Enhanced Energy Confinement Discharges with Lmodelike Edge Particle Transport*


 Elmer Bryant
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1 Enhanced Energy Confinement Discharges with Lmodelike Edge Particle Transport* E. Marmar, B. Lipschultz, A. Dominguez, M. Greenwald, N. Howard, A. Hubbard, J. Hughes, B. LaBombard, R. McDermott, M. Reinke, J. Rice, D. Whyte, MITPSFC, C. Kessel, PPPL Phenomenology of Imode Access conditions Energy and particle confinement properties Parametric dependences of I to Hmode threshold Pedestal properties Kinetic profiles Edge fluctuations Radial electric field Core rotation Stationary conditions *Supported by DoE awards DEFC299ER54512 and DEAC276CH373 51st APSDPP November 29 GO4.2
2 Imode: Hmode Energy Confinement, Lmode Particle Confinement Obtained with unfavorable drift (high LH thresholds)* Globally, the regime is characterized by high energy confinement, often matching H mode scaling (H 98y2 ~1.) But, no particle barrier or impurity accumulation With cryopumping, density can be controlled at the level of the ohmic target P rad stays very low. Does not require recent boronization Compatible with low Z impurity seeding *See Ryter, et al., PPCF 4(1998) B=5.6 T, I p =1.2 MA, q 95 =3.3 τ 1 E / τ ITER98Y2.5 Te (kev) n e (1 2 m 3 ) L T e Pedestal (kev) <P> (atmosphere) ICRF Input Power (MW) DD Fusion Rate (1 14 /s) 6 4 Radiated Power (MW) Time (s) I H (ELMfree)
3 Parameter scans revealing operational space for Imode Confinement quality improves at highest pressures (power, current) But need to stay out of H mode (density barrier) With unfavorable drift, H mode threshold appears highest with a combination of Low q 95 (<3.5) Strong shaping Role of density less clear Cryopumping key to density control Exploration of lower density targets will be subject of upcoming studies <P> (bar) MA H 98 =1 1. MA.8 MA <P> [H 98 =1] (bar) H 98 =.8
4 Parameter scans revealing operational space for Imode Confinement quality improves at highest pressures (power, current) But need to stay out of Hmode (density barrier) With unfavorable drift, Hmode threshold appears highest with a combination of Low q 95 (<3.5) Strong shaping As high as 3x the ITER scaling for threshold with normal drift Role of density less clear Cryopumping key to density control Exploration of lower density targets will be subject of upcoming studies H threshold vs q 95
5 Edge/Pedestal Density and Magnetics Fluctuations in L, I and Hmode L I H Ohmic L Frequency (khz) Reflectometer f = 88 GHz Time (s) Lmode: broadband fluctuations (5 2 khz) drive energy and particle transport Imode: broad band reduced, ~2 khz appears; particle transport similar to L, energy transport suppressed ELMfree Hmode: ~2 khz also gone, impurity accumulation
6 Edge/Pedestal Density and Magnetics Fluctuations in L, I and Hmode L I H Ohmic L Frequency (khz) Reflectometer f = 88 GHz Time (s) Lmode: broadband fluctuations (5 2 khz) drive energy and particle transport Imode: broad band reduced, ~2 khz appears; particle transport similar to L, energy transport suppressed ELMfree Hmode: ~2 khz also gone, impurity accumulation
7 Edge/Pedestal Density and Magnetics Fluctuations in L, I and Hmode L I H Ohmic L Frequency (khz) Reflectometer f = 88 GHz Time (s) Lmode: broadband fluctuations (5 2 khz) drive energy and particle transport Imode: broad band reduced, ~2 khz appears; particle transport similar to L, energy transport suppressed ELMfree Hmode: ~2 khz also gone, impurity accumulation A. Dominguez, G4.12
8 Direct Impurity Measurements Confirm Imode Particle Confinement Laser blowoff system used to inject CaF 2 Calcium evolution followed with X ray crystal spectroscopy Imode has impurity confinement of L mode, energy confinement of H mode Lmode EDA Hmode Imode N. Howard, PP8.11
9 Strong Temperature Pedestal Develops with Significant E r Shear Temperature at the top of the pedestal approaches that seen in our best Hmodes Density remains flat n* ped ~.1 SOL density significantly higher than in Hmodes Good news for divertor power handling E r well develops About ½ the strength of Hmode ne (12 m3) Te (kev) Hmode (ELMfree) Imode Lmode Hmode (ELMfree) Imode Lmode Distance from Last Closed Flux Surface (mm) J.W. Hughes BI3.4
10 Strong Temperature Pedestal Develops with Significant E r Shear Temperature at the top of the pedestal approaches that seen in our best Hmodes Density remains flat n* ped ~.1 SOL density significantly higher than in Hmodes Good news for divertor power handling E r well develops About ½ the strength of Hmode Er (kv/m) Imode Hmode (EDA) Lmode Distance from LCFS (cm) * R.M. McDermott, et al., Phys. Plasmas 16(29)5613 Separatrix
11 Core intrinsic rotation in Imode similar to that in L and Hmode Intrinsic core toroidal rotation proportional to Pressure/I p * Dimensionless parameters: Mach number, β N For Imode, rotation follows the same scaling ΔM i L & Hmode Imode *J. Rice, et al., PPCF 5(28) Δβ N
12 Imode can be sustained in stationary state Power level kept just below the Hmode threshold Imode maintained for length of ICRF pulse Up to 2 τ E, multiple resistive skin times B=5. T, I p =.8 MA, q 95 =4.38, H 98 =.9 4 T () (kev) e 2 1 n (1 2 m 3 ) e Radiated Power (MW) ICRF Power (MW) Time (s)
13 Summary Imode combines many desirable confinement properties Edge energy barrier, Hmode τ E, Lmode τ P Compatible with (even prefers) low collisionality edge No need for ELMs Divertor power handling Broad scrapeoff layer density profile Compatible with lowz seeding Further study of the regime should shed light on barrier physics, including the Hmode What keeps the Imode plasma from forming a particle barrier? Application to future devices (including ITER) Significant advantages warrant investigation into the possibilities
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