# Michael Yaffe Lecture #5 (((A,B)C)D) Database Searching & Molecular Phylogenetics A B C D B C D

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1 7.91 Lecture #5 Database Searching & Molecular Phylogenetics Michael Yaffe B C D B C D (((,B)C)D)

2 Outline Distance Matrix Methods Neighbor-Joining Method and Related Neighbor Methods Maximum Likelihood Branch and Bound Heuristic Seaching Consensus Trees Software (PHYLIP, PUP) The Tree of Life

3 Transformed Distance Method UPM assumes constant rate Of evolution across all lineages - can lead to wrong tree topologies Can allow different rates of evolution across different lineages if you normalize using an external reference that diverged early i.e. use an outgroup Define d D =average distance B C D Between outgroup and all ingroups d ij = (d ij d id d jd )/2 + d D Now use d ij to do the clustering..basically just comes from the insight that ingroups evolved separately from each other ONLY FTER they diverged from outgroup

4 Example Species B C B 9 d B is distance Between and B C 8 11 D B C D 6 Use D as outgroup Species B 2 1 B 10/3 d D = 37/3 C 16/3 16/3 Now use UPM to build tree

5 Neighbor s Relation Method Variant of UPM that pairs species in a way that creates a tree with minimal overall branch lengths. Pairs of sequences separated by only 1 node are said to be neighbors. single central branch a c C e terminal branches B b d D For this tree topology d C +d BD = d D +d BC = a + b + c + d + 2e =d B + d CD +2e For neighbor relations, four-point condition will be true: d B +d CD < d C +d BD and d B +d CD < d D +d BC So just have to consider all pairwise arrangements and determine which one satisfies the four-point condition.

6 Neighbor-Joining Methods Start with star-like tree. Find neighbors sequentially to minimize total length of all branches B C C D B D Studier & Kepler 1988: Q 12 =(N-2)d 12 - Σd 1i - Σd 2i Where any 2 sequences can be 1 and 2 Try all possible sequence combinations. Whichever combination of pairs gives the smallest Q 12 is the final tree!

7 Maximum Likelihood purely statistical method. Probablilities for every nucleotide substitution in a set of aligned sequences is considered. Calculation of probabilities is complex since ancestor is unknown Test all possible trees and calculate the aggregate probablility. Tree with single highest aggregate probablilty is the most likely to reflect the true phylogenetic tree. VERY COMPUTTIONLLY INTENSE

8 : a derogatory term from the 1930s and 1940s To describe someone who was especially careful with Spending money. Biologically: ttach preference to an evolutionary pathway That minimizes the number of mutational events since (1) Mutations are rare events, and (2) The more unlikely events a model postulates, the less l likely the model is to be true. : a character-based method, NOT a distance-based method.

9 For parsimony analysis, positions in a sequence alignment fall into one of two categories: informative and uninformative. Position Sequence T 3 T 4 T C T Only 3 possible unrooted trees you can make

10 Position Sequence T 3 T 4 T C T Which tree is the right one?

11 Position Sequence T T T C T Invariant positions contain NO INFORMTION uninformative

12 Position Sequence T T T C T Equally uninformative need one mutation in each tree

13 Position Sequence T T T C T * 2 * 2 * * T 4 * * 3 T 4 4 T 3 lso uninformative need two mutations in each tree

14 Position Sequence T T C T T 1 T * T * * * * 2 * * C 4 * * 3 T C 4 4 C T 3 lso uninformative need three mutations in each tree

15 Position Sequence T 4 T C T T * 2 2 * * 4 * * Informative! need only one mutation in one tree but two In the other trees!

16 Position Sequence T 4 T C T T T 2 1 T * 2 * T * * 2 * T T 4 3 T 4 4 T 3 Informative! need only one mutation in one tree but two In the other trees!

17 Position Sequence T T C T T So to be Informative, need at least 2 different nucleotides nd each has to be present at least twice. Every tree is considered for every site, maintaining a running score of the number of mutations required. The tree with the smallest number of invoked mutations is the most parsimonious

18 * 2 2 * * 4 * * Mathematically, most likely candidate nts at an Internal node are: {descendent node 1} Ω {descendant node 2} IF this is null set, then most likely candidate nts are: {descendent node 1} U {descendant node 2} Σ U = minimum number of substitutions required to account for nts at terminal nodes since they last shared common ancestor Total number of substitutions, informative + uninformative = tree length

19 * 2 2 * * 4 * * If you use parsimony but weigh the mutations by some kind of scoring system that accounts for the likelihood of each mutation weighted parsimony By-product of parsimony is inference of nt identity in the ancestral sequence

20 10 sequences: > 2 million possible trees Need a better way Branch and bound (Hardy and Penny, 1982) Step 1: Determine an upper bound to the length of the most parsimonious tree = L - either chosen randomly, or else using a computationally fast way like UPM Step 2: Starting from a simple tree with just some of the Sequences, grow trees incrementally by adding branches to a smaller tree that describes just some of the sequences. Step 3: If at any point, the number of required substitutions is > L, abandon that tree. Step 4: s soon as you get a tree with fewer substitutions than L, use that tree as the new upper bound to make remainder of the search even more efficient. Works for <= 20 sequences

21 For > 20 sequences Heuristic Searches ssumption: lternative trees are not all independent of each other. Most parsimonious trees have similar topologies. Step 1: Construct an initial tree as a good guess: UPM, and use it as a starting point. Step 2: Branch-swap subtrees and graft them onto the starting tree, keeping overall topology. See how many are shorter than the starting tree. The prune and re-graft, and see if it keeps getting better. Step 3: Repeat until a round of branch swapping fails to generate any better trees

22 Often get tens or hundreds of equally parsimonious trees Build a consensus tree any internal node supported by t least half the trees becomes a simple bifurcation.

23 Phylogenetic Software PHYLIP: Phylogenetics Inference Package free at Includes many programs including various distance methods, maximum likelihood, parsimony, with many of the options we ve discussed. PUP: Phylogenetic nalysis Using - NOT FREE Now includes maximum likelihood and distance methods as well

24 Tree of Life Carl Woese and colleagues, 1970s Used 16S rrn all organisms possess. Found 3 major evolutionary groups: Bacteria Eucarya rchea (including thermophilic bacteria Human Origins: mt DN sequences huan populations differ by ~ 0.33% (very small). reatest differences NOT between current populations on different continents, but between human populations residing in frica out of frica theory Mitochondrial eve and Y-chromosome adam

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Evolutionary trees Bonobo Chimpanzee Human Neanderthal Gorilla Orangutan Describe the relationship between objects, e.g. species or genes Early evolutionary studies The evolutionary relationships between

### GENETICS - CLUTCH CH.22 EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS.

!! www.clutchprep.com CONCEPT: OVERVIEW OF EVOLUTION Evolution is a process through which variation in individuals makes it more likely for them to survive and reproduce There are principles to the theory