Validating Simulations of MultiScale Plasma Turbulence in ITERRelevant, Alcator CMod Plasmas


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1 Validating Simulations of MultiScale Plasma Turbulence in ITERRelevant, Alcator CMod Plasmas Nathan Howard 1 with C. Holland 2, A.E. White 1, M. Greenwald 1, J. Candy 3, P. Rodriguez Fernandez 1, and A. Creely 1 1 MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Cambridge, MA University of California San Diego La Jolla, CA General Atomics San Diego, CA IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Data Processing, Validation, and Analysis May 30 th June 2 nd,
2 Interactions Between Short and Long Wavelength Turbulence Can Play an Important Role in Core Transport Anomalous ion and electron heat transport is often attributed to long wavelength, ionscale turbulence.  ITG/TEM assumed dominant at ionscales (k q r s < 1.0)  ETG at electronscales (k q r s > 1.0) is often ignored However, there is both theoretical and experimental evidence for an important role of ETG is some plasma conditions  Theory/simulation predicts formation of ETG streamers  Highk scattering reports fluctuations at electronscales Simulations which capture both ion and electron scale turbulence and their coupling are extremely computational expensive. Crossscale coupling plays an important role in reproducing Lmode exp. Only ~2 quantitative comparisons between multiscale simulation and experiment have made to date [N.T. Howard NF 2016, C. Holland NF 2017] 2
3 Interactions Between Short and Long Wavelength Turbulence Can Play an Important Role in Core Transport Anomalous ion and electron heat transport is often attributed to long wavelength, ionscale turbulence.  ITG/TEM assumed dominant at ionscales (k q r s < 1.0)  ETG at electronscales (k q r s > 1.0) is often ignored However, there is both theoretical and experimental evidence for an important role of ETG is some plasma conditions  Theory/simulation predicts formation of ETG streamers  Highk scattering reports fluctuations at electronscales Simulations Gyrokinetic which capture simulations both ion capturing and electrons all scale relevant turbulence turbulence and their scales coupling are extremely computational expensive. must be validated against experiment to better understand the Crossscale required coupling physics plays an important for prediction role in reproducing of ITER and Lmode beyond exp. Only ~2 quantitative comparisons between multiscale simulation and experiment have made to date [N.T. Howard NF 2016, C. Holland NF 2017] 3
4 Understanding Coupling of Ion and ElectronScale Turbulence Requires MultiScale Simulation MultiScale Gyrokinetic Simulation  Captures both long and shortwavelengths (ITG/TEM/ETG)  k q r s up to ~60.0 = k q r e ~ Extremely expensive  Must resolve electron spatiotemporal scales and ionscales : A handful ever  Almost all previous work used reduced electronmass.  Should not be compared with experiment Electron mass ratio: m = (m D /m e ).5 = 60.0 For a deuterium plasma  Reducedmass approximation insufficient in some conditions  [N.T. Howard PPCF 2015] 4 4
5 Previous Work Demonstrated the Role of CrossScale Coupling Using MultiScale Simulation of Alcator CMod Lmode Discharges Key features of crossscale interactions were identified: 1.) Ionscale turbulence (& ion heat flux) is enhanced by the presence of electronscale turbulence.  Due to modification of zonal flow shear and energy transfer in conditions with marginal ionscale turbulence 2.) ETG streamers were observed to coexist with ITG turbulence and drive up to 70% exp. Q e in near marginal conditions Standard ionscale simulation ~20k CPU hours Multiscale simulation ~20M CPU hours 3.) Strongly driven ( >> marginal) ionscale turbulence was found to destroy electronscale ETG streamers 5
6 Previous Work Demonstrated the Role of CrossScale Coupling Using MultiScale Simulation of Alcator CMod Lmode Discharges Key features of crossscale interactions were identified: 1.) Ionscale turbulence (& ion heat flux) is enhanced by the presence of electronscale turbulence.  Due to modification of zonal flows and energy transfer in conditions with marginal ionscale turbulence 2.) ETG streamers were observed to coexist with ITG turbulence and drive up to 70% exp. Q e in near marginal conditions Standard ionscale simulation ~20k CPU hours Multiscale simulation ~20M CPU hours 3.) Strongly driven ( >> marginal) ionscale turbulence was found to destroy electronscale ETG streamers Crossscale coupling played a dominant role in reproducing exp. Lmode results. In this work we attempt to extend multiscale simulation to high performance plasma regimes which may have more reactor relevance. 6
7 An Alcator CMod ELMy Hmode Condition Has Been Studied Using MultiScale Gyrokinetic Simulation Similar to operational scenarios for ITER:  Approx. ITER density  ITER Bfield (5.4T)  Intrinsically rotating  Predominately electron heated (ICRF+Ohmic)  Well coupled ions and electrons: T e ~ T i Linear stability analysis indicates:  ITG is dominant at ionscales (k q r s <1.0)  Highk TEM/ETG is present at electronscales (k q r s > 1.0) Open questions are: 1.) Does crossscale coupling play an important role in ITERlike Hmode conditions? 2.) Do the mechanisms of crossscale coupling look similar to Lmode? 3.) What are the implications of crossscale coupling for prediction of Hmode plasmas? 7
8 Using GYRO, Realistic Mass, Ion and MultiScale Simulations Have Been Performed on a CMod ELMy Hmode Discharge Simulations were performed at r/a = 0.6 using the GYRO code  High physics fidelity :  All experimental inputs  3 gyrokinetic species (deuterium, electrons, impurities)  Electromagnetic turbulence (f & A )  Rotation effects (ExB shear, etc.)  Electronion and ionion collisions  Realistic electron mass: µ = (m i /m e ).5 = Simulation box size of 71 x 55r s radial grid points (for multiscale simulation) toroidal modes (for multiscale simulation)  Ionscale simulations capture ITG/TEM up to k q r s up to ~1.1  Multiscale simulations capture (ITG/TEM/ETG) up to k q r s up to ~42.0 = k q r e ~ Utilized ~22k cores. Approximately 2025M CPU hours per multiscale simulation.  Results from 3 multiscale simulations are presented here. 8
9 IonScale Sims Reveal that Lowk Transport is Extremely Stiff With Experiment Just Above the ITG Critical Gradient Tiny a/l Ti changes (2%), dramatically increase driven heat flux are.  Implies extremely stiff heat transport (~10x a corresponding Lmode)  Note that Q i, exp ~ Q e,exp & Q/Q GB ~ 1.85 implying very marginal conditions Experimentally relevant levels of ion heat flux are obtained just 2% above the ITG critical gradient. 9
10 Within Uncertainties in the Simulation (~10%) and Experiment, IonScale Simulation Can Reproduce Experimental Heat Fluxes When uncertainties are considered, agreement is found between ionscale simulation and experiment For the condition with a/l Ti increased 10% above experiment, ionscale simulation reproduces experimental Q i and Q e within uncertainties Does this imply the ionscale model is that multiscale turbulence is unimportant? 10
11 The MultiScale Simulation Base Case is Able to Reproduce Experimental Q i & Q e Within Uncertainties Both ion & multiscale simulation can reproduce experimental heat fluxes within simulation and experimental uncertainties. Agreement occurs at a lower value of a/l Ti (+8% for multi versus +10% for ion) For these conditions, experimental heat fluxes are insufficient to distinguish between the ion & multiscale sim. Additional quantities are needed to discriminate between models 11
12 Signatures of CrossScale Coupling are Observed in Multi Scale Simulation That Are Similar to the Lmode Results Small (~10%) of multiscale Q e from highk turbulence. However, clear signatures of crossscale coupling are observed with same a/l Ti input. There is a clear enhancement of the lowk turbulence as result of the coupling. This leads to 80% increases in the lowk driven heat transport. 12
13 Incremental Diffusivities Can Be Used to Discriminate Between Ion and MultiScale Results Similar comparisons were made in Lmode conditions [N.T Howard NF 2016] Partial sawtooth heat pulses used to determine the incremental electron diffusivity [A. Creely NF 16]  Obtained via simulation by measuring slope of Q e versus Using 3 ECE channels around of r/a = 0.6 we can measure the % change in a/l Te  Up to a 20% increase in the local value of a/l Te occurs during a partial sawtooth. Measured value of incremental diffusivity is: c inc = 1.8 +/ 0.3 m 2 /s 13
14 Partial Sawteeth in the ELMy HMode Can Produce a 20% Increase in the Local Value of a/l Te Similar comparisons were made in Lmode conditions [N.T Howard NF 2016] Partial sawtooth heat pulses used to determine the incremental electron diffusivity [A. Creely NF 16]  Obtained via simulation by measuring slope of Q e versus Using 3 ECE channels around of r/a = 0.6 we can measure the % change in a/l Te  Up to a 20% increase in the local value of a/l Te occurs during a partial sawtooth. Measured value of incremental diffusivity is: c inc = 1.8 +/ 0.3 m 2 /s 14
15 To Evaluate the Incremental c, an Additional MultiScale Simulation was Performed with a +20% Increase in a/l Te Multiscale simulation predicts significantly higher values of c inc 2.5x increase is found from ion to multiscale simulation Both ion and multiscale underpredict the c inc outside of error bars Different from previous Lmode work, where multiscale simulation could reproduce Q i, Q e, and c inc What physics is missing from the multiscale simulation that could explain the experiment? 15
16 To Evaluate the Incremental c, an Additional MultiScale Simulation was Performed with a +20% Increase in a/l Te Multiscale simulation predicts significantly higher values of c inc 2.5x increase is found from ion to multiscale simulation Both ion and multiscale underpredict the c inc outside of error bars Different from previous Lmode work, where multiscale simulation could reproduce Q i, Q e, and c inc What physics is missing from the multiscale simulation that could explain the experiment? 16
17 To Evaluate the Incremental c, an Additional MultiScale Simulation was Performed with a +20% Increase in a/l Te Multiscale simulation predicts significantly higher values of c inc 2.5x increase is found from ion to multiscale simulation Both ion and multiscale underpredict the c inc outside of error bars Different from previous Lmode work, where multiscale simulation could reproduce Q i, Q e, and c inc What physics is missing from the multiscale simulation that could explain the experiment? 17
18 Extreme Stiffness of IonScale Turbulence + CrossScale Coupling, May Explain Large c inc Values Recall that these conditions are extremely close to marginal and exhibit extremely stiff lowk transport driven by ITG (+2% a/l Ti drives 50% more Q e ) Ionscale simulations ITG drives both ion and electron heat transport. The propagation of a heat pulse in the electron temperature (from which c inc is measured) is dictated by the local electron heat flux. Exp. Increases in both & will drive significant electron heat transport Two processes can generate changes in a/l Ti during a heat pulse: 1.) Electronion equilibration  Can account for a 1% change in a/l Ti 2.) Ion heat pulse generated by sawtooth a few % change in a/l Ti (modeled via TRANSP) 18
19 Preliminary: A MultiScale Simulation with a 2% Increase in a/l Ti & 20% Increase in a/l Te Reproduces the Exp. c inc To test this theory, we have begun a multiscale simulation which attempts to better reproduce the conditions under which the heat pulse propagates. Includes +20% a/l Te and +2% a/l Ti above base multiscale simulation. Simulation is still in progress, but current values from the simulation indicate c inc =1.6 m 2 /s, in quantitative agreement with the measured value. 19
20 Prediction of ITERlike Conditions Will Likely Require the Physics of CrossScale Coupling ; MultiScale Simulation Posses A Real Challenge for Model Validation Crossscale coupling was found to enhance longwavelength turbulence significantly in ELMy Hmode conditions. To discriminate between the models, comparisons with c inc measurements were made.  Crossscale coupling plays an important role in enhancing c inc but does not alone explain the measured incremental diffusivities. The extreme stiffness, characteristic of high performance discharges, appears to demonstrate that experimentally relevant perturbations to a/l Ti and a/l Te can explain measured values of c inc Because of the extreme computational requirements (75M CPU hours), this study was only able to probe very limited simulation sensitivities and uncertainties in inputs.  Validation of multiscale simulation needs more intelligent approaches for validation. It may be the development of reduced models (TGLF, Qualikiz) based on multiscale results is the best way to probe uncertainties in simulation and experiment 20
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