# Table of Laplacetransform

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1 Appendix Table of Laplacetransform pairs 1(t) f(s) oct), unit impulse at t = 0 a, a constant or step of magnitude a at t = 0 a s t, a ramp function e- at, an exponential function s + a sin wt, a sine fun ction cos wt, a cosine function s n! (s +a)n+! b - a sin (wt + a) (s + a)(s + b) s sin a + w cos a S2 + w 2

2 Appendix 227 cos (wt + a) e-at sin wt s cos a - w sin a S2 + w 2-- w e-at cos wt

3 Index Absolute stability, method of Routh 75 Acceleration error constant 83 Algebraic equations, properties 32 Angle criterion 110 Asymptotic approximation 147 Auxiliary equation 25 Bandwidth 168, 172, 192 Block diagram representation 57 algebra 60 closed-loop control system 58 Bode diagram 129,136,145 asymptotic approximation 147 differentiating term 146 first-order lag term 146 first-order lead term 147 gain margin 162 gain term 145 integrating term 145 phase margin 162 second-order term 147, 149 use in system synthesis 192 Boiler-turbine unit 49 Break frequency 147 Characteristic equation 24 Chemical systems 16 Class of a system 81 Classical method of solution of linear differential equations 24 Classification of systems 79 class 81 order 81 rank 81 Closed-loop control, definition 49 Closed-loop performance 163 Hall chart 1 67 M and N circles 165 Nichols chart 167 requirements 171 transient response from frequency response 163 Closed-loop system, definition historical development 2 Complementary function 24 Computer graphics 7,101,106, 124,207,211 Conditional stability 158 Conformal mapping 155,163 Conservation of mass, energy and momentum 16 Control system synthesis see Synthesis of control systems Controller gain 73 Conversational program 127 Convolution integral 55 Corner frequency 147 Cut-off frequency see Bandwidth Damped frequency 45, 140 Dampingfactor 41,89,140,171 Derivative action 93 Diagonal dominance 216 achievement of 218 Differential equations, second-order 41 Disturbances 60, 95 steady-state error 86 Electrical systems 12 Encirclement theorem 155

4 230 Index Feedforward control 205 First-order lag 87 Forward transference 81 Frequency, break 147 corner 147 cut-off 168, 172, 192 damped 45, 140 gain crossover 192 natural 44, 91, 140 of oscillation 91, 140 resonant 140, 17 I undamped natural 41, 89, 140 Frequency domain 129 Frequency of oscillation 91, 140 Frequency response 129 derivation 130 first-order system 132 graphical representation 136 interpretation in s-plane 134 second-order system 132 system synthesis 192 Gain crossover frequency 192 Gain margin 161 Bode diagram 161 Nichols diagram 162 Nyquist diagram 161 Governor system 98 Graphics terminal see Computer graphics Hall chart 167 Impulse function 56 Integral action 95 Interaction 211 diagonal dominance 216 measure of 218 Inverse-Nyquist-array technique 211, 215,216 diagonal dominance 216 achievement of 218 stability theorems 216 Inverse Nyquist diagram 172 stability criterion 172 system synthesis 203 Inverted pendulum Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws 13 Lag-lead network compensation 183 Lag-network compensation 180, 187 Laplace transformation, definition 27 differentiation 28 exponential function 3 I exponentially decaying sine function 31 impulse function 30 integration 29 inverse 27 linearity 28 ramp function 31 sine function 31 solution of linear differential equations 41 s-plane translation 30 step function 31 superposition 28 table 226 time translation 29 Lead-network compensation 177,187 Linear differential equations, solution, classical method 24 Laplace transform method 27,39 Linearisation 18 M and N circles 165 Hall chart 167 inverse Nyquist diagram 173 Nichols chart 169 system synthesis 198 Magnitude criterion 110 Mason's rule 66 Mathematical models, 39, 53 Mathematical modelling 4,58 Maximum amplitude 140, 171 Mechanical systems 5 Multivariable systems 210, 212, 213 Natural frequency 44, 91, 140 Newton's second law of motion 6 Nichols chart 169, 200 Nichols diagram 129,136,153 gain margin 162 phase margin 162 second-order lag 153 Non-minimum phase systems 144 Nyquist diagram 129, 136, 137 differentiating term 138 first-order term 139 gain margin 161 gain term 138 integrating term 138 phase margin 161

5 Index 231 Nyquist diagram (cont.) second-order term 139 stability 154 system synthesis 198 Nyquist's stability criterion 129, 157,158 inverse Nyquist diagram 172 Open-loop control 49 Open-loop system 1 Optimal control theory 211 Order of a system 81 Parallel compensation 184 Partial fraction expansion 35 equating coefficients 37 residues 36, 38 Particular integral 24 Percentage overshoot 45, 91, 171 Performance criteria 73 bandwidth 168 second-order system 90 natural frequency 91 percentage overshoot 91 predominant time constant 91 rise time 91 settling time 91 sta bility 74 Performance requirements, bandwidth 172 damping factor 171 maximum amplitude 171 percentage overshoot 171 resonant frequency 171 Phase margin 16 I Bo'de diagram 162 Nichols diagram 162 Nyquist diagram 161 Polar form 107 Polar plot 129, 136, 137 Poles 55, 106 Pole-zero configuration 106 Polynomials, roots of 32 even order 34 odd order 33 Position error constant 82 Predominant time constant 91 Pure time delay, transfer function 54 Rank of a system 81 Regulator 2, 52, 60 Relative stability 161 Resonant frequency 140, 171 Rise time 91 Root-locus method 105 angle criterion 110 definition 109 determination of transient response 120 magnitude criterion 110 rules for drawing III svstem synthesis 186 Roots of polynomials 32 even order 34 odd order 33 Routh's method 75 all-zero row 78 zero in first column 77 Rules for drawing root-locus diagram III Second-order differential equations 41 Second-order systems 89 Sensitivity of control systems 96, 172 Series compensation 177 lag-lead network 183 lag network 180 lead network 177 variable gain 177 Servomechanisms 2, 52 historical development 2 Settling time 91 Signal flow graphs 64 Mason's rule 64 Single-input single-output (SISO) systems 210 Stability, absolute 75 conditional 158 examples of 144, 153 heuristic approach 134 Nyquist diagram 154 pole-zero configuration 106 roots 27,39 transfer function 55 Steady-state analysis 79 Steady-state error, acceleration error constant 83 disturbances 8E position error constant 82 table of 84 velocity error constant 83 Steady-state gain 55 Synthesis of control systems 175 Bode diagram 192

6 232 Synthesis of control systems (cant.) feedforward control 205 frequency response method 192 inverse Nyquist diagram 203 M and N circles 198 Nichols chart 200 Nyquist diagram 198 parallel compensation 184 root-locus method 186 series compensation 177 Table of Laplace transforms 226 Tachometer 184, 204 Time constant 8, 25, 87 predominant 91 Time domain 73 Trailer suspension system model 9 Transfer function 53 definition 54 pure time delay 54 stability 55 steady-state gain 55 Transfer function matrix 212 controller 216, 218 inverse 212 Index Transient behaviour of control systems 87 addition of velocity feedback 87 derivative action 93 effect of disturbances, integral action 95 first-order systems 87 second-order systems 89 Transient response 87 determination from frequency response 163 determination from root-locus diagram 120 Undamped natural frequency 41, 89, 140 Variable gain compensation 177 Velocity error constant 83 Velocity feedback 92, 184, 204 Weighting function 56 Zeros 55, 106