drped ailerns with flaps dwn resulting in higher landing speeds. Dual flight cntrls resulting in slightly increased cntrl system inertia. Wing bumps t huse larger main gear wheels resulting in a slight drag increase. Data included here was btained primarily frm MAC Reprt N Special emphasis is placed n the lngitudinal cntrl system because f its relative cmplexity when cmpared t ther aircraft. Figure V-4 has been addqd t help illustrate this system. Als, care has been taken t retain sm% f the cntrl system nmenclaure used by the manufacturer, e.g., qb and PBF (see Fig. V-5). The Stability Augmentatin blck diagrams are shwn in Fig. V-7. The rll SAS described is nt included in lateral directinal SAS n transfer functins since it is faded ut with the lateral cntrl stick ut f neutral psitin. 62

67 @ p :d q-i,-- (9 <.9 (9 m.p.,q,m tl i-.-] [.., -i (i;, q rh qd rs].rd 4g.r C} d d b4) r-- > H (b.r4 68

68 E,- r H.,- 4-- q.- r-- 1"..Q U 64

69 PTCH AXS FST(b -.369s s Feel System F-4C SsAs (rad) Gearing / Actuatr +.57qBPBF -*.569qePsF,:1 18sT(in) '-- - '+'1 8s(rad) -- See Fig and fr feel system details Bbweight az ts---- ) f JtB= 39.3 ft RLL AXS Feel Spring Gearing / 8sAs (rad) ;T,, - 2"961 =1 i- Spiler Sa(rad) AR Gain - 8sp( ra d ) C38r {-.46 SAS FF = -.69 SAS N CLEAN,/ PA AR r -- -:1 <ram(rd) YAW AXS 8rARl(rad) 3rsAs (rad) \ / Rudder Feel Spring Gearing \ / Flexure..j' SPED(i n)..j " '- - - l""txl - 8r(rad) K mr G air -- See Fig V<235KAS 36.61b/in -11.5deg/in V>22KAS 8.51b/in -6.5deg/in Figure V-3. F-hC Cntrl System 65

70 .c S..Q ) ' Er C t 66,; v C,.i,.,.,,i,.-..Q rn -- 'N-- w D C.J C E t "t C t "- LL " {). c. - D -.t- -- "Xc) D,-4 C L -4.,.-4

71 .6 qb q -4C / ,ft 389:)4 b... 55,ft Mach J. m PBF 1.- (ft z) 8 L Mach 6k h (ft) 4k 2k Viscus Dmper n Stp b= "l//f/[ Viscus Damper ff Stp 3.3 b/in/sec SL" Mach Figure V-5. F-4C Feel System }arameters 6?

72 i N. -, : //,,,/..c rh N :E. //7i / q L H -r- ['ll= =111 l. 4 X,. 68

73 F-4C PTCH SAS E}(rad/sec) 1.15s - s+l SsAs(rad) RLL SAS PG(rad/sec) asAs(rad) P6 = P (Rll rate gyr assumed aligned with FRL) Nte." Rll GAS faded ut with lateral cntrl ut f neutral YAW SAS rg (radlsec),s 1 S+'5 rsas (rad) ay ' (ftlsecz) rg = r cs(-.5 ) +p sin (-.5 ) ay = ay "-.391b Yaw rate gyr inclined 1.5 belw FRL and lateral accelermeter at ES. 198.and W.L.23. Figure V- 7. F-4C Stability Augmentatin 69

74 TABLE V- F-C Pwer Arach Nn-Dimensinal 8tability Derivatives h = sea level VT = 23 ft/sec = 136 kt % = 11.7 s = -9.1 Lngitudinal Lateral-Directinal (Stability Axis ) CL =.915 CD =.242 Cy6 : /rad Cnl3 :.199/rad CL : 2.8/rad C26 = -.156/rad CD =.555/rad C p = /rad Cm -.98/rad Cnp = -.13/rad Cm& -.95/rad Cr =.2/rad Cmq = -2./rad Cnr = -.32/rad CL5 s =.24/rad C-mss = /tad CD5 s = --.14/rad CYSa = /rad] Cnsa = --.41/rad =. 7/r aj Spiler Effects ncluded CYSr =.124/rad Cnsr = --.72/rad C5 r = --.9/rad 7

75 d.q 1" U mm r t%l / cm J J G -M" / # i i % lil " ii J ) / / / k / (D D -- J L [,J m m e,j J c 1 i g 71

76 ?2

77 - ed t, / - ('U a,. 1 tim 73

78 .) c.,-. T " E a " "U T E E "/4

79 . J -c,l N N l 1 i: e,l J. r J -- z J -- E -= N J J" ' 75

80 .Q UU 44--'4-- q ' 1' J " " J E U 7G

81 q.i m 1 x, m'-t. c-. (9 4-" 4.-- ' 1 v <..),.. 77

82 (M J. J G. -- l s" J r C,- c,., q q --- q q Q. Q, 1 (, i.. 78

83 K 1.. " i i " i,

84 d.. T " >' 2 U 1 q q q q / -- q -- q..-.. ' c 8

85 d J i /, - \..C % % -%. N. 5. '- 81

86 c rn Lr ' C " "1" 2,n, /, r- " ',, - u',,-" r, " n a i r,- " q r-,., " v, C' C.. " i 4 4- th H ". *, ',,,3 r, -,: c,.1" r. e,j f'--., n'l :,,:.,. rl --,. - C CJ P- t J D'- F-- c r cm c - - WD r r,j rq + r/l ff' " nj "-- (, 'M J l% (%1 i. u u > J 82

87 cu ur,., v C" C 43 xl,,t * ( 2 r t t it, t, " * " " ". t'- t- *- r-} -.1" r4 n e P- t " ' " " " -,, tl -., ' * * * " ' " " N,.t r-- i i , C "," "," ur - :),.-..-.,. F - C, rc H..- i. ", C ' ' ' " " e T it, H - -,-4 " * ' * " ' rj r - $, $ N c b- -1" N.n ' " " r--,. i " " ' 83

88 CD - b'% N '- C/, D r-4 C) C u C,, CC C "C N t? ND,, c,q ' C, (D (D e4 t fl,-4,. c, tx, T. )1" ", e,e 4" c ad - v,4",4" NN c N e D 7',e N,4" 4,'- ' - c N C e N'.N ' SN e 7" -- N " -4 -, H P,n c -) N e ".,,N,, N e C N, H n el'.- ee',n?' N 'm' "," ",- Z...NN., 4 " ' ee, e4,:,,t u.-, r,2,4" v -' NN N N N wuj Z w Z v Z 84

89 t./.-+ ip. f, +. + N,,1 c,- r,, C:, P--t C: " ', L" <1" C qc" ; + UJ T ffc) P "+T " LL + q,-, r i.. e. e,, it c,,# +-< "d u <'+ i?, ' ' W i- Pq T.L,-+ +-+, lj,--+ " C J c,,d.4,-4.--i lr (D ur t gr - xe? LJ <.-, "'7 4" M ". ;. r r2 Eq eg' A,l',d, T wad " +N UJ '+r+ E- N uj, ' N,(..+ * -,," t'+xt l C U m t 1-1.r- aa i,l,-i cl#,,",h 4 - -), rlg "" [ r..1,.-., < - < +. ( 'Xl e,1,c u i. ie u.l N,.,.i,-i, " n +am. p..4,,- 3us g " i ''", T i.. l " " N Q Z 85

90 ,j c G) u'x v,4 c f ''4-4 C),-. cj,.,.1 if. t,.; c9 r', r-,, r,'l,..,,, : r, < e,,t t er- v c. -,,t e. r..,n um, p-,-..i. t.,d.c rr'. *'.,, u", "d fxj *,e -.. t : -. q,,. l.m,,,/j ul,,lr l <r i *,,t" <r el p-, ' r f,cl N m g,1.,1", *,4" " A 86

91 D-,,JC - -./ -,,4r r; u,-4 - ) + ' ~? rc "," " f-4 f + -.t MD t - N.f,/... m c.,-.j ' + g, -.r Sg l M 8?

92 c.- u-, w p-t v b*, u',. 4 trs x'. era 1,.-t (%1 S. n, (%t 'Jp., 1", ; '. '% L,3,. u",,,,c', / C v u", * ~ e lel ' LU E', t fxl "-- f c a.. ",,,-a ".-n,. ' u. iu, r N d C.-4 t%l m J r -..4, -,T.4r.-.4-,...4t rm LU 'rc "," ('.,-a.- t'., *c. <,,.,,t -J,, / ",. t-- rq U' m c-..,,-q. ee i J u z. v Z 88

93 .4",4-.-t,rr C, "...,4.5.-,., ".. Cl,*r.,,-4- "4",,,..., 4" -,t " " N 11),--t " [... -,, * *11.. " N,e N,,1",4" -.c,a,j "'4" N ^NN N Z 89

94 c L N 4 C h-. C,,,? "e4lf',cq "... erl t,j,., i,-..-.u-%.r,4 '.....ng.. Q 2 r',,-, lf P--,- wd NNN "e,n, " -4) t,% r).r-- U% e,.'4".,.-4.n,.,-i.z,,, N e 8 [-4 ' N, c 3 C3.4".r (%1..lr (..) g t), N.,,-4 e "N (%J U e,,,-.4 een ; Q. l,,e U '.-,-, N L,a.J 9-, p. ". Z.. 8 N ' ' N U DmDDDD Z 9

95 -4,--4 C,,it',t"n C,"nC " " t4 " t.4 - {t, 5 * n 4 m-.-. ~.G, cl 4.- ",.-.-. %1,N --. 6"% 4-u% * ".-4,.-.-e4 l *,?.- N " 4" '".-4'.:" -.- t'4 *1 *,-4 ",4" -"("4 -e ".TU "--*N *', r.,...,..,, [D v uu e(..u r,% t'- u (. c- u u% u a.- (X) t 4 D > H 4,.-e.l *', *t (D 42 "-4 C (j. *.-4. e4 *,'x3 * SZ.. %. "4" ' l - "?ec'' ec. e *--txj *.-4,4.,. * 91

96 u'c,/ 4-4",4).-4 L". r'- ' ' " +4"'4",4,,t {W C; b'% *('.f'4+ --,1,,..4 J,,L,1%.e c,4- e:'.,. N u' (,..#.#.,-.' "". Z ' * elk, * 'W C'-.,,,+ *.4) "-",,t" *," J Lf,-,-4 C {''-.f, 4".-.*., (D.--,.. *U% *4 4.. i v w% t- rn" v -" 'xt, --,,t.-- N 4" * c -, e.4 c c " 4" H.,,-.4,u','N u r. U ul v "% w r=, -'% " 1 J.-- ",T er% T 4.,, C r:%u'%".,,t +4" " ' "..U "," r" ".,4" xt..+. u.l l%j D -r +-.4, "4" Z 92

97 ..rl d C -, x5 a c.-g' -,t T..: = = t.- 1 T C,,-4C,.4" r -4",,--d Pq,,-.4. *(%1 * ad i,.-i,.- * * T.J c,. t{' '- Q " * -.- ::,-- -.t,.. *e Z t,d D,'d == ** h i r-- J * AJ,-- c r Trf',- *,,,r f- 1 Y1 r "1 ".T a a ' g" /,4",,4" " ( 93

98 v. C u'c um " -1",..j. c c. *ii.,=.- pr e, r.d,.,n,g.,4.,,.c.j.c,'l i,-.. E u m, ::> < ", u,.-..),..4..-,.s- g,,,tn e-4- i. r -- i...".4" r P'-,', at, 1" v c r 22 Z Z 94

99 c N,'C C " " " it,,xj#',u" l.-.', 'M -. 1',.-,--4. C -N.'M,.,.- : i' ul erl fx '- r ' 1... rd umr, 8 8 " uu -U" H e..-,, 11"(. U " ', 7,. J 'rl t'1 '-' r"- ' m', " -.T i,m " " Nl... ", Z 95

100 fn N N ll.,--" #'b. is'. i 2'... -,-4, Ner,,1 N "N N, ' t H a 4a > Z M,- a,,, g.., - $. TM --,N-- eq 8 " r. e N % ", 4. g "" c ' i. ' 96

101 um i, " t Lr.. Q.,.-i -.,t -,:r u.j,7 P-- C, 2, G',,,rlcf,..,-.,i,-i-4, 2,gg" "'g r, ' u G '. C. c.,-, ' i,,-, c.n,,, LU - U cj r ,, (xl L,...t..i N,-.i,','-,? ru i.i.j- r, r' t' ,. -.t" e,l,- C2, 'J,,,1" -. r'-,'x (AT C,,--' r. 'Xl,imJ l'x (. -,.- - -,-i N c -. -.",,--, C--,, i v,, ",r,/ N " " t c,.-i..4 / c,l t r,) b" " "f', ",- F ' "1" Lu - c t'd N,-# " " 97

102 u" c t. " c". -.1",,.,,1" c.- c,n,,-4 a ".t " t"- t - * i f'.j x r-- e,j 1 i r,..,t. i,, v um, N (M,. t'l,- E-t rq ch r " =, ; i -- v v L t- ; ", " l- " r v t (,.,.,..J a') LL. < i :..,,. LL. L,,L. 98

103 C C; l r-- -.1,',z" " C.. -P, D. rr.". th i- C',-4,, CJ um /..,.... t,,.- " 7 T,..4 T " c ' t'-.r,,z ' N? H H q + v" ,.,,,.-, b:.. " S'....,-.,,.-,",,.,,,,-.,,5 ~.-..-,",q ' " ",-,4 t'- r..-,,.-,.,--,g.,,,,,.-, t d,g,,., D t r).i- i' r-- A M 1,,..,-.,-.,.,::,," Xl -.1" ". LL 99

104 C, f * "- 'M N C Z r ' "C "4 rj h ',.1 ('m (p. '*; " N G. 'q,-- J c" v =. ' i- -, u,, N *,.N, u"..-d 1 -,-# t h'- ' -- J" N.-4.i r*, - * * N r, r u- * h.- *,...i. N '.--, 'l. * (M + * l-. i-jc - * i N a i '.,T r,l * lj t *'" * t' 'M ( i.,.4 ME.- -.-w (% J g9 cj *,-.- '4 m N zz g z z 1

105 fx: rj cm r -J u u' C r* c e is ur,,t, rg t+,--., - + c,,,.r, q..9. " c, SL ct.(j. t T9 ' "+ ' i+, D p N,,-+ " <,,+,..-.,D ' C< E + -" + N. e,+..- u -r * 'N..-+ C. CH + C H : C u ic Pm.-+ 17,.-.t,t u Lql/ m m. + (3 C) rl.- a pq., (M c t d --+ cp, ur e pel,.,-+ U', " + ' NN c 4" f-+ rm 11"+1.i r-- en pr - r-- m -' P-.-..i,,.N,.-i u' c.-.+ i +..,i ' + l " c 7 11

106 y C' t". '.ig,t'l,- ",,.? cu',,,f-, l.c, rl,,,c.., CY' C..,. '- 1"- " r( C c(: S","- (. Ug X D,,t- Lcw, -'w C..-w (',. (" 'M c u'.4", " r.. (.d,...,.e,i CC.r'--.,-w r" u' ('h.-- l- - Pc, CJ r.. C1--,-2.( " r) t,". er. ",,t P", (F" wd ec,..t r 4 C.C. r-- f.- (2).,..,w.-,.-. 1,,'. " H -'-'- wd ", ---t r- C) f A D (,q M u', f. r. q C f,'i --T.c'q -4 1 ' -=1-.-s c, c,4. rss 'a,--.,--,-.t. c..,.v " ' " Z Z 12

107 ,p., P- " r ', E,,D, c.. t-,,-i eq n',-4 n i r.j ' 'M 2,r ' i D CD.r,1- cj v, u T > H r--t',.-,.-i,.-t cu.--ip.-,m.-i.r q3,. Tj..,i *, cj.j..-. p.- P- n"1, M,-.,-,i,, 13

108 r -",$, 2 f,1" t' r,j (: C2 (J c C c Cr i Lf" Lr..-4,r -,"" "D" C) b-q C "N,4",t, i ee v Q. r, (,- "' ' C. e,.-q,-i " U'. N C ',-r,, c r, 'F-.a *..* U' " r v, u' w C). tr," i v, Lr e', u -,11. -/ UU -,1F "- " Ue v' H 8 (..).j.-.4 v ' ecn r --" " ",,-,. -,1". 14

109 A b, C.,," i.,-4 v v G*u U" r ',.1,-.4, * ' i'h ', urn if] )<DC cw c-] i l t c,4 c,j L' * c.j t g", grg" c,a. C'., L.' e,} t] -4.-, tl b- cw." u {,,--,.-,1" q 'J - r,, r, cl 4 ' a]c -k'ca "r "U].m- L ' " ' ' CJ,-. 'xl,el.<.ta. >- >- >- el. u. 15

110 ..t - r.r v u% v' c,, cx..,-j. c,,b - =.,,.., N,L),D, N v Lr N i r,- U,4" (") (7" c J v N rxi '., " i, /% u,.-i i=i r G N,. p r --- p., 4- D t, i '- -.4 i- ( G G MJ B N m.... g = = z 16

111 F-4C DATA SURCES Bnine, W. J., et al, Mdel F/RF-4B-C Aerdynamic Derivatives, MAC Reprt 9542, Feb Crawfrd, W. N., and G. Nadler, Static and Dynamic Cntrl System Characteristics fr the F-4 Aircraft, MAC Rept. F21, 16 Dec Bridges, B. C., Calculated Lngitudinal Stability and Perfrmance Characteristics f the F-hB/C/D/J' and RF-hB/C Aircraft plus the AN/ASA-32H Autmatic Flight Cntrl System, MAC Rept F934, 19 Apr Bridges, B. C., Calculated Lateral-Directinal Stability and Perfrmance Characteristics f the F-4B/C/D/J and RF-4B/C Aircraft plus the AN/ASA-32H Autmatic Flight Cntrl System, MAC Rept. F935, 3 May 1968 NATPS Flight Manual Navy Mdel F-4B Aircraft, NAVAR FDB-, Nv

112 SECTN V X-15 18

113 X- 15 BACKGRUND The X-] is a single-place, rcket-pwered airplane designed fr flight at hypersnic speeds and extreme altitudes. The airplane is carried alft under the right wing f a B-52 and is launched at an altitude f abut 45 ft and a Mach number f abut.8. After launch the X-J5 perfrms a pwered flight missin fllwed by a deceleratin glide prir t vectring fr a landing. With this peratinal technique, the airplane is capable f attaining a Mach number f 6 and can be flwn t and recvered frm an altitude in excess f 3 feet. Flights t high altitudes have been made with all three f the X-J5 airplanes in tw cnfiguratins: the basic and the ventral ff. The basic cnfiguratin is cnsidered here. Aerdynamic cntrl is prvided thrugh cnventinal aerdynamic surfaces with vertical surfaces used fr yaw cntrl and the hrizntal tail fr bth pitch and rll cntrl. All f the aerdynamic cntrl surfaces are actuated by irreversible hydraulic systems. Cntrl frce is prvided by bungee fr pilt feel. A cnventinal center stick is used fr pitch and rll cntrl and rudder pedals are used fr yaw cntrl; hwever a side-lcated stick is prvided fr cntrl f pitch and rll in high-acceleratin envirnments at the ptin f the pilt. Mst f the X-15 missins have been made with the side stick althugh the pilts used the center stick n their first flights. nly the center stick cntrl is shwn here. The augmentatin system shwn in this reprt cnsists f angular rate feedback lps abut all three axes. n additin t the nrmal p -$a rll SAS lp there is an r -5 a feedback knwn as the YAR lp. The gains fr each SAS lp are manually set by the pilt. The SAS-n transfer functins given fr this airplane assume maximum gain settings fr each lp. This may nt have been realistic fr actual flights. The flight cnditins cnsidered fr this airplane are all fr straight and level trimmed flight. This is definitely unrealistic fr this airplane hwever the intent here is t shw general speed and altitude variatin effects. 19

114 d rl a,-- \ \ \ \ \ -- d r- Qb q qj r E4 4 J c -p rj l q q (5 d c v cu r J (D ( LD 4 (J - i hd bd % [1.), r-- r b qi L,r "D r,j [. H (,) " F-H 11

115 ,, J u '- u u5 tc b (,.9. :-4. V (J LL J J L & b J 4 ( -- d

116 X -15 PTCH AXS 8SSAS (rad) FST(b) 2.8 8ST(in.).. " 8s(rad) (TEU) -2-8s(deg) 2 (TED) RLL AXS 8aSAs(rad) FLAT ST (b) r 2.4 BLAT'in ST { a(rad) YAW AXS 8VsAs (red) FpE(b) 12.2 BPED(inL 2.3 By(rd) Figure V-3. X-15 Cntrl System 112

117 X-15 PTCH SAS (rad/sec).75 SssAs(rad) RLL-YAW-YAR SAS Rll Gain p (rad/sec) BasAs(rad) Yar Gain Yaw Gain r (rad/sec).3 BVSAs(rad) Nte: Gains variable in 1% increments f the maximum values which are shwn abve. (e.g. rll gains selectable are.5,.,.15,.2,.25,.3,.35,.4,.45, and.5) Figure V-4. X-15 Stability Augmentatin 1 13

118 X e CJ - -.u) 88 qq / [ i/' /.t /" j,/ll,- 1 J 114

119 uc,l. D x t a (J Q Z rd,. 'J c 1 ill. - m 'X, 1 t13 d -': if).j. Q 115

120 .Q. 88 eq l / /// (% %1 t- J.,,.; :E./ / / / / / / / / / / / / #/ -- (D F) -- J : 116

121 117

122 D,) J 1, 4..-= " " 2 l:3.) s: C.) 118

123 . (,D -ud q.q i u') x -,,6.J L),,-,,i- J J u.. (,D N m..,. -- G G-- % T N.-T m v 119

124 ' '" " T -: -' " i" " " " 12

125 D J c T X 11 a' 4,,- t,..,<i- c- J d- i\ ' 1111 / zili :,D -- " t t. i" " " re}, --,-- J. i c v. 121

126 , (Z) U') ( t m.q K / ' X \ /. if). C i N.. i N r..) r 122

127 (.D D.Q ur)d x q td D [3 - '4-- m 4).. -1 t L J rd- N..N. ".i- 4 c d. J ( 4 t" E) (D i J (13 J r" [3 J. d (.D 11 / ',lli i /) t (.3 tm (M i- j d q tm C - - G:) \,m.., uf) q q q q l c 1" - q q q ''- i- D 123

128 El iz') >, c. i "-, q d c.,. N -'. " re J -," q q q q e J " c " 124

129 Cs u' P c" q.,..-i c c 1,- r% cr' LF. " " ' :,.-, c c C C, C C5 c 4- <1 C (,m rl - U, C) cr] a} a C CJ q * D,- r r, q) a" - c { " V c H c; $ c, t C,. c c t c,- xl H i c r q" m crl ' D.- c c ' N J ' "- G 8 m 1 r *. C N 125

130 " " " ie t f g,. " D c'4 t-,l r,3,-4 * 'M,.-i " " i +++:" "-3",# ++ PM 1 " " ' " +"+ +"" +" +,.. : C. g TM P l" " l l" " " ' " "i" Pei h'.- rl, rm. %1 P'-.,+..,:, +--,?-.,-..l ',.., '4 u +).", P"-. +'el +,41 " ' "41 "T 126

131 ,-< cc -..t,, U,--re cj t'-.. ) ) C'' c -' c r, - ' C C7 Jc.+ 'JD prl CC rr 4, U'm " b-,. F- (" C'.a -.- C. C " " C,J> C. N,' L) t,. F-- +" [-- r t.+,--4 i',.. -.,---, c " e,j,- (-. u",, J" ) H [-i - E-t e,t L,+ p-+ p--,p.:1- )..1.,,.L) ". --,.-+ P '-.i L.m D -t (7. ) f,- r. lh rl --<.,: --- p:) (..)(p nr..,- L.),.--.+,, Cq-T.- r D pr c) L,,l P. el A.?- c gr.. f-j r f,... (x'.,,-,.l.. a:. r", (Y' r'. P",.,.,,a sd "T" N.-' v'... r.i g" gh :+.,,.--i,--+,,, C " : 127

132 v c E c C c, c) LC ",,--,u- c.,.-il--,,,' r i--. u', c c t c -,,-w - c,- C'- ~q?, e,j i? pr h' (D C.. C - cm,- G U',--wp F-, cq h"... t,, LF, t-.'i, C).#.. f CN h- WD r bm wt ( c,d u,tq.-,.r, N ', -J J, - () F'- '-- " C).t"- ('4 " c, {xjc. N " C c p ',-i r, *, c), 'N ),-i ,r H g. wd e,j, p.- u'-w -n.-e., -.wu,,{.u ---W- c v > Fzl ']. "J (D L) u ul r.- D.-- i" -,tm (Y' C.) * (D C (' -,t," v {D. J t, W&,, c.) Uh P-- u,,-w.. (. i'm a C t" r C.' C9,.,-w., 4.J L,c, (',1 P" ", t" C N., '-C re' w L,,T P" r' 41"- fe..- " *-4 D Z u u. w Z Z 128

133 c1 c- -,c u u LC, C (,q, (.q T,,...i 7 cn t-.-w t 1 eq c.--i c,, E-4 X.. -P -,, i- L, ch CH.L H U3 -M,J r.- g 1- (..) uh Lf 6q ---t D ; c C -4 N M i. f'-j '-,t -4 b 129

134 C.,.-4 c,a u * l l ", r- ' r C,, - -,.3 - L c..-i, J,-- -4,, c,-# i i. ll * R.-, --.,. -,. - tr,..t" i%1 i' c.,,i q.. C. - v, zl c'., * CD --,"4 1.# - 'T - -- i" -# c t, " ",.-4 [ ( 13

135 ,, Cb C. " " 12:) ',' C, C, t+ C.,,43 i.r, c, g,.?.,4g" t C, 'q "C, C ",- 1,1" p-.,- CD,.,..4 t + " + 'q.,<,.7,..g C> " "4 C ' +tc elf,, c, t- C - v",. t -,,.1" l") 1:, i r ;,1..t,-,U' 4", t, 4 " -., "4. +S " ' *1. '.5-, i t,q. U" C C.3.- U c, e.j * t v,/ r '. b,.m' e T X m m 1 eq N Z. e,.,,, *N,,-i, u, i.4d '4" Z 13t

136 C gg,d g it,, - C e t C *r, t,j 1"- *C' *.,, - - -t -,t e,-, * C t- *. C,.--,i '.,, rl P- p...,re,,a cc C t t" J" c, tl ", r t ",:,..,c, r,..-,,..,dw.,-* tri ". v ',D,g D 4,N.. t,-- t,-.. i r'-- x i -2 m' " t.-., - *" > E-i U 1 C). t. t'j r'j P'- ", C-, "4" " '. g * C', r" rj,,- t,# P--,--.;gqg'.A e X * --J " -.t, a,.," *cx;. i -, tx.ra Z 21C Ua tl :-- ),- >=.L :.= L -. v 132

137 Card c C, -.t" t'./ c, Cee, r C ' r,-. Cr P r pr, 5..-.,.? L.::.,.c l r1 L %,.-i C D /.-4 r ' S, r<l / ej c G r " i 'M.r...., CL D <l'a G r',: t,,,t..i rl C ba u' C).C,D g.--.l c,,j p t b 4" -4" c...-i.,.-.j "4" r.- T,,-,-- C Pa r. r -.,1- * u cm.r-j.,.. u 'M /', c (, P r.-- r-- ii l t / /," -., ' - N. P.-. e 'l -4".-i {.D " G:; *. 'M. r t? 1 " i u.j >- >- u Z F 133

138 --4 C,, M,f,r..-- e..d q-a N,--*,llm i%1.,, ea. u% e-,l,f, " c, 'M t r,"l. - " g.. LP, zl,-d,- a.--, i-,#,,,u. c '.- ( (::),.LmlN.,,'i.i- r 1. gg 1 u,..-,.=13.rim ::> rj F Zl r H g,-,-.. i%1 r,-'xl t,, l'xl L mm.r rnl.- '--4 t,- g.c M,"el *,c " c,,icxl t i, 3-, "M u'-. -4-,u% 1 c') : GJ 'J.J >.:: 7 134

139 .--4 Q t h" J U ) * N ",-d * v' a ", c..4 N * r..- % 4) * *,4" ' M c, i {%1.," t.-- ". - N,-4. r "., ' t [-- u' em a * -,t *, ta ",',4",,t", rtl t" c c -, ,..4 El r3 i:1 Pq v n. N c i i.,t M, ", { '.-, N -J,-4 u') a * c N r,t c 7 Ju 3 LU, 1- e - p. C {3 LU '-4. (J a{ '- d.j "- "t" -,i,',.,. '- :i[ '7 G. Ci.. 135

140 X- 5 DATA SURCES Revised Basic Aerdynamic Characteristics f X-15 Research Airplane, Nrth American Aviatin, nc. Reprt N. NA August 199. sbrne, Rbert S., Stability and Cntrl Characteristics f a.667-scale Mdel f the Final Versin f the Nrth American X-15 Research Airplane (Cnfiguratin 3) at Transnic Speeds, NASA TMX-758, April Franklin, Arthur E. and Rbert M. Lust, nvestigatin f the Aerdynamic Characteristics f a.67-scale Mdel f the X-15 Airplane CnfigurAtin 3) at Mach Numbers f and 4.65, NASA TM X-38, Nvember Penland, Jim A. and David E. Fetterman, Jr., Static Lngitudinal t Directinal, and Lateral Stability and Cntrl Data at a Mach Number f 6.83 f the Final Cnfiguratin f the X-15 Research Airplane, NASA TMX-236, April 196. Tunnell, Phillips J. and Eldn A. Latham, The Static and Dmamic-Rtar Stabilit Derivatives f a Mdel f the X-15 Research Airplane at Macb Numbers frm 1.55 t 3-5, NASA Mem A, January 199. Hpkins Edward J., David E. Fetterman, Jr. and Edwin J. Saltzman, Cmparisn f Full-Scale Lift and Drag Characteristics f the X-} Airplane With Wind-Tunnel Results and Thery, NASA TM X March Walker, Harld J. and Chester H. Wlwicz, Theretical Stability Derivatives fr the X-15 Research Airplane at Supersnic and Hpersnic Speeds ncludin a Cmparisn With Wind-Tunnel Results, NASA TMX-287, August 196. Yancey, Rxanah B., Flight Measurements f Stability and Cntrl Derivatives f the X- Research Airplane t a Mach Number f 6.2 and an Angle f Attack f 25, NASA TN D-2532, Nvember Saltzman, Edwin J. and Darwin J. Garringer, Summary f Full-Scale Lift and Drag Characteristics f the X-15 Airplane, NASA TN D-3343, March Taylr, Lawrence W. Jr. and Gerge B. Merrick, X-5 Airlane Stability Augmentatin System, NASA TN D-1157, March Tremant, Rbert A., peratinal Experiences and Characteristics f the X-15 Flight Cntrl System, NASA TN D-142, December

141 SECTN V HL- 137

142 EL- BACKGRUND The HL- is ne f a number f lifting bdy research vehicles. The airplane is typically launched frm a B-52 at.8mach and 4, feet. n numerus glide and pwered flights the HL- has been flwn in excess f 1.8 Mach and 9, feet. Fllwing prblems invlving the lss f rll-cntrl effectiveness, the leading edge f the tip fins was mdified. This became knwn as the Md cnfiguratin. The infrmatin cntained here is fr the Md HL-. Pitch and rll cntrl is btained by elevns and yaw cntrl by a cnventinal rudder. A subsnic r a transnic cnfiguratin is selected using cmbinatins f speed brakes elevn flaps, and tip fin flaps. These cmbinatins are specified in Fig. V-. The stability augmentatin system cnsists f angular rate feedback lps abut all three axes. The flight cnditins shwn crrespnd t actual flight test pints. 138

143 . q4.&. v % E-,- D - m (.) - ).,- ZJ (D.,- [-.,-,- ff'x.,-.,- r 8. 1 (n d. ) e4 % N h.el i- i,- 4- e.,-.,.r-t.,.4,-4 t J d J,-.,- 4 4 CJ e,...t.,- v.la e8 al,'el b q q M q i;. 139

144 -- - i... x / 4,n 11 --\,,. / i H -r4 - C--'3. t'-. -- il l C2- -. C:-- C.--" U.i 14

145 HL- PTCH AXS (esas(rad) Feel Spring Gearing FST (b) 6.5 ST (in.) G ) (e(rad) -2-1 e (deg) G(deg/in) -6 RLL AXS (asas(rad) Feel Spring ST FLAT (b) 2.7 SST (in.) Gearing, (rad) YAW AXS 8UsAs(rad) FpED(b) 22.2 (Sr (rd) Figure Vl-3. HL- Cntrl System 141

146 HL- PTCH SAS (rad/sec) esa S RLL SAS p(rad/sec) 8aSAs YAW SAS r (rad/sec) = s 7".,3 arsas J.4s Figure V-4. HL- Stability Augmentatin t42

147 U T.D n / /.-. /,/ / 41",--, --, -- /. i j J" ='.,p n,ll l / ( /, x '% li L,,,- p,,2 / // /",, i --G t- (xl (] (x]

148 -- l -- C- U -- d 1 ' P tl N --: 1. t'm J. q 'r q -JGGGd cx],- li." J Jj J" i d Q r-.- () q 1 144

149 / / Q J.a ' ## / l.j c L.. l.. " qq dd / / / } --C --C i r J i i i.j -? 145

150 ,1 (D N -- 4.c '1J (D - ' ill.,$-- e.. lj.. q.nd " v. r T " E C.) " 146

151 .Q, J '-- / / /. \ \ \ j m N,F (,,,% --C C-- S p 4 1, m - E "- 147

152 B \ x.=,, =,,,, D" J 1" "r" 4DgD \ / i / a N J m m U. t.. C- -- 1).1,, " q, m q 1 N "m ' " " m llb 148

153 U3 m G ' n x "1 -A C ( Q. m t- (3 t3 e- U G-- GD QD -- L L'-- l i ---: ) i - L -- i Q,, < "1 C) c3 r t3 lh. D 1,. t e. -( lb. 149

154 ( \\. 'W # # 7- q q i q q 1 " a a q q q q q m,, n13 C,- v a7,- m V L 15

155 ' -J G t m. q c- G,1 1 "-:.... L -- >, "3 b C.D t,. m k- " e- v 151

156 C C: -/ 4- " +D 1"- i< ' r.- r, T 7'.? N T t'- u C t / T-- -) c) +.? %? :% 2?.. eq t'- t N, T + T 7 2

157 ix p C * * : " l' c., ".4 c.d - i v cj l / m," ' l" ' " --.1 H n H. ' '.,.- u 4" l -- F' 1"- R " el - G3 C". -4 ' " "f v' " r.,4",d, C t1,-- D uj uj u u. 153

158 i.. P-- * c d" =,. b, -,t... C + 1 C2 + 'n, ".'-+ C?+ "- * fm Mr i., +CCC. w r...i i,-- M- e..4 i c,, t+.- t 4,. Cp.-. ( F,.+ x: e fl, ih..,,13 et' %1 {M *+--t--,, v E- t+ eell rj +.. r'j.+ N %1 C. - += Ln +', 1]) -p,.,.-4.*" e ' *e'j " (M g f-.. ef, fi+-2 + > -' E+,.-+,,1" C.) +P-. eet. D +,- p-- cxl rl,..+ N e * cx, "1", U.,, ' N,+ Can N.cq s 4J P+- * Pr'i x,+" v -,. :. e L,' ',, - J. et'.- -",. +m+;; w ww Z 154

159 + i L, +.+ c+ (P + txj t; c+ h r,j + -++,. r,+-,.t..+ C. l',j c+...,+.,-< z+ G.C+ u,.-< c.? it ac. +,.+ c + t+-.j t+ r ' * P.+ pr pr (jl+. + (j cd t- c. y: cj + rx,.. b cxl.-+. pe t. rr, t'+ c.-+ j T m /+ <,++ P.J * G.D a.,< <> c" t'j ca,< <:D P i1 * +", u- c t, v X; c E4,d3 c i: rj u',c txl - +-t <t w tj. N,-4 g+. *'.'Xl, m,--4 " [-4 ',d b+,, C rr. p+. P,j - < a, ( * e+j e, r-- l t'- " v < u'x c, ct '4 a c - c ",r,.r..- a..-i t-- + l'xt P'J ej,'- C) ++-+ ' "- "4 c " CXll. *,+ i, c {-1 { txl + rl c,+ ++.T, +.-+ a.. t+,,l e U-x rl.--t.,, ' q l'-- P'- ",,. 'J 1 t C +..+ r.. i,esl n t e,l.t + N, * +- en D 1 Pc+..t << p.. c <",J +.--+i P.J,,t.t c,? +..+, i r... T-.T L z N Z 155

160 G(,. ie C: r l" h- um,),,4,.4 N ",-4 v,,, * $,, l LU LL m e 1, ell, ) -," rq un -,t,,- v v J D LU -r u. 156

161 ,? T,, ;, -.,",,t",.,t + l-..+. J.; a, -.4",. C.-+ t.., u c u', 4" m m,.1.'-',-, ' l t " l ,P, -- C,;,, a (.3 ' 1 157

162 .4 f4 um um 4" -. f'- g v, q a[ u'..d r--.t um-, P- -- m c ',.q P"- - w v a '4" LF 'b A.7, u- ur ",- v ry - > > r um " cx 4" - f'.,i c.,i%1 A " * 7, :g,-,,-- t -4" r.-,.t A w, 1, v mm,i, t gz rq t,, 158

163 v,.-4,t,, -.-c C -,,,: ( r-- --, c u% -.n e% c t ZJJ r- u...,h C,,rr).. " ' 8 4-.u,% u'%.4 b--.. :m 8 [ c rj +, CH v N U 4" ',C ej a..,c c.u', - u-.-,cp..4'.. [" v N N znzz 7 159

164 .p. t. x' p-. *xj " 4" C5 J ad r.-- ' (7-,- ;.-T w P-, Z ad +,',', 'x N*e v a,..nn, e,,j * r-- r'm ' * - c C *

165 p- c l' cr,4 e t N * Nl, g...,-e,d,.-. d, c,. r N,42,... N -,t.- ep.- t%l a'l,..4 J,'d.rl r...) ee ee e 'x :> ep'-q rx;.4" e. 161

166 4. 4- e v " h- 2,,N,N h- "" t- rq m,c C;,.--lrl e,e " t m " %1 cr M' i'%1 " r tx.; c e, -.t, g. M.w' N,,1" r, " ",", N.,m ", N

167 r..- - ite t, C i'% ' erq 1 " erl e1" *.- N "d.,-4 r...) t,i N,,, H irl erxl,.1-,,d.-,.t, ww t, e.,-- 163

168 , '.,4- r 4"..--4 * t P'% * " " r. -'%,.4" * d".,..,.-,,, t'n M" " " i a,4" * ( 4-, r'.-,, i " 1 t E *,..., 'q,=4,-4 (%1 4".., 4- t *, i.-, :'4 ' *,vl *,-4 *.,-4 ti *.,11". -- c.-,'..,",-. "T.-.-i 'M ("-4 r....4 #n, -- %.. 164

169 HL- DATA SVRCES Ladsn, Charles L., and Acquilla S. Hill, Aerdynamics f a Mdel f the HL-1 Flight Test Vehicle at Mach.35 t 1.8, NASA TN D-618, Feb. 1971, Pyle, Jn S., Lift and Drag Characteristics f the ML- Lifting Bdy during Subsnic Gliding Flight, NASA TN D-6263, Mar Ware, Gerge M., Full Scale Wind Tunnel nvestigatin f the Aerdynamic Characteristics f the HL- Manned Lifting Entry Vehicle, NASA TMX-116, ct

170 166

171 JETSTAR BACKGRUND The Jetstar is a fur engine utility transprt. Cntrls cnsist f cnventinal ailerns elevatrs and rudder. Ailerns and elevatrs are mechanically actuated with hydraulic bst. The rudder is mechanically activated but assisted by a serv tab. The primary surce f aerdynamic data was NASA CR-544. Pwer apprach aerdynamics were estimated using CR-544 and flight test data frm TC-TDR-62-24C-14. The cntrl system descriptin was based slely n flight test data frm the latter reference. 167

172 , r- Ca rn p :> -M.rl C; %,--t % L " "-" "- J v, 4..i- 4.,-q "7 -i -4 J 'x J J J r J z c,j J J 4- r- --., E- C.-=1 lf ' x g J J... L r- b, N.,-.,q )

173 ' ) H a3 4 d..a c; t--4.r4 N 169

174 JETSTAR PTCH AXS FST(b) ' C 8e (rad) Nte: Angle f attack effects n elevatr h/nge mment are neglected RLL AXS LAT F ST (b).75q = 8a(rad) YAW AXS FpE(b) - 8r (rad) Figure V-3. Jetstar Cntrl System 17

175 TABLE V- ] JETSTAR Pwer Apprach Nn-Dimenslnal Stability Derivatives h = sea level VT = 224 ft/sec = 132. kt % = 6. Lngitudinal Lateral-Directinal (Bd Ax±s) CL =.737 CD =.9 =./rad CD a =.7D/tad Cm = -.8/rad Cm = --3./rad Cmq = 8./rad CLSe =.4/rad CruSe = --.81/rad Cn =.137/rad C = --.3/rad Cp = -.37/rad Cnp = -.14/rad C r =.]/rad Cn r = --.T6/rad Cna = --.7/rad CSa =.54/rad CySr =.17/rad Cn5r = --.63/rad CSr =.29/rad 171

176 SL JETSTAR 2, ft 3824 b 4,ft 12- (deg) Mach 172

177 -- D -- r- u w q q q a C.) S -- J 11 r- c) -- 1, t J -..J 173

178 6- CLa 5 (rad-i) 4 5 JETSTAR 3824 b Mach %%%, t Mch 174

179 Mach Cma (rad "i ) SL... 2,ft ,ft JETSTAR 3824 b.255 Mach Cm&, -.4 Cmq (rad-) -.8 '*':) Cmq

180 CDM.8 t (rd "l ) Mach Mch B -'.2- t CM M (rd "l ) " SL... 2,ft - 4,ft JETSTAR 3824 b

181 CL8 e 4 - CL8 e, Cm8 e.2 m (rd'=) ) Mch.2 JETSTAR n

182 Mach.2 A.6.8 J -.4 Cy (rad -t) -, ",, SL ft ,ft JETSTAR 38241b Bdy Axis.2. Cn, Cj (rd't) -" -"(- - Cn B Mach c :2 178

183 Mach C,p (rad ") SL... 2,ft ,ft JETSTAR b Bdy Axis Mach i Cnp (rd "i)

184 S L JETSTAR 2,ft 3824 b ---'---- 4,ft Bdy Axis.2 C,t r, Cr Cnr (rd "i ) Mch -. Cn r -2 18

185 ill SL JETSTAR 2,ft 5824 b 4, ft Bdy Axis.8 CYaa (rd - ).4.Z Mach Mach,2 4, ; 8, Cns a (rd -l ) -.2-8a is deflectin f ailern n ne slide nly 181

186 Cy8 r (rd - ) "", Mch Mach Cn8 r (rad "i ) ' SL... 2,ft 4,ft JETSTAR 38241b Bdy Axis.4 C8 r (rd "l ) Mach 182

187 C3 C t t t,-< N C: h Lr -.t f c N C c r c r,j r,j C - * in g - l"-, t %1 u'h i H El H c> "-+ 3 c N r,i N,) c i " P- "-+ lib i H ::.; -. i i g t} rq c h t r N C> t,3 u- u u +. c -x, r f ' * + e,i c ", x r [e * c) b x " u,.t 'M N,,, 'M,, ". 1?1 183

188 , %t c u", 4) $'j, 4- (. " c ' c ': " c ie C C t'- 42 " C2 C c.d "4" C'. C c G G e, i C "4 C. "% C., C. CJ N C, Ca. " C) " ' " ' T l" T P " " le T u " ", ; ;.,," t" i ' ' - ' " ' e e -,.. i e tl,'.4, e " W " " " ' ' D " r? ' U% " " " u " "=,= r " l, 184

189 c c rl <1Lt * e (J r- Cr r i, txj,l,r t/ -1" t..# "?~. (. c *,, e C- r, r.,--4 tr, re, e r--- 'b.t <1-,- U-. t,- t zj r--,e., 7 '..+, v u- N c,.e,c ' "..,, H. " r,.- t r-d " P-' r w w frl,-,..i lm,r,),...t..t t u.-u,.1" q, nr..-d,.4 ",- C l,.,g -<,ff r-- ecl'-- r rq ff,e v.,e e. eel z 185

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