which, in my humble Opinion, I shall l a y down the general pri nciples, or fund amental truths,

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4 L E CT U R E. L A D I E 3 A"D G E "TL E "E " A nxious to embrace any opportunity of using my fe ebl e efforts the promotion 1n of science and letters I have cheer full y accepted an invit ation to lecture before you o n this o c cas I much fear however that presumption r ather than ion. knowledge h guided me in the choice as of my subject. S hould this prove to be the case I must humbly beseech y our kind indulgence. My studies a n d pursuits have chiefly been linguistical. many years past I have almost exclusively devoted my "or attention to the modern langu ages an d especi ally to the Spanish my ative I h ave therefore been able to n tongue. comm and but little time Phrenology fo r an d yet this is the subject which I h ave selected for your ente r t ainment thi s eve n ing. My object will not be to m ake believers or followers of this science but merely to draw attention to a subject which in my humble Opinion is of the highest impo r t ance in all o ur religious mor al an d social rel ations. For the sake of perspicuity and methodical arrangement I sh all divide my subject into three parts. In the first I shall l a y down the general pri nciples or fund amental truths of In the second I sh all point out the cerebral Phrenology. o r gans through which the mind acts and their respective local i ti es as they are externally manifested in the human In skull. the third an d l ast I shall endeavour to explai the various n mental functions of these organs. P "O O H R E L G " L adies an d Gentlemen should be c on sid ered as a mass of facts concerning mind from which general principles be an d are "iewed th 1s light c an 1n established. there will not be room for the caviller to impugn deny for or all discussion and m debate. a y be obvi ated by an appeal to facts. Neither shall we ab andon Phrenology merely because i t may happen to cl ash wi th some favorite theory of ours. This mode of proceeding will also fasten o ur attention solely on facts and if what we di scover be really facts an d our fa

5 i s t h e br ai n a n d the skull. 6. v or ite theory whether religious moral or political b e really correct they must necess arily be in harmon y ; for al l tr uth emanates from G od an d God cannot be i nconsistent. By mi n d is understood that which us hopes in fears loves h ates in short that which i n us ceives thinks per an d feels. Whether this be the effect of a purely spiritual e s s nce or the result solely e of physical organization i t i s not the province of Phrenology to investig ate much less to de Phrenology nothing to do with the has ess ence of termine. mind it only collects facts concerning the ma n if es t ati on s of mind connected as with the U pon these facts which brain. constitute Phrenology there are established three great fun d ame n t al principles as the origin o r b asis of all phrenologic al doctrines. The first of these principles or general truths is th at th e mi n d a ct s thr ou g h t h e br a i n. The secon d is th at th e mi n d em p l o y s va r i ousl y d ifl'er en t p or ti on s o f th e br ai n. A nd the third an d last i s that si ze o f br ai n i s a chief ele men t o f men t al p ow er. That the mind acts through the brain or which is the same 1 appears from thin that the brain organ or m achinery g is the of the mind a n d demonstration which senses o u r evidence c an ot A n i njury n of the brain al w ays inv ari ably repel. without exception is accomp anied by a correspon dent aff e c t ion of the mind. I f the brain be influenced by an y n arcoti c by alcohol the mind p artakes of o r an d m an the s ame ifests in fluenc Fever e s o r a blow the he ad " o n s a D Neil r. y3_ Arnott will ch ange the most gi fted individual into a m an i ac causing the lips of virgin i ocence to utter the most revolt nn ing obscenity and those of p u re religion speak t o th most e horrible blasphemy and most cases ; of m adness an d e c c e n t r icit y can now be tr aced to a peculi ar state of the brain. " The common sense of m ankind has pl aced in the he ad ] L the operations of mind. In all the l anguages with which I a m ac q u ain t ed n ot even excepting loc al dialects we fin d 8 3 s pressions equiv alent t o " numbskull " " headed " " addle thick- p ated " " b adly furnished in the upper and ma n y other s of the sam e import used to design ate stupid p ersons. On the other hand individu als possessed of un c ommon m ental p ow "uoted fr om Co mn n s " Sy ste m of Ph r e n olo g y p. 0. Bo to s n ed. 8v o. t Hea d th u s u s ed m e a n s al w ay s th e i n side a n d o uts ide of it th at

6 7 are sai e r s d t have plenty of o b to be headed to rains strong- have a farge h eafd fi a T he fact s which support this first p r in ci p l e ' df Phrenology are so numerous obvious that is scarcely now s o there an anatomist a phy or siologist of any note who does not admit i Indeed it is revea t. l ed to us by own nsciousness our co b own erception of the There is not among y o ur p o n e fact. who will u s not perceive that i t is i n his he ad and not in any other part of his body that the phenomena of thought and feeling tak e pl ace if he will pay attention to it. Where is it but in the head an d not i n the arms o r the limbs or an y other portion of o ur body th at th e pain of fatigue is felt whe n o u r mind has been tasked to excess " What was it but the conscious perception of the operations of mind being i n the head that made the young "rench poet A n dr es as he was o n the scaffold to be guillotined strike his forehead and - ex claim Ah there was something here " What a pity to die so young T he irresistible evidence of nu mberless facts and ou r own consciousness therefore establish the first fundamental prin c i p l e of Phrenology namely that th e b r ai n i s the or g a n o f t h e mi n d at least in this our sublunary world. Some individuals impressed with the b elief that th e mi n d soul i s identic al and unch angeable in every individu al dis or card Phrenology because say they It leads to est ablish the d octrine th at men s souls are di " Phrenology fferent. disclaims having any such tendencies because as I have ob served before it has nothing to d with the but mere o esse n ce l and solely with the y ma n ifesta ti of Th at these on s mind. manifestation are different i n diffe s r ent persons and in the same p e r s oh i different ages n an d conditions is a fact which irresistibly forces itself upo n our ' senses at every moment of o ur e x1st e n c e. Be it granted however that the mind or soul is in e s Sence identical in every indivi dual whatever h e the age or c ondition. D oes i t hence follo w that its manifest ations connected as they are with physical organization " m ust also be i dentic al " Not at all. T he fre q uent comparison of t he human brai n to s team m achin er yj' will serve fo r an illustra tion to show th at such a conclusion would be untenable. r s ed. " "OL TA I R E C h ar l e s X l l Beh. 1 Ch l ar e s t h e X I I c. w alled a s " t h e I -h r on ead S ] p s a th at ys 8mo.. es o " b ai r n o r cab eza h e ad " i s mor e ofte n us ed i n S p an i sh to d esign ate mi n d th a n t h e wor d m in d it s elf. 1 Th e fir st tim e ho wever th at I r e ad this a pp r o p r i ate a n d e xact simil e

7 through the nose it hears through the auditory nerves. 8 We all know that the propelling power of a steam vessel is in the steam and yet what e ve r b the essence quan tity e or qualit y of this power i t will alw ays be m ani fested in precise accordance with the machinery through which it acts. Inso muc h had an that if all the ste ambo ats which n ow ply upon the waters equal quantity an d qu ality of s t e am their pro elling pow p ers would be different if their mac hin ery were differen t. "ust so in regard to the mind an d the brain. E ven if it h ad pleased Almighty Wisdom to h ave endued all human be ings wi th equal minds h aving connected them with a ent brain differ ment al m achinery i n every indivi du al they would appear o r as variously m anifested as there are human beings in cre ation. But this is not Phrenology because Phrenology deals with facts alone an d not hypotheses. And I merely mention this to remove scruples from certain individuals at le ast so far as to induce them not to abandon Phrenology until they have examined its pri nciples an d ar e able t o appreciate its tenden cies which they ma y find as others have found conduci ve to man fs religious moral social and intellectual improvement. It is a s econ d p r i n ci p l e of Phrenolo g y that the mind in its operations does not employ the whole entire brai n i n every act but that fo r every on e of its faculties it employs a di ffer ent portion of the brain. In other words the mind hopes through one portion o f the brain thinks through another fe ars through a third in the s ame m anner as it sees through the eyes i t smells T his princi ple has been ass ailed with m any sh afts of ridi cule an d it h as often b ee n the subject of much discussion and deb ate. I sh all therefore la y before your consi deration a gre ater amount of those facts and that evidence upon which i t is e st abl ishe d t han w ould otherwise be allo wed by the nat i r o w limits to which I must confine this address. That the brain is complex that i t is a congeries of organs designed for the performance of different functions appe ars from i ts external configuration. U nless w e c an deny the e v i dence of our senses we must n ecessarily con fess that the b ase of the brain as you perceive by this cast " is as dif fe r e n t from its top the frontal from its occi pit al region as the chin is di fferent fro m the lips or the mo n th from the w a s m C A L D W E L L ' S Though t s o n t s mal E d uc a t m n. " Bo sto n e d. 8v c. I t h i n k th at 1t i s o r igi n al i n th a t ge n tle m a n. This book sho u ld be r e ad a n d r ecomme n ded by eve r y on e w h o h as m h is h e ar t t he de si r e of i m p r ovi ng a n d s p r e ad m g h a ppi n e s s amo n g m a n ki n d. Th e l ectu r e r e xh ib 1t 1 n g t he cast of a h um an b r ai n.

8 9 ehe eks. Will b u y o ne sa y without denyi ng the evide n ce of sight that this portion of the brain " destructivene ss" is equal to this "benevolence" o r that t h ese convolutions " l angu age weight color form " are like this m ass " the cerebellum " I m possible. I f therefore by a slight inspection we s e e as m uch va r iety i n the external form of the brain as we do i n th e external form of the face will not the conclusion that the brai n is designed for different functions as the face is be irresistible I know not what others ma y think for my part I think it m ust. Besides the evi dence of our senses analogy harmony our own consciousness and the appearance of m any diseased men tal phenomena establish the s ame principle that the brain i s a series of organs and that the mind employs them vari ousl for the perform ance y of i t s functions. All anim al creation affords a standing proof th at dis o n e ti nc t function is performed by distinct organ o n e ; a n d that if the function be complex the organ is also If complex. hati ng therefore be different from lovi g h ping fro n 0 m fe aring we must naturally suppose th at nature which is al ways invari ably consistent will perform those diff eren t func tion through the instrumentality s of d ifferent organs. Parti al genius dreaming monomania p artial idiocy the successive appearance of mental powers in man could not exist unless the mind acted through 'a variety of organs. If we thought through the s ame organ by which w e feel an d produce musi c i t would follow as an inevit able con sequence that gre at power of thought would alw ays be ao companied by great musical t alent which every on e knows is not the case. This observation is applic able to every other mental faculty. If dreaming be the awakened action of some mental powers while others cannot be exercised as its nature imports it ' follows that the brain m ust be capable of being aw ake and asleep active an d inactive at and the same time which o n e could not possibly be the case unless i t were com plex unless i were a compound t of I say nothing in regard to the parts. other mental phenomena because it i s self- evident that they c o uld not exist were the brain single To attempt on e unit. to prove example that monomania which is the fact of for or more mental faculties being diseased while others are on e perfectly he althy presupposes the existence of more than one mental organ would be worse than useless. Be s ides we n eed not. 2 go beyond ourselve s in search of

9 1 0 positive proof to support the principle i question Our n. own consciousness reve als i t to When e us. n gaged in deep m edi we feel t at that the brain in the up ion p er region of the fore head is i action A t least I n am conscious of it and I h ave. heard fifty other persons s a y th at they also were conscious of it. E ven the external appearance which the forehead assumes these occasions is such that the least observant o n i ndividu al i stinctively would n ask us What are you think in g a bout Our own consciousness will also reveal to us that when we e arnestly examining some objects or ende avour ar e t o disclose some n e w qualities i n them by repe ated intense e f forts of perception t he eye the eye brows an d the brain l ing inside this region contract themselves g ather force y an d seem to be under the influence of impelled action. A ll this becomes extern ally so evident the lower portion of fore o u r he ad expresses so vividly what p asses in mi nds th at o ur b y standers will ask us not as the former occ asion What on are you thinking abou t " but " What are you looking at " Wh at are you observing It is ho wever in c ases where the brain h been p artially as injured that the doctrine of a plurality of mental organs forces itself irresi s tibly upon us. Well authentic ated examples of this n ature i I shall however men tion ar e nnumerable. only three which can be easily substantiated by an y person i this assembly n. Not long since while a young l ady in the c ity of "e w "ork w hastily going from room into another she as o n e struck her head against a n ail. The pl ace injured h appened to be that i n which phrenologists locate the organ of ma r vel l Sc arcely had the accident occ urred o us n e s s o r wonder. when the young l ady began see ph antoms and various t o a p p a her mind i n other respects remaining entirely r itio n s u nimp aired. T he attend ant physici an derived i n this c ase great benefit from a knowledge of Phrenolog y. By it he w as enabled to establish in her mind the belief through the medi u m of her sound reasoning faculties which he addressed that those visions were not real but the mere result of organic disorder. This impression greatly tranquillized the young lady an d was of immense aid in her recovery. The celebrated preacher and divine Alexander Camp Mr. b ell said a fe w months since th at once after gre at m en tal efforts he felt a p ain i n and behind the superciliary ridge as i f occasioned by a determin ation of blood to that region. A s soon as this occ urred the memory of names entirely d is a p

10 l l p e ar ed the other of d remaining so healthy faculties his min and soun d at the same time that he coolly reasoned his on n e w and as he t hob g ht extraordinary He condition. c eived medical aid r e an d he could plai nly perceive that i n proportio n as the pai n was dis appearing the memory of n ames returned until i t was completely restored. " Since that time " added he I have been a con vert to the general pri ncipl es of But the case which h as struck me with peculiar force an d afforded to my mind irresistible proof of the truth of Phr e n ol o gy i that of an insane patient now at the State s L unatic Hospital at Worcester in His n ame i s Massachusetts. T imothy T illson a native of Boston. The first time I s aw him he was playing on the flute. I thought I neve r heard such exquisite musi c produced by that instrument. "e t " sai d D r. Woodward the able i ntelligent and benevolent supe r intendent of the Hospital " he is a complete maniac. " Now i t is plain that if the ' min d acted through the whole brai n every operation these phenomena could not t ake in place for i t would be impossi ; b le that o n e single u n c om pound organ should be a w ake and asleep active an d in ac tive developed and undeveloped healthy and diseased at one. an d the same time. When such facts and convictions as these are presented before us what else can We say but that i t h ple ased Divine Wisdom as t o con n ect va r ious f a cu lti es o f th e mi n d wi th va r i ous p o r ti on s o f th e br a i an d th at it de n serves pity o ur an d commiseration to see this great this miraculous workmanship of our Creator denied and vilified by ridicule fallacy ignorance or misrepresentation I shall not d well long on the third and what may be called the last gre at fundamental principle of Phrenology namely that si ze o f br a in i s a chi ef el emen t o f me n t a l p o w er b e cause i ts truth i s irresistible either to external or internal our If two planks being in all respects alike except senses. size be presented to us we shall at once pronounce that to be the stronger which is the But if of o n e larger. on e the planks be oak wood an d the other pine i t will also be self evident th at size in this case cannot be offered a - as standard o f co m parison because the substances are d i fferent. o I I m a n ot h a v e u s e d t he ve r y wor d s of "r. Cam p bell b ut wh at I sa y i s th e s ubsta n ce a n d s pir it of wh at h e p u blicl y r el ated.

11 thirty- five organs may be cl assed into th r ee gre at divisions 12 Be i t always remembered therefore that in comparing power th rough size all other conditions m ust be e q ual. T his self- evident truth once est ablished i t is clear that a mind a mental faculty or wh i ch G od h connected as with a sm all brain or a small portion of brain must be more feebly developed than another which has a large brain or portion of brain to operate with provided permit me to repeat th at in every other respect beside size the brains or portion s of b rain are perfectly equal. Size must never be considered as the sole criterion of ower. "arious other properties must be taken i nto account. ment al m anifestations texture fn of brain an d qu ality of temperament gre at elements modifiers ar e or of power a n d i f in estim ates o ur of character we do n o t take them into consideration decisions will very seldom be co o ur r rect. I h ave not time at present t enter into has it o n or been my design to explain fully this interesting portion of Phrenology. But I c annot le ave it without repe ating the w arning against considering size as the only element o r ia d ic atio n of power i n object an an d especi ally in the hu ma n For comparatively sm all brain a m a and frequ ently y brain. does manifest more ment al power th an a comp aratively large i f other conditions besides size favorable to pow o n e er an d activity in i t better Phrenology has ar e developed. suffered much from friends and foes m any wrong estimates of character which h ave produced sneers an d ridicu l e h ave been given by disregarding the all - im portant consideration that size of brain is but one element of ment al power." I shall now proceed to point ou t the cerebral organs through which the mind acts an d their respective localities as externally manifested i n the human skull. Facts and not an reasoning y a p r i o r i of which p hr en olo gists have been very seldom guilty prove that the org ans through which the m ind acts ar e a few over thirty - fiv e. But have been discovered thirty- fiv e an d wi th the excepti on of two three are now considered as fully established These o r. and sin: subdivisions which plan I shall follow for the s ake o f brevity and simplicity absol utely required by the nature of this lecture. T he three great distinctive orders of the facultie s of our m ind Pe r son s i n te r e sted in thi s s ub j ect m a y co n s ult G A L L s Or g a n o l ogy sl ated tr a n f om Bosto r t he "r e n n e d ch.. l 2m o. 6 vols. C Ph olo r e n g y "i dic ated " n i n t h e An n al of Ph s r e n olo " gy C oma x ' s S y stem of olog Phr e n y al r e ad y q uo ted p 6. e t se q. A L D W E L L s Ar t. 1

12 1 3 have b een disti ngui shed b y th e n ames of mor al i n t ell ect ual and a n ima l. T hese divisions exactly correspond with the upper the frontal an d the basilar portions of the I n brain. order t be plain and perspicuous o permit me to sa y i n other words that the mi nd performs its moral functions through the t o p o f the brai it manifests its intellectual powers through n the ontal fr regio n of the brain and shows animal passions its through the basis and back of the brai n. By crossing a string a handkerchief a tape made or for the purpose aroun d t he head in this ma nn er " over coneen t r at iv e n e s s cautiousness ideality and reflective intellect " we shall d iscover the moral division of the br ain ; it consists of all the space abo've the line described by the string. The portion of head lying under the string fr om th e t em p l es f o r w a r ds contains the intelle'ctual division and from the temples b a ckw a r d s the anim al. T he rel ative size of these three portions of the head the top the frontal an d the basis and b ack all other con dition s being equal will indicate what ment al order of fac ul ties preponderates in the individual examined. I r e p e a t if all other conditions size excepted be equal ; because i n cases of monomani a of gre at continued exertion of o n e por tion of the brai n and inactivity of anoth er on e organ or set of organs may i n th e s a me h ea d evince more or less power depending on conditions which have no relation with size. I wish t o be explici t ; on e brain may n ot only differ from another brain in texture in fineness of fibre in activity on account of temperament and other causes but portion of o n e t he s a me b r ai n m a y differ from another portion if not in these i n other properties in which case size affords no in dex to the phrenologist the deduction for of mental power even in the same It is difii c ul t to discover any individual. difference of size in arms and yet owing to ascertained o ur n atur al c auses the l eft ' i ight handed n r - persons i s al w ays we aker than the right. I do n o t s a y th is to discour age per sons from studying Phrenology ; but merely t o ' in d uc e them to be cautious in their ex amination of heads and to refrain from forming opinion s of character an d talents by taking size of brain alone into consideration. L e t them rem ember tha t a brain individu ally considered is uniform in the qualities of its org ans except size as a general rule onl y and n ot as an oc currence which t akes place in var ab l y and without exception. It ma y b e use ful to observe that the three great divisions of cerebral organs the moral the intellectual and the ani mal - may b e divi ded into six clas se s or clusters namely

13 p u r zhe im s and more tha n S p ur zh eim s t h e Ch r is ti a n r eli g ion is on e of i ts l e adi n gob j ects. 1 4 the moral the regulating the percepti ve the reflective the domestic an d the animal. A knowledge of the locality of these subdivisions clusters will greatly aid in or y o u asc e r taining the locality of the individual organs of which these clusters are composed ; and will tend to accustom you to pay attention rather to large portions of the brain than to in dividu al organs an i nvalu able h abi t for forming correct esti mates of ch aracter an d talents by an inspection of the head. The portion of brain which the mind employs to manifest the perceptive faculties li es beh ind the lower forehead or t eyes he an d the superciliary The upp er forehead is ridge. employed the reflective m The top fo r b f t h anifestations. e he ad excluding th e summit are t h moral The e organs. cluster formed in and around the summit constitutes the regulating. T he domestic feelings are m anifested through the occipital back part o r of the head the ani m al purely o r anim al organs lie in the b asis of the brain from the temple backwards up to the place where the h e ad turns i n. T he relative size o f these portions of he ad all other things being equal will indicate the relative degree of their ment al power. None of these localities been established has a p r io r i they ; are e ach and all the result of a multitud e of facts which the n ature of this lecture does not allow me ti me even t o men T hey are however recorded in books they appear tion. before us every moment i n n T hose among who ature. y ou feel interested in the subject m a y gr atify their curiosity an d remove their doubts if they h ave an by re ading the Organ y ology " of Gall l ately translated into E nglish an d published i n this country decidedly the best book upon Ph enology which r c a n be studied.. S the celebrated George Combe s writings should be read an d I would also recommend Th e A mer i ca n Phr o learned. " n ol o g i ca l "ou r n al published at Philadelphia monthly at cheap price of t w doll ars a A ll these works are o the year. full of sound doctrine sound morality " n a y of sound r e l i g io n. They will be found to contain perhaps the only r ational system of Mental Philosophy extant ; at least the only system founded o n positive knowledge an d univers al observation. O Co ma n ' s Co n s t it ut io n o f "a n a n d Co ms n ' s "or a l Phi los o p h y a r e t h e be st books u po n mo r als th a t h ave ev e r be e n w r itte n. Th e fl mer i ca n P h r en ol o g i ca l "ou r n a l 18 avowedly E va n g e h c al ; a n d th e s u pp o r t of

14 I 5 I have com e to the n ow last part of my subject amely n the explanation of the mental functions performed through the material or g ans the localities of which I have just e u d e av ou r ed to point out. Want of t ime however compels me to li mi t myself to the three great divisions the moral the intellectual an d the ani m Perh al. this mode of proceeding aps in a general lecture this dealing in prominent points only is the best plan which can be followed to impart some information. If so ; I do not regret that at present I can not enter into details. But to the subject. Man was evidently created to know i n this world the oh j e c t and their relations by s which he w surrounded to act as for the purpose of satisfying present and selfish wants and of ministering to future an d universal h In other appiness. words m is a being m ade to know act for an t o himself an d for others for the present and the We express this future. fold ature by s aying that man is a moral intel three- n an lectual and animal an being. A s a mor a l b'eing man stands preeminent i n creation. He governs his ani mal propensities and directs his ac tions to ends of future and general good. All inferior animals are exclusively created with a "iew to present and i ndividual gratification only ; man lives at present as con n e c t ed with a hereafter ; enjoys selfish pleasures as con n e c t ed with the pleasures o f others. U ntil m an made his appearance the improving powers of cre a tion were in themselves totally blind or selfish ; they consisted in purely physic al and animal action guided no doubt by Almighty Wisdom to ends of univ e rsal h a pp m e s s. But on m an the Creator conferred powers and feelings that went beyond hims elf l and the present time ; thus enduing this f a vori te creature w ith a portion of that regulating conduct for gen er a l an d future good which up to that time at least as f ar as this pl anet is concerned God h ad exclusively kep t to himself. This regul ating guiding power the origin of all hum a n government this desire for the improve ment of our future condition individually an d for that of others gener a lly is the function of o ur moral nature ; i t i s the operation of o ur mind acting through the upper p or t l on of the brain. Permi t me therefore clearly and distinctly to repeat that the function of the moral organs is to form a salutary check to a n i mal passio n s and to i mpel us to act for

15 1 6 future an d u ni versal good. With the moral oi g an s are al ways included the religious. Man is natur ally a religious as well as a moral being. And if I do not now point o ut among ' the moral organs those which constitute the religious also and explain their functions i t is because I have not time to enter into details. Be i t constantly remembered however that when I speak of the moral portion of man I universally include in it the religious. As an i n t ell ectu a l being man becomes ac q uainted with himself and surrounding nature together with the laws by which they Inferior an im als perceive objects ar e governed. as they aff ect them individual ly a t the present time man per them as they affect c eiv es hi m and oth now and here er s after. He observes and sees results and ; all this is accomplished through the instrumentality of the frontal p tion or of the brain. Before the creation of m an G od did every thing the fo r beings which ten anted the earth. They lived exclusively in the external condition which had been prepared fo r them. Herbivorous an i m als appeared only in prairies a n d verdan t meadows the carnivorous were only t found in places o be where other animals had bee n anteriorly cre ated for their sup They lived and moved port. an d died w ithout any knowl edge of themselves and their ends an d therefore without any willing traces of their Guided by E ternal existence. Wisdom they no doubt as Geolo y g h recently proved as prepared the way for future more complic ated more m ulti form higher beings but they served this divine purpose ind i r ec tl blindly un consciously they could either modify y - n extern al circumstances to harmonize better with th eir cond i tion nor could they modify their condition t o ad apt it t o n e w or modified external circumstances. "an by the power of his intellect can to a very great extent accomplish all this. By the knowledge which b e oh tains of definite constant unchange able results he so ws to reap he modifies all climates he sh apes his cond uct and p r e pares himself fo r known future events which he comm ands at will ; he can change fo r the better the whole face of the earth ; and he obeys in short with enlightened and well d irected eflor ts our Creator s eternal and universal law I"P RO"E "E "T. Phrenology havin g demonstrated what commo n sense has always perceived that man is possessed of moral an d ia

16 1 7 t ellec t ual faculties which to a certain extent enable him to follo w or resist desire to produce or avoid results will put an en d to that question about free agency an d fat a lism o r l 1b e r t and necessity upo which thousands y n of volumes have been written and printed and which has divided and still continues to divide the m inds of men. Phrenology will show that man is not omni potent that is that he is not ah s ol ut el y and unreservedly a free agent as some e agerly c o n tend nor altogether an d entirely under i n e vr t ab necessity le as others warmly maint ain but that to a certain extent he is both a free agent and a being subject to fat alism. By his intellectual powers man sees that he can ac c om p l i sh some actions an d not ot h ers that he can avoid o r r e si" t some results and not others. It is therefore self- evident that we are free agents i n so far as we can accomplish i a so far as we c an avoid and that we are under i nevitable n e e c e s sit y i n so far as w e cannot accomplish i n so far as we cannot avoid o r resist. In a healthy ondi tion and under extern al restraints c n o we can for a given time move or not move heads arms o ur legs we can direct or ; ment al powers as as they o ur far can go to this to that objec o r t because in these c ases we power ; have the the free a ency so to On the other or g do. hand w are doomed or fated to walk upon the earth and e not to fly with wings like birds in the to s wi m like fish air o r i n the sea ; we are doomed to be b u rned if we fall into th e fire dro wned if we fall into the w ater because in these o r cases we have no po wer to perform Our liberty o r avoid. free agency is therefore in ex act ratio with knowledge o r ou r and power and b fat alism or necessity with ignorance ur o ur an d i n c a p a c r t y. In proportion as we sh all become more extensive l acqu ainted with the l aws of nature y and obtain more power we shall i ncrease free agency and diminish our o u r fatalism. But a fe w ye ars since and man was destined not to travel at a greater con tinued rate of speed than eight or ten miles an hour now he can travel at t rate of fifty or sixty miles he an hour if need From ti me immemori al he has been be. subje c t destined to suffer the action of storms at sea ; from all appearances his fatalism i n this respect will soon give w a y u nder the powerful influence of intellect and his free agency obtai n soon a complete mastery over the tempest the Had an d civilized man against the laws of hurricane. his M ker which compel him to exercise his intellect said a " E ffort useless is though t is of avail do what - n o I 3

17 1 8 ma y I cannot increase speed or foil the storm " the mighty wonders of ste am the greatest triumph of human power would have never been achieved ; and the hopes the for tunes and the lives of thousands of huma n beings would h ave annu ally for ever continued to be buried i n the deep. "o r my p art I c annot see h o w on the o n e h and we should be as we are able to ac t or not t o ac t at Will w e should be as w e are impelled to prepare future results b y o ur present conduct an d o n the other that we should have no option that every efl e c t should be pre- ordained whatever ef fort w e ruade wh atever conduct w e follo wed. I f it be s aid that God is omniscient that as such he must know all things present an d future that to know them he must h ave created them beforehand and that consequently m an can have no agency no effect o n their essence o r ar rangement I shall respectfully answer tha t we kn ow by our o w experience th at man n h po wer to a certain extent a s over himself extern al objects an d results both i n presen t an d future This w know by the experi enc e e of all o ur time. senses and i t is therefore a self evident - truth as useless to prove as i t is impossible to refute. And indeed were it n ot so For wh at purpose would the Creator have granted us moral a n d reasoning faculties desires that impel and check eac h other kno wledge of results and powers of directing and sha p ing our conduct to chosen ends H o w on the one hand from the attributes which w e con c eiv e in the Almighty h e should know all things before hand and yet on the other man should possess pow er t o produce o r avoid present an d future results th at is to give o r to withhold existence is a mystery fo r which perh aps reasoning faculti es in their present state cannot o ur account. A nd yet if w consider that man well as the rest e as of creation i s guided by l aws framed by Almighty Wisdom at the beginning for all eternity God s omniscience an d m an s limited free agency " may n ot appear contradictory. It ma y be argued also that the constitution of is m an definite that his powers are d etermined limited and th at ; therefore results existence which he can create are the or also limited and determined i n other words ordain ed pre-. But this is the doctrine of the existence of eternal la ws taught by Phrenology as well common sense an d it sup as p orts what I h ave advanced It maintains that free gency. a m man is determined and limited which i s precisely wh a t I Th at i s fr ee ag e ncy s ub j ect to t h e W 1I1 of G od a s m a n i f e st e d i n t h e p r e - or d ame d l a w s o r t he g ov er n me n t of t h e u n iv e r se.

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19 20 As an a n i ma l being man entirely partakes Of the nature o f the lower creatures. L ike them he i s impelled moved ; dragged to presen t and selfish gratific ation. U nconscious of any Other ob j ec t but self of any other existence but the p resent f ction They a. these animal org ans Operate only for individual sa us have not i n themselves any check govern o r ment but s atiety o r over - action which once removed by a period o f repose they crave with rene wed appetite and r e d o ubled fury. G uided by them alone man is a cre ature of p a ssion of i m p e r fe c t instinct of blind i mpulse. He sees no consequences he reg ards no persons he commits demon - like actions. But dre ad ful as the consequences ar e of these an i m al propensities when unrestrained o r misguided if they come i n cont act with proper checks they produce the most. active pleasures which are given to us to enjoy an d exci te to action o u r moral feelings a nd mental powers. A t o o feeble developement of the anim al instincts would render m an as u n fit fo r action a n d happinesss as a t oo feeble developement of the moral sentiments would render him unjust a n d selfish. Hence the i mportance the high import ance of a fair d e v eio p eme n t of the three orders of mental fac ul ties the moral and the intellectu al preponderating. From the which I have made of the functions exposition of the cerebral organs as cl assed into three great division s will be substanti ally deduced Fi rst that man is impelled by ani mal appetites to present an d selfish g r atific atio n s. Secondly that he is moved by moral desires to d good o t o Others a n d t o A nd Thirdly that he contem c an posterity. plate by intellectu al powers these opposed tendencies an d predict results. Such is m an. A being composed of clash ing elements with intellect to enlighten hi m. Now i t is evident that these constituents as m a y be an d frequently are different in different men according to the size an d quality o f the portions of brain through which they m anifested our motives a r e an d actions must be That unlike. this is c ase the w cannot avoid feeling and seeing at every e moment of We find o u r o n e m more anim l an existence. a another more moral a third more One is more intellectual. less subject to ment al combats o r t etern al w arrings to o in decision Of ch aracter the as an t a g rm organs is t ic of his mind are more or less i n e q u ilibr i m A second is more or less d e c ided to a course o f conduct good bad as the upper lower o r o r regions of his he ad preponderate. A third is extr a ordin a ry for the m ighty conceptions and bold and rapid energy of his min d toward s what is good an d great thus becoming the a d

20 2 1 m ir ation o f presen t an d future generations on account of possessing a l arge and well- balanced brain of fine t e xt ur e an d of superior quality i n every other respec t All how m e n ever have by the clashing tendencies Of t h ei nature more r o r less power over themselves and as far as this power ex ten ds they can improve they can direct. their c on d uct t o good ends. Beings have who not this power at all. who are tirely en an d completely deprived of moral feeling and reflecti g n in t ellect belong n ot to the human species. y his moral B desires an d reasoning faculties an d by no others does man feel and see that this world been created in harmony has n o t with selfish but wi th universal s and that it happines is 'his duty as as he has the power to direct his actions far t end o. that. And here is the origin whatever port ion of brai n pre our ponderates of tha t enlightened strug g le of that ill umined effort which more less all human beings conscious o r ar e of making o r of feeling that they ought to m ake t direct o their conduct to higher objects to more exalted views than the m ere selfish gratification of the anim al propensities. Were man all animal desire he would be deprived of those exciting an d controlling feelings Of those checks an d bal an ces of those mental warrings of those powers of government and selection which n o w c o n s tit ut e ' h is nature. He would then like the inferior creatures be solely impelled and guided by blind p erfect instinct b inevit y. able necessity that is by God s providence. But n ow his moral nature and intellectual n ature form I h ave frequently stated before an enlightened direct as ing check to his i m anim al propensiti es as well an p erfect as impelling pr ' inci ple towards virtue and as as they go man far i s constituted his ow m aster n his own agent ; - f urther he is left in th hands e of his Maker if you choose so to or express it of his fate. In regard to the great variety in size and quality of the differ ent portions of brai i n different individuals i t can only be n said th at he whose intellectual an d moral regions greatly pre ponderate will need no extern al monitor to ap riz him p e of the duty o f improving and g uiding himself to higher and high er His animal passions will b checked e an d well ends. guided without He w ill be a law unto effort. himself. Per h ps however a man thus constituted may be too indifferent a to self he ; m a y possess too little of the animal ature i n n which case extern al circum stances will arise which will im pel him to excite and put in more activ e operation his selfish organ s or suffer for being too good to Others and n ot good

21 22 enough to The wicked absolutely selfish man himself. or will excite his better portion to renewed efforts of i mprove ment by the misery which he will bring upon hi mself and oth ers by the res traints of society or by other extern al checks. The poor deluded h civilized human creature will be ad alf- monished to improve to accomplish better deeds by his phys ic al sufferings and by the terrors which his blin d moral por tion will perhaps cre So all hum an beings see and feel to ate. a certain extent if they are re ally hum an beings i n a he althy condition either by the workings of their minds the o wn o r checks of extern al circumstances that they must i m p r ove that they must check and guide their animal propensities or as they are termed their evil passions an d aim at greater moral and intellectu al excellence at deeds more worthy of them selves and their God. I f there be human beings i n whom the perceptions of wrong either n aturally through dise ase or are too feeble for them to live at l arge in a society of higher a n d better gifted individuals without being gre atly injurious they must be checked considered insane and pl aced i n a as confined condition which will be in harmony wi th their o r g a n iza tion. Why is i t that the Almighty h as n ot created y man a ever Washington and every wom an Isabella Why is i t an that every man and every are not possessed woman of p er f ect instincts of moral feelings and intellectual po wers just i n that preponderating proportion which would render effort unnecess ary wrong unknown ment al misery unfelt These a r e questions which we cannot solve which we have no or to solve. We mu st study man as he has been created ; g an izat io n created by supremely perfect wisdom for supremely perfect ends with imperfect but improving elements with liabilities to sink into vice but with po wers to walk in the p ath of recti tude with tendencies to suffer misery but with c apacities t seek and o enjoy present and future h appiness. But Religion as well as Philosophy shows that v i rt ue an d happiness not vice an d misery were the object of the A l mighty ia the creation of man. Religion as well as Phil os o phy shows th at virtue and h appiness consist in obeying as far as we the laws which God has established the physi c an for c al and moral government of the un iverse and that therefore it becomes most imperative duty to discover these laws our I s a bel l a " Bo ston "ol cha " S e e th at m as te r piece of hi sto r ic w r iti n g Pa n s c o r ' r s "er di n a n d a nd p pp

22 t hey will soon cease to crave. In t his satiated condition 23 ti hat we m ay ac t in accordanc e with the will of our Heavenly ather. Phrenology explains the laws which govern mind here b e low - mind as it exist s i n o ur ' p r es en t condition connected wi th matter. Without a knowledge of i t therefore we r e main to a very great extent ignorant of the manner in which we ought to act i n the most important occa s ions of o ur lives to en sure n o w and hereafter happiness to ourselves and others. Take marri age for Without a knowledg of example. e Phrenology wi thout knowing that G od has by an eternal unchange able decree ord ained that man c an ohl be virtuous y an d happy by tisf s a y i n g t em p er a t el y a n d h a r mon i ousl y a ll hi s d esi we r es m a enter into that condition and reap from it y ourselves an d communicate transmit to others or affl iction and m isery instead of gratification and S uppos e per a joy. s o n i n fl ue n c e d only by love of the beautiful an d love of prop e t ty disregards the cr avings of the rem aining thirty- three mental instincts an d forms a m atrimonial c on n exioh with an indivi dual beautiful and rich indeed but incapable of grati fying the other organs. Ideality and acquisitiveness will no doubt " luxuriate for a while but like hunger surrounded by d ainties benevolence attachment int e llect self esteem will cry aloud - for satisfaction an d if inste ad of finding i n the individual with who m we have connected ourselves for life the proper quali ties to appease the cravin s of these other m ental appetites we only find there g principles levity ignorance an d immor a u n di g n ified deportment what a h arvest of affliction and misery we sh all reap notwithstanding the transcenden t beauty an d i mmens e property of o ur partner On the other hand i f we marry chiefly with a vie w to satisfy wh at is termed p ure disinterested love an d even all o ur moral sentimen t s but disregard acquisitiveness and the sense of thus becoming blind to the known laws of physic al existence and transmission neither the most exquisite the most r e fined satisfaction of all our affections nor the most sublime and heaven- like enjoyment of all.our virtuous c ravings will m a ke up fo r the miseries i of want or the p angs created by a deformed sickly half - sta r ved suffering progeny. B y s en s e o f f e eli stood th at ality n g is u n de r q of u t h d m e min or e n tal o by r tr a n w hich m ad w e a r e e s e n of sible t h e phy sical ch pl a n ge s e a s u r able o r b p a in f ul i n ou r body. The di scove r y of thi s. p r g a n w a s m ad e by Dr. B uch a n a n a yo u n g Am e r ican of tal e nts a n d u n t m n g ze al e xcl u s ively d e vot ed to t h e scie n ce of Ph r e n ology.

23 24 As this principle is of univer s al application I might m ul t i p l y without end examples in i llustration of it. The on e offered m a y su ffice for the present. We may smile o r we m a y be serious when we he ar of man s possessing thirty- five organs and of his h aving various clashing opposed and an t a g o n desires but it will nevertheless be cert ain that the istic greater n umber of them we s atisfy in an action the more relig ious moral h appy we are and shall be as far as that action is concerned and the fewer we gratify the more vicious im moral a n d miserable. With a kno wledge of Phrenology we shall be certain th at i n marri age or in any other action not but o n e all organs must be satisfied temperately o ur an d i n proportion and that therefore we must study not only d ue the n ature of the action in all bearings but also ou its r sel ves as connected with that action w e When shal l b certai. e n that our anim al p assions well as intellectual powers an d a s o ur moral feelings will all be by that action tem perately and harmoniously gratified then and ; n ot till then sh all we be certain that we are right then and not till then shall we be é e r tain th at we obey the l aws of God. And here in conclusion permit me to observe that power of acting establishes duty of perfor m I f i t ha s pleased ance. Infinite Wisdom to bestow upon us animal instincts moral sentiments and intellectual powers and to place us in a sphere where these capacities can find ample scope for action an d guidance as all the facts which constitute the sciences Of G e ology Physiology an d Phrenology prove we in duty ar e bound to give them well regulated We c an exercise. as moral and intellectual beings results an d be anxious discern to act for the general If do not use efforts so to we o ur good. do as far as in us lies the power we are responsible to G od and man for our neglect an d for all the evil us and to to Oth ers which shall arise from i t. He who acts n ow without connecting his wi th inevitable p r es en t action its fut ur e r esult and without ascertaining far as i t is in his power to ascertain as t hat t will be for present as well as future for indi he r esu lt vidu al well as general happiness acts as n ot like a m and an clearly transgresses the laws of God which have given him the power and therefore m ade it his duty to use effort s to become more and more virtuous useful and happy.