Dirac Operator. Göttingen Mathematical Institute. Paul Baum Penn State 6 February, 2017


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1 Dirac Operator Göttingen Mathematical Institute Paul Baum Penn State 6 February, 2017
2 Five lectures: 1. Dirac operator 2. AtiyahSinger revisited 3. What is Khomology? 4. The RiemannRoch theorem 5. Ktheory for group C algebras (BC conjecture)
3 DIRAC OPERATOR The Dirac operator of R n will be defined. This is a first order elliptic differential operator with constant coefficients. Next, the class of differentiable manifolds which come equipped with an order one differential operator which at the symbol level is locally isomorphic to the Dirac operator of R n will be considered. These are the Spin c manifolds. Spin c is slightly stronger than oriented, so Spin c can be viewed as oriented plus epsilon. Most of the oriented manifolds that occur in practice are Spin c. The Dirac operator of a closed Spin c manifold is the basic example for the HirzebruchRiemannRoch theorem and the AtiyahSinger index theorem.
4 What is the Dirac operator of R n? To answer this, shall construct matrices E 1, E 2,..., E n with the following properties :
5 Properties of E 1, E 2,..., E n Each E j is a 2 r 2 r matrix of complex numbers, where r is the largest integer n/2. Each E j is skew adjoint, i.e. E j = E j (* = conjugate transpose) Ej 2 = I j = 1, 2,..., n (I is the 2 r 2 r identity matrix.) E j E k + E k E j = 0 whenever j k. For n odd, (n = 2r + 1) i r+1 E 1 E 2 E n = I For n even, (n = 2r) each E j is of the form E j = [ 0 0 ] and ir E 1 E 2 E n = [ ] I 0 0 I i = 1
6 These matrices are constructed by a simple inductive procedure. n = 1, E 1 = [ i] n n + 1 with n odd (r r + 1) The new matrices Ẽ1, Ẽ2,..., Ẽn+1 are ] Ẽ j = [ 0 Ej E j 0 for j = 1,..., n and Ẽ n+1 = [ ] 0 I I 0 where E 1, E 2,..., E n are the old matrices. n n + 1 with n even (r does not change) The new matrices Ẽ1, Ẽ2,..., Ẽn+1 are Ẽ j = E j for j = 1,..., n and Ẽ n+1 = [ ] ii 0 0 ii where E 1, E 2,..., E n are the old matrices.
7 Example n = 1: E 1 = [ i] n = 2: E 1 = [ 0 i i 0 n = 3: E 1 = [ 0 i i 0 ], E2 = [ ] ], E2 = [ ], E3 = [ ] i 0 0 i
8 Example n = 4: E 1 = [ 0 ] 0 0 i 0 0 i 0 0 i 0 0 i E 2 = [ ] E 3 = [ 0 0 i 0 ] i i i 0 0 E 4 = [ ]
9 D = Dirac operator of R n { n = 2r n even n = 2r + 1 n odd D = n j=1 E j x j D is an unbounded symmetric operator on the Hilbert space L 2 (R n ) L 2 (R n )... L 2 (R n ) (2 r times) To begin, the domain of D is C c (R n ) C c (R n )... C c (R n ) (2 r times) D is essentially selfadjoint (i.e. D has a unique selfadjoint extension) so it is natural to view D as an unbounded selfadjoint operator on the Hilbert space L 2 (R n ) L 2 (R n )... L 2 (R n ) (2 r times)
10 QUESTION : Let M be a C manifold of dimension n. Does M admit a differential operator which (at the symbol level) is locally isomorphic to the Dirac operator of R n? To answer this question, will define Spin c vector bundle.
11 What is a Spin c vector bundle? Let X be a paracompact Hausdorff topological space. On X let E be an R vector bundle which has been oriented. i.e. the structure group of E has been reduced from GL(n, R) to GL + (n, R) GL + (n, R) = {[a ij ] GL(n, R) det[a ij ] > 0} n= fiber dimension (E) Assume n 3 and recall that for n 3 H 2 (GL + (n, R); Z) = Z/2Z Denote by F + (E) the principal GL + (n, R) bundle on X consisting of all positively oriented frames.
12 A point of F + (E) is a pair ( x, (v 1, v 2,..., v n ) ) where x X and (v 1, v 2,..., v n ) is a positively oriented basis of E x. The projection F + (E) X is ( x, (v1, v 2,..., v n ) ) x For x X, denote by ι x : F x + (E) F + (E) the inclusion of the fiber at x into F + (E). Note that (with n 3) H 2 (F x + (E); Z) = Z/2Z
13 A Spin c vector bundle on X is an R vector bundle E on X (fiber dimension E 3) with 1 E has been oriented. 2 α H 2 (F + (E); Z) has been chosen such that x X ι x(α) H 2 (F + x (E); Z) is nonzero.
14 Remarks 1.For n = 1, 2 E is a Spin c vector bundle = E has been oriented and an element α H 2 (X; Z) has been chosen. (α can be zero.) 2. For all values of n = fiber dimension(e), E is a Spin c vector bundle iff the structure group of E has been changed from GL(n, R) to Spin c (n). i.e. Such a change of structure group is equivalent to the above definition of Spin c vector bundle.
15 Topological obstruction to Spin c able E an R vector bundle on X. w 1 (E), w 2 (E),..., w n (E) StiefelWhitney classes of E w j (E) H j (X; Z/2Z) E is Spin c able iff: (i) w 1 (E) = 0 (i.e. E is orientable). and (ii) w 2 (E) is in the image of the mod 2 reduction map H 2 (X; Z) H 2 (X; Z/2Z)
16 By forgetting some structure a complex vector bundle or a Spin vector bundle canonically becomes a Spin c vector bundle complex Spin Spin c oriented A Spin c structure for an R vector bundle E can be thought of as an orientation for E plus a slight extra bit of structure. Spin c structures behave very much like orientations. For example, an orientation on two out of three R vector bundles in a short exact sequence determines an orientation on the third vector bundle. An analogous assertion is true for Spin c structures.
17 Two Out Of Three Lemma Lemma Let 0 E E E 0 be a short exact sequence of Rvector bundles on X. If two out of three are Spin c vector bundles, then so is the third.
18 Definition Let M be a C manifold (with or without boundary). M is a Spin c manifold iff the tangent bundle T M of M is a Spin c vector bundle on M. The Two Out Of Three Lemma implies that the boundary M of a Spin c manifold M with boundary is again a Spin c manifold.
19 Various wellknown structures on a manifold M make M into a Spin c manifold. (complexanalytic) (symplectic) (almost complex) (contact) (stably almost complex) Spin Spin c (oriented)
20 A Spin c manifold can be thought of as an oriented manifold with a slight extra bit of structure. Most of the oriented manifolds which occur in practice are Spin c manifolds. A Spin c manifold comes equipped with a firstorder elliptic differential operator known as its Dirac operator. This operator is locally isomorphic (at the symbol level) to the Dirac operator of R n.
21 EXAMPLE. Let M be a compact complexanalytic manifold. Set Ω p,q = C (M, Λ p,q T C M) Ω p,q is the C vector space of all C differential forms of type (p, q) Dolbeault complex 0 Ω 0,0 Ω 0,1 Ω 0,2 Ω 0,n 0 The Dirac operator (of the underlying Spin c manifold) is the assembled Dolbeault complex + : j Ω 0, 2j j 0, 2j+1 Ω The index of this operator is the arithmetic genus of M i.e. is the Euler number of the Dolbeault complex.
22 TWO POINTS OF VIEW ON SPIN c MANIFOLDS 1. Spin c is a slight strengthening of oriented. Most of the oriented manifolds that occur in practice are Spin c. 2. Spin c is much weaker than complexanalytic. BUT the assempled Dolbeault complex survives (as the Dirac operator). AND the Todd class survives. M Spin c = T d(m) H (M; Q)
23 If M is a Spin c manifold, then T d(m) is T d(m) := exp c 1(M)/2 Â(M) T d(m) H (M; Q) If M is a complexanalyic manifold, then M has Chern classes c 1, c 2,..., c n and exp c 1(M)/2 Â(M) = P T odd (c 1, c 2,..., c n )
24 WARNING!!! The Todd class of a Spin c manifold is not obtained by complexifying the tangent bundle T M of M and then applying the Todd polynomial to the Chern classes of T C M. T d(t C M) = Â(M)2 = Â(M) Â(M) Correct formula for the Todd class of a Spin c manifold M is: T d(m) := exp c 1(M)/2 Â(M) T d(m) H (M; Q)
25 SPECIAL CASE OF ATIYAHSINGER Let M be a compact evendimensional Spin c manifold without boundary. Let E be a C vector bundle on M. D E denotes the Dirac operator of M tensored with E. D E : C (M, S + E) C (M, S E) S +, (S ) are the positive (negative) spinor bundles on M. THEOREM Index(D E ) = (ch(e) T d(m))[m].
26 SPECIAL CASE OF ATIYAHSINGER Let M be a compact evendimensional Spin c manifold without boundary. Let E be a C vector bundle on M. D E denotes the Dirac operator of M tensored with E. THEOREM Index(D E ) = (ch(e) T d(m))[m]. This theorem will be proved in the next lecture as a corollary of Bott periodicity. In particular, this will prove the HirzebruchRiemannRoch theorem. Also, this will prove (for closed evendimensional Spin c manifolds) the Hirzebruch signature theorem.
27 From E 1, E 2,..., E n obtain : 1) The Dirac operator of R n 2) The Bott generator vector bundle on S n (n even) 3) The spin representation of Spin c (n)
28 W finite dimensional C vector space dim C (W ) < T : W W T Hom C (W, W ) T 2 = I = The eigenvalues of T are ± 1 W = W 1 W 1 W 1 = {v W T v = v} W 1 = {v W T v = v}
29 Bott generator vector bundle n even n = 2r S n R n+1 S n M(2 r, C) S n = {(a 1, a 2,..., a n+1 ) R n+1 a a a2 n+1 = 1} (a 1, a 2,..., a n+1 ) i(a 1 E 1 + a 2 E a n+1 E n+1 ) i = 1 (i) 2 (a 1 E 1 + a 2 E a n+1 E n+1 ) 2 = ( 1)( a 2 1 a a 2 n+1) I = I = The eigenvalues of i(a 1 E 1 + a 2 E a n+1 E n+1 ) are ± 1.
30 Bott generator vector bundle β on S n n even n = 2r β (a1,a 2,...,a n+1 ) = (+1 eigenspace of i(a 1 E 1 + a 2 E a n+1 E n+1 )) = Hom C ({v C 2r i(a 1 E 1 + a 2 E a n+1 E n+1 ) v = v}, C) K 0 (S n ) = Z Z 1 β 1 = S n C
31 Bott generator vector bundle β on S n n even n = 2r β is determined by: 1 p S n, dim C (β p ) = 2 r 1 2 ch(β)[s n ] = 1
32 n even n = 2r S n R n+1 With the Spin (or Spin c ) structure S n has as the boundary of the unit ball B n+1 of R n+1, the Spinor bundle S of S n is: S = S n C 2r The positive (negative) Spinor bundles S + (S ) are defined by : S + (a 1,a 2,...,a n+1 ) = +1 eigenspace of i(a 1E 1 +a 2 E 2 + +a n+1 E n+1 ) S (a 1,a 2,...,a n+1 ) = 1 eigenspace of i(a 1E 1 +a 2 E 2 + +a n+1 E n+1 ) S = S n C 2r = S + S β = (S + )
33 M Spin c manifold M might be nonempty T M = the tangent bundle of M Dirac operator D : C c (M, S) C c (M, S) S is the Spinor bundle C c (M, S) = {C sections with compact support of S}
34 such that D : C c (M, S) C c (M, S) (1) D is Clinear D(s 1 + s 2 ) = Ds 1 + Ds 2 s j Cc (M, S) D(λx) = λds λ C (2) If f : M C is a C function, then D(fs) = (df)s + f(ds) (3) If s j Cc (M, S) then (Ds 1 x, s 2 x) = (s 1 x, Ds 2 x)dx M (4) If dim M is even, then D is offdiagonal S = S + S M D = 0 D D + 0
35 D : C c (M, S) C c (M, S) is an elliptic firstorder differential operator. D can be viewed as an unbounded operator on the Hilbert space L 2 (M, S) (s 1, s 2 ) = M (s 1 x, s 2 x)dx D : C c (M, S) C c (M, S) is a symmetric operator
36 EXAMPLE. Let M be a compact complexanalytic manifold. The positive (negative) Spinor bundles of the underlying Spin c manifold are : S + = Λ 0, 2j TC M j S = j Λ 0, 2j+1 T C M + : C (M, j D + : C (M, S + ) C (M, S ) is Λ 0, 2j T C M) C (M, j Λ 0, 2j+1 T C M) The index of this operator is the arithmetic genus of M i.e. is the Euler number of the Dolbeault complex.
37 EXAMPLE. Let M be a compact evendimensional Spin c manifold without boundary. D + S : C (M, S + S ) C (M, S S ) is the Hirzebruch signature operator of M. If the dimension of M is divisible by 4, the index of this operator is the signature of the quadratic form H r (M; R) R H r (M, R) R n = 2r r even a b (a b)[m]
38 Example. n even n = 2r S n R n+1 D = Dirac operator of S n S = Spinor bundle of S n = S n C 2r S = S + S D : C (S n, S) C (S n, S) 0 D D = D + 0 D + : C (S n, S + ) C (S n, S ) Index (D + ) := dim C (Kernel D + ) dim C (Cokernel D + ) = 0 Theorem. Index (D + ) = 0
39 Tensor D + with the Bott generator vector bundle β D + β : C (S n, S + β) C (S n, S β) Theorem. On S n, with n even, Index(D + ) = 0 and Index (D + β ) = 1.
40 BOTT PERIODICITY Z j odd π j GL(n, C) = 0 j even j = 0, 1, 2,..., 2n 1
41 Why???? does Bott periodicity imply SPECIAL CASE OF ATIYAHSINGER Let M be a compact evendimensional Spin c manifold without boundary. Let E be a C vector bundle on M. D E denotes the Dirac operator of M tensored with E. THEOREM Index(D E ) = (ch(e) T d(m))[m]. This will be explained in the next lecture tomorrow.
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