# Simulation of Particulate Solids Processing Using Discrete Element Method Oleh Baran

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1 Simulation of Particulate Solids Processing Using Discrete Element Method Oleh Baran

2 Outline DEM overview DEM capabilities in STAR-CCM+ Particle types and injectors Contact physics Coupling to fluid flow Coupling with passive scalar Performance and scalability Simulation assistant benefits Scaled particle approach Summary 2

3 DEM for particle flow with resolved collisions DEM is applicable to solid flows When part or whole solid phase is in dense shear flow regime With particles of different shape and size distribution 3

4 DEM examples 4

5 DEM Governing Equations Momentum conservation dv i m i dt = F ij + F g + F fluid j m i and v i are mass and velocity of particle i, F g = m i g is gravity force, F ij is contact force between particle i and element j - DEM is a meshless method! - DEM is computationally intensive method! Conservation of angular momentum d dt I iω i = j i, I i and ω i are the momentum on inertia and rotational velocity of particle i. T ij = r ij (F ij + F r ) is the torque produced at the point of contact and it is the function of the rolling friction force F r T ij 5

6 DEM in STAR-CCM+ overview: Contact Forces Base model is non-linear Herz-Mindlin model Details in Di Renzo, A., & Di Maio, F. P. (2004). Comparison of contact-force models for the simulation of collisions in DEM-based granular flow codes. Chemical Engineering Science, 59, Other models available (next slide) The normal and tangential components, F n and F t,of contact force depends on overlap, particle properties Young s modulus Density Size Poisson ratio, and interaction properties, for example friction, rolling friction, restitution, etc 6

7 DEM Capabilities: Contact models Basic models Hertz-Mindlin Walton-Brawn Classical nonlinear contact force model for rigid bodies Linear model for deformable particles Friction, restitution (normal and tangential) Compression and tensile stiffnesses Optional models (for adding to basic model) Rolling Resistance Linear Cohesion Force proportional Constant Torque Displacement Damping Constant attractive force matching either JKR force or DMT model for zero overlap Set of rolling friction parameters Work of cohesion, model blending factor Artificial Viscosity Additional velocity dependent damping model Linear and Quadratic coefficients Parallel Bonds Conduction Heat 7 transfer For modelling consolidated particles For both particle-particle and particle-geometry contacts Max tensile and shear stress, Bond radius Ranz-Marshall or user set heat transfer

8 DEM- Capabilities: Particles Spherical Particle Type Composite Clumps Volumetric injection Rigid, unbreakable Flexible, breakable Random Injector: on region or Part Lattice injector: Particle Initialization Part injector: on volume cells Random injector Surface injection Surface or Part Injector: on boundary cells, or on planar grid All injectors : - ability to set particle size distributions: constant, normal, log-normal, other - ability to specify flow rate, initial velocities, orientation, etc 8

9 DEM Coupling to Fluid Flow Drag Force Drag Torque Lift Force Pressure Gradient Force Two-way coupling Other interactions Di Felice Schiller-Naumann Gidaspow (for 2-way coupling only) User defined field function With either Sommerfeld Rotational Drag or user defined rotational drag coefficient Shear Lift: Choice of Saffman, Sommerfeld, user-set coefficients Spin Lift: Choice of Sommerfeld or user-set coefficients Buoyancy force Fluid is affected by particles: Momentum source is applied to continuous phase Gravity force, User-Defined Body Force, Particle Radiation, Energy model, Passive Scalar 9

10 DEM Passive Scalar New in version 8.06 Arbitrary number of new particle properties Color Tracing subset of particles Analyzing mixing efficiency Particle residence time or displacement dead zone or risk zone analysis of granular flow Coating amount Residence time in user-defined spray zone Wetness / dryness of particles Contribution from several processes Amount of chemically active component Can interact with Eulerian passive scalar 10

11 Passive scalar for binning and mixing Source term: \$\${ParcelCentroid}[0] * \$ParticleDensity * \$TimeStep * (\$Time > 0? 0 : 1) Source term: (\$\${ParcelCentroid}[0]<0)? 0 : 1) 11

12 Passive scalar for coating applications Challenge: Improve inter-particle coating uniformity by using optimal spraying equipment settings Solution: using DEM passive scalar capability Passive scalar source: (\$\$ParcelCentroid("Cyl")[2] > 0.0 && \$\$ParcelCentroid("Cyl")[2] < 0.22 && \$\$ParcelCentroid("Cyl")[0] < *\$\$ParcelCentroid("Cyl")[2] )? 0.1*\$ParticleDensity : 0.0 Coating thickness is accumulated in spray zone Single simulation provides solution for two different spray methods 12

13 Passive scalar: Lagrangian-Eulerian coupling Example of particles in a pile releasing gas Left Inlet air flow 100 m/s, later 10 m/s Particles initialized with non-zero Particle Gas value of passive scalar φ 1 Eulerian passive scalar φ 2 has diffusion and convection on, initial value zero in all cells Volume weighted interaction model for flow rate between passive Lagrangian and Eulerian scalars: J = k ρ 1 φ 1 ρ 2 φ 2 A p here k = 0.01 is user controlled interaction coefficient, ρ 1 and ρ 2 are densities of Lagrangian and Eulerian phases, A p is the surface area of the particle 13

14 Performance and Scalability DEM timestep ~d Number of elements ρ E Max Physical time Material density of least dense phase Diameter of smallest sphere Young s Modulus of hardest particle DEM Solver Timescale Total Number of spheres Number of CPU Number of faces in mesh ρ d E Typical simulation time of Fluidized bed in version 8.02: 1 s Physical time for 28 h / 118 CPU for 1.3 millions of particles d=2 mm, ρ=2440 kg/m3, E=10 MPa Performance-improving features: Load Balancing Per-continuum parallel solver Maximum Independent Set Algorithm in injectors Skinning 14

15 Skinning Contact detection optimized New skin parameter in DEM solver the larger the skin distance, the less often neighbor lists need to be re-built, but more pairs must be checked for possible force interactions inside one neighborhood 15

16 Simulation Assistant Benefits 16

17 Scaled Particle Approach Can we use larger particles to reduce particle count without significant change in accuracy of the model? In particular for fluidized bed application? fine particles of size d 0 scaled-up particle of size d Suggested correction to Gidaspow drag coefficient C d d d 0 n C d 17

18 Fluidized bed set up J. X. Bouillard, R. W. Lyczkowski and D. Gidaspow, "Porosity Distributions in a Fluidized Bed with an Immersed Obstacle," AIChE Journal, vol. 35, no. 6, pp , Size of particles mm 18

19 Model parameters and studied configurations Material E (MPa) Poisson ρ (kg/m 3 ) Contacts Friction Restitution Particles polyester Geometry aluminum Particle-Particle Particle-Geometry Configuration Particle Number of Values of drag scaling Time to simulate 1 second size (mm) Particles exponent n No coupling DEM+CFD 1 2 1,271, h / 106 CPU 28 h / 118 CPU , h / 46 CPU 14 h / 46 CPU , , 1.935, 1.977, 5.1 h / 34 CPU 7.6 h / 34 CPU 2.016, 2.052, 2.085, , , 2.077, h / 10 CPU 7.9 h / 10 CPU 19

20 Preparing initial configurations 1. Particles poured down 2. Bulk oscillation damped 3. User Body force applied to remove particles above 28 cm Same process for each considered particle size 20

21 Pressure drop calculations Two way-coupling activated All three inlets set to have same inlet velocity Superficial velocity m/s Simulated at least 0.5 s in steady state Pressure drop recorded Same process for all 12 configurations 21

22 Pressure Drop (d=4mm) 22

23 Pressure drop analysis C d d d 0 n C d Compared to Ergun estimate for d 0 = mm particles Exponents > 2.1 correspond to fluidized state 23

24 Summary of fluidized bed study Simple power-law correction to drag force was used for scaled particles Results for pressure drop collapsed on single curve Perhaps limited for the particular choice of model parameters Low coefficient of restitution Further investigations are underway More accurate scaling can be set from force balance Sakai et. al., Study of a large scale discrete element model for fine particles in a fluidized bed, Adv. Powder Technology 23 (2012) Scaled particles can provide same pressure drop for less computation time 24

25 25 ありがとう

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