# ELEMENTARY LINEAR ALGEBRA

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1 ELEMENTARY LINEAR ALGEBRA K R MATTHEWS DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND First Printing, 99

2 Chapter LINEAR EQUATIONS Introduction to linear equations A linear equation in n unknowns x, x,, x n is an equation of the form a x + a x + + a n x n = b, where a, a,, a n, b are given real numbers For example, with x and y instead of x and x, the linear equation x + 3y = 6 describes the line passing through the points (3, 0) and (0, ) Similarly, with x, y and z instead of x, x and x 3, the linear equation x + 3y + 4z = describes the plane passing through the points (6, 0, 0), (0, 4, 0), (0, 0, 3) A system of m linear equations in n unknowns x, x,, x n is a family of linear equations a x + a x + + a n x n = b a x + a x + + a n x n = b a m x + a m x + + a mn x n = b m We wish to determine if such a system has a solution, that is to find out if there exist numbers x, x,, x n which satisfy each of the equations simultaneously We say that the system is consistent if it has a solution Otherwise the system is called inconsistent

3 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS Note that the above system can be written concisely as The matrix n a ij x j = b i, i =,,, m j= a a a n a a a n a m a m a mn is called the coefficient matrix of the system, while the matrix a a a n b a a a n b a m a m a mn b m is called the augmented matrix of the system Geometrically, solving a system of linear equations in two (or three) unknowns is equivalent to determining whether or not a family of lines (or planes) has a common point of intersection EXAMPLE Solve the equation x + 3y = 6 Solution The equation x + 3y = 6 is equivalent to x = 6 3y or x = 3 3 y, where y is arbitrary So there are infinitely many solutions EXAMPLE Solve the system x + y + z = x y + z = 0 Solution We subtract the second equation from the first, to get y = and y = Then x = y z = z, where z is arbitrary Again there are infinitely many solutions EXAMPLE 3 Find a polynomial of the form y = a 0 +a x+a x +a 3 x 3 which passes through the points ( 3, ), (, ), (, 5), (, )

4 INTRODUCTION TO LINEAR EQUATIONS 3 Solution When x has the values 3,,,, then y takes corresponding values,, 5, and we get four equations in the unknowns a 0, a, a, a 3 : a 0 3a + 9a 7a 3 = a 0 a + a a 3 = a 0 + a + a + a 3 = 5 a 0 + a + 4a + 8a 3 = This system has the unique solution a 0 = 93/0, a = /0, a = 3/0, a 3 = 4/0 So the required polynomial is y = x 3 0 x 4 0 x3 In [6, pages there are examples of systems of linear equations which arise from simple electrical networks using Kirchhoff s laws for electrical circuits Solving a system consisting of a single linear equation is easy However if we are dealing with two or more equations, it is desirable to have a systematic method of determining if the system is consistent and to find all solutions Instead of restricting ourselves to linear equations with rational or real coefficients, our theory goes over to the more general case where the coefficients belong to an arbitrary field A field F is a set F which possesses operations of addition and multiplication which satisfy the familiar rules of rational arithmetic There are ten basic properties that a field must have: THE FIELD AXIOMS (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) for all a, b, c in F ; (ab)c = a(bc) for all a, b, c in F ; 3 a + b = b + a for all a, b in F ; 4 ab = ba for all a, b in F ; 5 there exists an element 0 in F such that 0 + a = a for all a in F ; 6 there exists an element in F such that a = a for all a in F ;

5 4 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS 7 to every a in F, there corresponds an additive inverse a in F, satisfying a + ( a) = 0; 8 to every non zero a in F, there corresponds a multiplicative inverse a in F, satisfying aa = ; 9 a(b + c) = ab + ac for all a, b, c in F ; 0 0 With standard definitions such as a b = a + ( b) and a b = ab for b 0, we have the following familiar rules: (a + b) = ( a) + ( b), (ab) = a b ; ( a) = a, (a ) = a; (a b) = b a, ( a b ) = b a ; a b + c d a c b d = ac bd ; ab ac ad + bc = ; bd = b c, a ( b ) = ac b ; c (ab) = ( a)b = a( b); ( a ) b = a b = a b ; 0a = 0; ( a) = (a ) Fields which have only finitely many elements are of great interest in many parts of mathematics and its applications, for example to coding theory It is easy to construct fields containing exactly p elements, where p is a prime number First we must explain the idea of modular addition and modular multiplication If a is an integer, we define a (mod p) to be the least remainder on dividing a by p: That is, if a = bp + r, where b and r are integers and 0 r < p, then a (mod p) = r For example, (mod ) =, 3 (mod 3) = 0, 5 (mod 3) =

6 INTRODUCTION TO LINEAR EQUATIONS 5 Then addition and multiplication mod p are defined by a b = (a + b) (mod p) a b = (ab) (mod p) For example, with p = 7, we have 3 4 = 7 (mod 7) = 0 and 3 5 = 5 (mod 7) = Here are the complete addition and multiplication tables mod 7: If we now let Z p = {0,,, p }, then it can be proved that Z p forms a field under the operations of modular addition and multiplication mod p For example, the additive inverse of 3 in Z 7 is 4, so we write 3 = 4 when calculating in Z 7 Also the multiplicative inverse of 3 in Z 7 is 5, so we write 3 = 5 when calculating in Z 7 In practice, we write a b and a b as a + b and ab or a b when dealing with linear equations over Z p The simplest field is Z, which consists of two elements 0, with addition satisfying + = 0 So in Z, = and the arithmetic involved in solving equations over Z is very simple EXAMPLE 4 Solve the following system over Z : x + y + z = 0 x + z = Solution We add the first equation to the second to get y = Then x = z = + z, with z arbitrary Hence the solutions are (x, y, z) = (,, 0) and (0,, ) We use Q and R to denote the fields of rational and real numbers, respectively Unless otherwise stated, the field used will be Q

7 6 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS Solving linear equations We show how to solve any system of linear equations over an arbitrary field, using the GAUSS JORDAN algorithm We first need to define some terms DEFINITION (Row echelon form) A matrix is in row echelon form if (i) all zero rows (if any) are at the bottom of the matrix and (ii) if two successive rows are non zero, the second row starts with more zeros than the first (moving from left to right) For example, the matrix is in row echelon form, whereas the matrix is not in row echelon form The zero matrix of any size is always in row echelon form DEFINITION (Reduced row echelon form) A matrix is in reduced row echelon form if it is in row echelon form, the leading (leftmost non zero) entry in each non zero row is, 3 all other elements of the column in which the leading entry occurs are zeros For example the matrices [ 0 0 and

8 SOLVING LINEAR EQUATIONS 7 are in reduced row echelon form, whereas the matrices and are not in reduced row echelon form, but are in row echelon form The zero matrix of any size is always in reduced row echelon form Notation If a matrix is in reduced row echelon form, it is useful to denote the column numbers in which the leading entries occur, by c, c,, c r, with the remaining column numbers being denoted by c r+,, c n, where r is the number of non zero rows For example, in the 4 6 matrix above, we have r = 3, c =, c = 4, c 3 = 5, c 4 =, c 5 = 3, c 6 = 6 The following operations are the ones used on systems of linear equations and do not change the solutions DEFINITION 3 (Elementary row operations) There are three types of elementary row operations that can be performed on matrices: Interchanging two rows: R i R j interchanges rows i and j Multiplying a row by a non zero scalar: R i tr i multiplies row i by the non zero scalar t 3 Adding a multiple of one row to another row: R j R j + tr i adds t times row i to row j DEFINITION 4 [Row equivalencematrix A is row equivalent to matrix B if B is obtained from A by a sequence of elementary row operations EXAMPLE Working from left to right, 0 A = R R + R 3 0 R R 3 R R = B

9 8 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS Thus A is row equivalent to B Clearly B is also row equivalent to A, by performing the inverse row operations R R, R R 3, R R R 3 on B It is not difficult to prove that if A and B are row equivalent augmented matrices of two systems of linear equations, then the two systems have the same solution sets a solution of the one system is a solution of the other For example the systems whose augmented matrices are A and B in the above example are respectively x + y = 0 x + y = x y = and x + 4y = 0 x y = 4x y = 5 and these systems have precisely the same solutions 3 The Gauss Jordan algorithm We now describe the GAUSS JORDAN ALGORITHM This is a process which starts with a given matrix A and produces a matrix B in reduced row echelon form, which is row equivalent to A If A is the augmented matrix of a system of linear equations, then B will be a much simpler matrix than A from which the consistency or inconsistency of the corresponding system is immediately apparent and in fact the complete solution of the system can be read off STEP Find the first non zero column moving from left to right, (column c ) and select a non zero entry from this column By interchanging rows, if necessary, ensure that the first entry in this column is non zero Multiply row by the multiplicative inverse of a c thereby converting a c to For each non zero element a ic, i >, (if any) in column c, add a ic times row to row i, thereby ensuring that all elements in column c, apart from the first, are zero STEP If the matrix obtained at Step has its nd,, mth rows all zero, the matrix is in reduced row echelon form Otherwise suppose that the first column which has a non zero element in the rows below the first is column c Then c < c By interchanging rows below the first, if necessary, ensure that a c is non zero Then convert a c to and by adding suitable multiples of row to the remaing rows, where necessary, ensure that all remaining elements in column c are zero

10 4 SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 9 The process is repeated and will eventually stop after r steps, either because we run out of rows, or because we run out of non zero columns In general, the final matrix will be in reduced row echelon form and will have r non zero rows, with leading entries in columns c,, c r, respectively EXAMPLE R R R 4 R R 3 5 R 3 R R R 3 R 3 5R { R R + R R 3 R 3 4R R R 5 R 3 The last matrix is in reduced row echelon form REMARK 3 It is possible to show that a given matrix over an arbitrary field is row equivalent to precisely one matrix which is in reduced row echelon form A flow chart for the Gauss Jordan algorithm, based on [, page 83 is presented in figure below 4 Systematic solution of linear systems Suppose a system of m linear equations in n unknowns x,, x n has augmented matrix A and that A is row equivalent to a matrix B which is in reduced row echelon form, via the Gauss Jordan algorithm Then A and B are m (n + ) Suppose that B has r non zero rows and that the leading entry in row i occurs in column number c i, for i r Then c < c <, < c r n +

11 0 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS START Input A, m, n i =, j = Are the elements in the jth column on and below the ith row all zero? No Let a pj be the first non zero element in column j on or below the ith row j = j + Yes Is j = n? No Yes Is p = i? Yes No Interchange the pth and ith rows Divide the ith row by a ij Subtract a qj times the ith row from the qth row for for q =,, m (q i) Set c i = j i = i + j = j + No No Is j = n? Is i = m? Yes Yes Print A, c,, c i STOP Figure : Gauss Jordan algorithm

12 4 SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS Also assume that the remaining column numbers are c r+,, c n+, where c r+ < c r+ < < c n n + Case : c r = n + The system is inconsistent For the last non zero row of B is [0, 0,, and the corresponding equation is 0x + 0x + + 0x n =, which has no solutions Consequently the original system has no solutions Case : c r n The system of equations corresponding to the non zero rows of B is consistent First notice that r n here If r = n, then c =, c =,, c n = n and 0 0 d 0 0 d B = 0 0 d n There is a unique solution x = d, x = d,, x n = d n If r < n, there will be more than one solution (infinitely many if the field is infinite) For all solutions are obtained by taking the unknowns x c,, x cr as dependent unknowns and using the r equations corresponding to the non zero rows of B to express these unknowns in terms of the remaining independent unknowns x cr+,, x cn, which can take on arbitrary values: x c = b n+ b cr+ x cr+ b cn x cn x cr = b r n+ b rcr+ x cr+ b rcn x cn In particular, taking x cr+ = 0,, x cn = 0 and x cn = 0, respectively, produces at least two solutions EXAMPLE 4 Solve the system x + y = 0 x y = 4x + y =

13 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS Solution The augmented matrix of the system is 0 A = 4 which is row equivalent to B = We read off the unique solution x =, y = (Here n =, r =, c =, c = Also c r = c = < 3 = n + and r = n) EXAMPLE 4 Solve the system x + x x 3 = 5 7x + 7x + x 3 = 0 5x + 5x x 3 = 5 Solution The augmented matrix is 5 A = which is row equivalent to B = We read off inconsistency for the original system (Here n = 3, r = 3, c =, c = 3 Also c r = c 3 = 4 = n + ) EXAMPLE 43 Solve the system x x + x 3 = x + x x 3 =

14 4 SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 3 Solution The augmented matrix is [ A = which is row equivalent to B = [ The complete solution is x = 3, x = + x 3, with x 3 arbitrary (Here n = 3, r =, c =, c = Also c r = c = < 4 = n + and r < n) EXAMPLE 44 Solve the system 6x 3 + x 4 4x 5 8x 6 = 8 3x 3 + x 4 x 5 4x 6 = 4 x 3x + x 3 + 4x 4 7x 5 + x 6 = Solution The augmented matrix is 6x 9x + x 4 9x 5 + 3x 6 = A = which is row equivalent to B = The complete solution is x = x 6 x x 5, x 3 = x x 5, x 6 = 4, with x, x 4, x 5 arbitrary (Here n = 6, r = 3, c =, c = 3, c 3 = 6; c r = c 3 = 6 < 7 = n + ; r < n)

15 4 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS EXAMPLE 45 Find the rational number t for which the following system is consistent and solve the system for this value of t x + y = x y = 0 3x y = t Solution The augmented matrix of the system is A = 0 3 t which is row equivalent to the simpler matrix B = t Hence if t the system is inconsistent If t = the system is consistent and B = We read off the solution x =, y = EXAMPLE 46 For which rationals a and b does the following system have (i) no solution, (ii) a unique solution, (iii) infinitely many solutions? x y + 3z = 4 x 3y + az = 5 3x 4y + 5z = b Solution The augmented matrix of the system is 3 4 A = 3 a b

16 4 SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF LINEAR SYSTEMS 5 { R R R R 3 R 3 3R R 3 R 3 R a b a a + 8 b 6 = B Case a 4 Then a and we see that B can be reduced to a matrix of the form 0 0 u 0 0 v b a+8 and we have the unique solution x = u, y = v, z = (b 6)/( a + 8) Case a = 4 Then B = b 6 If b 6 we get no solution, whereas if b = 6 then B = 0 3 R R + R 0 3 We read off the complete solution x = + z, y = 3 + z, with z arbitrary EXAMPLE 47 Find the reduced row echelon form of the following matrix over Z 3 : [ 0 Hence solve the system over Z 3 Solution x + y + z = x + y + z = 0

17 6 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS [ 0 R R [ 0 [ [ R R R = 0 0 [ 0 0 R R + R 0 The last matrix is in reduced row echelon form To solve the system of equations whose augmented matrix is the given matrix over Z 3, we see from the reduced row echelon form that x = and y = z = + z, where z = 0,, Hence there are three solutions to the given system of linear equations: (x, y, z) = (,, 0), (, 0, ) and (,, ) 5 Homogeneous systems A system of homogeneous linear equations is a system of the form a x + a x + + a n x n = 0 a x + a x + + a n x n = 0 a m x + a m x + + a mn x n = 0 Such a system is always consistent as x = 0,, x n = 0 is a solution This solution is called the trivial solution Any other solution is called a non trivial solution For example the homogeneous system x y = 0 x + y = 0 has only the trivial solution, whereas the homogeneous system x y + z = 0 x + y + z = 0 has the complete solution x = z, y = 0, z arbitrary In particular, taking z = gives the non trivial solution x =, y = 0, z = There is simple but fundamental theorem concerning homogeneous systems THEOREM 5 A homogeneous system of m linear equations in n unknowns always has a non trivial solution if m < n

18 6 PROBLEMS 7 Proof Suppose that m < n and that the coefficient matrix of the system is row equivalent to B, a matrix in reduced row echelon form Let r be the number of non zero rows in B Then r m < n and hence n r > 0 and so the number n r of arbitrary unknowns is in fact positive Taking one of these unknowns to be gives a non trivial solution REMARK 5 Let two systems of homogeneous equations in n unknowns have coefficient matrices A and B, respectively If each row of B is a linear combination of the rows of A (ie a sum of multiples of the rows of A) and each row of A is a linear combination of the rows of B, then it is easy to prove that the two systems have identical solutions The converse is true, but is not easy to prove Similarly if A and B have the same reduced row echelon form, apart from possibly zero rows, then the two systems have identical solutions and conversely There is a similar situation in the case of two systems of linear equations (not necessarily homogeneous), with the proviso that in the statement of the converse, the extra condition that both the systems are consistent, is needed 6 PROBLEMS Which of the following matrices of rationals is in reduced row echelon form? (a) (b) (c) (d) (g) (e) [Answers: (a), (e), (g) (f) Find reduced row echelon forms which are row equivalent to the following matrices: [ [ (a) (b) (c) 0 (d)

19 8 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS [Answers: (a) [ (b) [ (c) (d) Solve the following systems of linear equations by reducing the augmented matrix to reduced row echelon form: (a) x + y + z = (b) x + x x 3 + x 4 = 0 x + 3y z = 8 3x x + 7x 3 + 4x 4 = x y z = 8 5x + 3x 5x 3 6x 4 = 9 (c) 3x y + 7z = 0 (d) x + 3x 3 4x 4 = x y + 4z = x 3 + 3x 4 = 4 x y + z = x + x 5x 3 + x 4 = 4 6x 4y + 0z = 3 x 6x 3 + 9x 4 = 7 [Answers: (a) x = 3, y = 9 4, z = 4 ; (b) inconsistent; (c) x = 3z, y = 3 z, with z arbitrary; (d) x = 9 9x 4, x = x 4, x 3 = 3 x 4, with x 4 arbitrary 4 Show that the following system is consistent if and only if c = a 3b and solve the system in this case x y + 3z = a 3x + y 5z = b 5x 5y + z = c [Answer: x = a+b 5 + 3a+b 5z, y = z, with z arbitrary 5 Find the value of t for which the following system is consistent and solve the system for this value of t x + y = tx + y = t ( + t)x + y = 3 [Answer: t = ; x =, y = 0

20 6 PROBLEMS 9 6 Solve the homogeneous system 3x + x + x 3 + x 4 = 0 x 3x + x 3 + x 4 = 0 x + x 3x 3 + x 4 = 0 x + x + x 3 3x 4 = 0 [Answer: x = x = x 3 = x 4, with x 4 arbitrary 7 For which rational numbers λ does the homogeneous system x + (λ 3)y = 0 (λ 3)x + y = 0 have a non trivial solution? [Answer: λ =, 4 8 Solve the homogeneous system 3x + x + x 3 + x 4 = 0 5x x + x 3 x 4 = 0 [Answer: x = 4 x 3, x = 4 x 3 x 4, with x 3 and x 4 arbitrary 9 Let A be the coefficient matrix of the following homogeneous system of n equations in n unknowns: ( n)x + x + + x n = 0 x + ( n)x + + x n = 0 = 0 x + x + + ( n)x n = 0 Find the reduced row echelon form of A and hence, or otherwise, prove that the solution of the above system is x = x = = x n, with x n arbitrary [ a b 0 Let A = be a matrix over a field F Prove that A is row c d [ 0 equivalent to if ad bc 0, but is row equivalent to a matrix 0 whose second row is zero, if ad bc = 0

21 0 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS For which rational numbers a does the following system have (i) no solutions (ii) exactly one solution (iii) infinitely many solutions? x + y 3z = 4 3x y + 5z = 4x + y + (a 4)z = a + [Answer: a = 4, no solution; a = 4, infinitely many solutions; a ±4, exactly one solution Solve the following system of homogeneous equations over Z : x + x 3 + x 5 = 0 x + x 4 + x 5 = 0 x + x + x 3 + x 4 = 0 x 3 + x 4 = 0 [Answer: x = x = x 4 + x 5, x 3 = x 4, with x 4 and x 5 arbitrary elements of Z 3 Solve the following systems of linear equations over Z 5 : (a) x + y + 3z = 4 (b) x + y + 3z = 4 4x + y + 4z = 4x + y + 4z = 3x + y + z = 0 x + y = 3 [Answer: (a) x =, y =, z = 0; (b) x = + z, y = + 3z, with z an arbitrary element of Z 5 4 If (α,, α n ) and (β,, β n ) are solutions of a system of linear equations, prove that is also a solution (( t)α + tβ,, ( t)α n + tβ n ) 5 If (α,, α n ) is a solution of a system of linear equations, prove that the complete solution is given by x = α + y,, x n = α n + y n, where (y,, y n ) is the general solution of the associated homogeneous system

22 6 PROBLEMS 6 Find the values of a and b for which the following system is consistent Also find the complete solution when a = b = x + y z + w = ax + y + z + w = b 3x + y + aw = + a [Answer: a or a = = b; x = z, y = 3z w, with z, w arbitrary 7 Let F = {0,, a, b} be a field consisting of 4 elements (a) Determine the addition and multiplication tables of F (Hint: Prove that the elements + 0, +, + a, + b are distinct and deduce that = 0; then deduce that + = 0) (b) A matrix A, whose elements belong to F, is defined by A = a b a a b b a prove that the reduced row echelon form of A is given by the matrix B = 0 0 b 0 0,

23 CHAPTER LINEAR EQUATIONS

24 Chapter MATRICES Matrix arithmetic A matrix over a field F is a rectangular array of elements from F The symbol M m n (F ) denotes the collection of all m n matrices over F Matrices will usually be denoted by capital letters and the equation A = [a ij means that the element in the i th row and j th column of the matrix A equals a ij It is also occasionally convenient to write a ij = (A) ij For the present, all matrices will have rational entries, unless otherwise stated EXAMPLE The formula a ij = /(i + j) for i 3, j 4 defines a 3 4 matrix A = [a ij, namely A = DEFINITION (Equality of matrices) Matrices A and B are said to be equal if A and B have the same size and corresponding elements are equal; that is A and B M m n (F ) and A = [a ij, B = [b ij, with a ij = b ij for i m, j n DEFINITION (Addition of matrices) Let A = [a ij and B = [b ij be of the same size Then A + B is the matrix obtained by adding corresponding elements of A and B; that is A + B = [a ij + [b ij = [a ij + b ij 3

25 4 CHAPTER MATRICES DEFINITION 3 (Scalar multiple of a matrix) Let A = [a ij and t F (that is t is a scalar) Then ta is the matrix obtained by multiplying all elements of A by t; that is ta = t[a ij = [ta ij DEFINITION 4 (Additive inverse of a matrix) Let A = [a ij Then A is the matrix obtained by replacing the elements of A by their additive inverses; that is A = [a ij = [ a ij DEFINITION 5 (Subtraction of matrices) Matrix subtraction is defined for two matrices A = [a ij and B = [b ij of the same size, in the usual way; that is A B = [a ij [b ij = [a ij b ij DEFINITION 6 (The zero matrix) For each m, n the matrix in M m n (F ), all of whose elements are zero, is called the zero matrix (of size m n) and is denoted by the symbol 0 The matrix operations of addition, scalar multiplication, additive inverse and subtraction satisfy the usual laws of arithmetic (In what follows, s and t will be arbitrary scalars and A, B, C are matrices of the same size) (A + B) + C = A + (B + C); A + B = B + A; A = A; 4 A + ( A) = 0; 5 (s + t)a = sa + ta, (s t)a = sa ta; 6 t(a + B) = ta + tb, t(a B) = ta tb; 7 s(ta) = (st)a; 8 A = A, 0A = 0, ( )A = A; 9 ta = 0 t = 0 or A = 0 Other similar properties will be used when needed

26 MATRIX ARITHMETIC 5 DEFINITION 7 (Matrix product) Let A = [a ij be a matrix of size m n and B = [b jk be a matrix of size n p; (that is the number of columns of A equals the number of rows of B) Then AB is the m p matrix C = [c ik whose (i, k) th element is defined by the formula n c ik = a ij b jk = a i b k + + a in b nk EXAMPLE j= [ [ [ [ = = [ [ [ [ [ = ; [ [ [ = ; [ 3 4 [ = [ ; 5 [ [ [ 0 0 = 0 0 Matrix multiplication obeys many of the familiar laws of arithmetic apart from the commutative law (AB)C = A(BC) if A, B, C are m n, n p, p q, respectively; t(ab) = (ta)b = A(tB), A( B) = ( A)B = (AB); 3 (A + B)C = AC + BC if A and B are m n and C is n p; 4 D(A + B) = DA + DB if A and B are m n and D is p m We prove the associative law only: First observe that (AB)C and A(BC) are both of size m q Let A = [a ij, B = [b jk, C = [c kl Then p p n ((AB)C) il = (AB) ik c kl = a ij b jk c kl = k= p k= j= n a ij b jk c kl k= j= ;

27 6 CHAPTER MATRICES Similarly (A(BC)) il = n j= k= p a ij b jk c kl However the double summations are equal For sums of the form n p p n and j= k= d jk k= j= represent the sum of the np elements of the rectangular array [d jk, by rows and by columns, respectively Consequently ((AB)C) il = (A(BC)) il for i m, l q Hence (AB)C = A(BC) d jk The system of m linear equations in n unknowns a x + a x + + a n x n = b a x + a x + + a n x n = b a m x + a m x + + a mn x n = b m is equivalent to a single matrix equation a a a n x a a a n x = a m a m a mn x n that is AX = B, where A = [a ij is the coefficient matrix of the system, x b x b X = is the vector of unknowns and B = is the vector of x n constants Another useful matrix equation equivalent to the above system of linear equations is x a a a m + x a a a m + + x n a n a n a mn b b b m b m, = b b b m

28 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS 7 EXAMPLE 3 The system is equivalent to the matrix equation and to the equation x [ [ [ + y x + y + z = x y + z = 0 x y z = [ + z Linear transformations [ 0 = [ 0 An n dimensional column vector is an n matrix over F The collection of all n dimensional column vectors is denoted by F n Every matrix is associated with an important type of function called a linear transformation DEFINITION (Linear transformation) With A M m n (F ), we associate the function T A : F n F m defined by T A (X) = AX for all X F n More explicitly, using components, the above function takes the form y = a x + a x + + a n x n y = a x + a x + + a n x n y m = a m x + a m x + + a mn x n, where y, y,, y m are the components of the column vector T A (X) The function just defined has the property that T A (sx + ty ) = st A (X) + tt A (Y ) () for all s, t F and all n dimensional column vectors X, Y For T A (sx + ty ) = A(sX + ty ) = s(ax) + t(ay ) = st A (X) + tt A (Y )

29 8 CHAPTER MATRICES REMARK It is easy to prove that if T : F n F m is a function satisfying equation, then T = T A, where A is the m n matrix whose columns are T (E ),, T (E n ), respectively, where E,, E n are the n dimensional unit vectors defined by E = 0 0,, E n = One well known example of a linear transformation arises from rotating the (x, y) plane in -dimensional Euclidean space, anticlockwise through θ radians Here a point (x, y) will be transformed into the point (x, y ), where x = x cos θ y sin θ y = x sin θ + y cos θ In 3 dimensional Euclidean space, the equations 0 0 x = x cos θ y sin θ, y = x sin θ + y cos θ, z = z; x = x, y = y cos φ z sin φ, z = y sin φ + z cos φ; x = x cos ψ z sin ψ, y = y, z = x sin ψ + z cos ψ; correspond to rotations about the positive z, x, y axes, anticlockwise through θ, φ, ψ radians, respectively The product of two matrices is related to the product of the corresponding linear transformations: If A is m n and B is n p, then the function T A T B : F p F m, obtained by first performing T B, then T A is in fact equal to the linear transformation T AB For if X F p, we have T A T B (X) = A(BX) = (AB)X = T AB (X) The following example is useful for producing rotations in 3 dimensional animated design (See [7, pages 97 ) EXAMPLE The linear transformation resulting from successively rotating 3 dimensional space about the positive z, x, y axes, anticlockwise through θ, φ, ψ radians respectively, is equal to T ABC, where

30 LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS (x, y) 9 l (x, y ) θ Figure : Reflection in a line C = A = cos θ sin θ 0 sin θ cos θ cos ψ 0 sin ψ 0 0 sin ψ 0 cos ψ, B = The matrix ABC is quite complicated: A(BC) = = cos ψ 0 sin ψ 0 0 sin ψ 0 cos ψ cos φ sin φ 0 sin φ cos φ cos θ sin θ 0 cos φ sin θ cos φ cos θ sin φ sin φ sin θ sin φ cos θ cos φ cos ψ cos θ sin ψ sin φ sin θ cos ψ sin θ sin ψ sin φ sin θ sin ψ cos φ cos φ sin θ cos φ cos θ sin φ sin ψ cos θ + cos ψ sin φ sin θ sin ψ sin θ + cos ψ sin φ cos θ cos ψ cos φ EXAMPLE Another example of a linear transformation arising from geometry is reflection of the plane in a line l inclined at an angle θ to the positive x axis We reduce the problem to the simpler case θ = 0, where the equations of transformation are x = x, y = y First rotate the plane clockwise through θ radians, thereby taking l into the x axis; next reflect the plane in the x axis; then rotate the plane anticlockwise through θ radians, thereby restoring l to its original position

31 30 (x, y) CHAPTER MATRICES l (x, y ) θ Figure : Projection on a line In terms of matrices, we get transformation equations [ [ [ cos θ sin θ 0 cos ( θ) sin ( θ) = y sin θ cos θ 0 sin ( θ) cos ( θ) [ [ [ cos θ sin θ cos θ sin θ x = sin θ cos θ sin θ cos θ y [ [ cos θ sin θ x = sin θ cos θ y [ x [ x y The more general transformation [ [ x cos θ sin θ = a sin θ cos θ y [ x y [ u + v, a > 0, represents a rotation, followed by a scaling and then by a translation Such transformations are important in computer graphics See [3, 4 EXAMPLE 3 Our last example of a geometrical linear transformation arises from projecting the plane onto a line l through the origin, inclined at angle θ to the positive x axis Again we reduce that problem to the simpler case where l is the x axis and the equations of transformation are x = x, y = 0 In terms of matrices, we get transformation equations [ [ [ [ [ x cos θ sin θ 0 cos ( θ) sin ( θ) x = sin θ cos θ 0 0 sin ( θ) cos ( θ) y y

32 3 RECURRENCE RELATIONS 3 = = [ [ [ cos θ 0 cos θ sin θ x sin θ 0 sin θ cos θ y [ cos [ θ cos θ sin θ x sin θ cos θ sin θ y 3 Recurrence relations DEFINITION 3 (The identity matrix) The n n matrix I n = [δ ij, defined by δ ij = if i = j, δ ij = 0 if i j, is called the n n identity matrix of order n In other words, the columns of the identity matrix of order n are the unit vectors E,, E n, respectively For example, I = [ 0 0 THEOREM 3 If A is m n, then I m A = A = AI n DEFINITION 3 (k th power of a matrix) If A is an n n matrix, we define A k recursively as follows: A 0 = I n and A k+ = A k A for k 0 For example A = A 0 A = I n A = A and hence A = A A = AA The usual index laws hold provided AB = BA: A m A n = A m+n, (A m ) n = A mn ; (AB) n = A n B n ; 3 A m B n = B n A m ; 4 (A + B) = A + AB + B ; 5 (A + B) n = n i=0 ( n i ) A i B n i ; 6 (A + B)(A B) = A B We now state a basic property of the natural numbers AXIOM 3 (PRINCIPLE OF MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION) If for each n, P n denotes a mathematical statement and (i) P is true,

33 3 CHAPTER MATRICES (ii) the truth of P n implies that of P n+ for each n, then P n is true for all n [ EXAMPLE 3 Let A = [ A n + 6n 4n = 9n 6n Prove that if n Solution We use the principle of mathematical induction Take P n to be the statement [ A n + 6n 4n = 9n 6n Then P asserts that A = [ [ = which is true Now let n and assume that P n is true We have to deduce that [ [ A n+ + 6(n + ) 4(n + ) 7 + 6n 4n + 4 = = 9(n + ) 6(n + ) 9n 9 5 6n Now, A n+ = A [ n A [ + 6n 4n 7 4 = 9n 6n 9 5 [ ( + 6n)7 + (4n)( 9) ( + 6n)4 + (4n)( 5) = ( 9n)7 + ( 6n)( 9) ( 9n)4 + ( 6n)( 5) [ 7 + 6n 4n + 4 =, 9n 9 5 6n and the induction goes through The last example has an application to the solution of a system of recurrence relations:

34 4 PROBLEMS 33 EXAMPLE 3 The following system of recurrence relations holds for all n 0: x n+ = 7x n + 4y n y n+ = 9x n 5y n Solve the system for x n and y n in terms of x 0 and y 0 Solution Combine the above equations into a single matrix equation [ [ [ xn+ 7 4 xn =, y n+ 9 5 y n [ [ 7 4 xn or X n+ = AX n, where A = and X 9 5 n = y n We see that X = AX 0 X = AX = A(AX 0 ) = A X 0 X n = A n X 0 (The truth of the equation X n = A n X 0 for n, strictly speaking follows by mathematical induction; however for simple cases such as the above, it is customary to omit the strict proof and supply instead a few lines of motivation for the inductive statement) Hence the previous example gives [ [ [ xn + 6n 4n x0 = X y n = n 9n 6n y 0 [ ( + 6n)x0 + (4n)y = 0, ( 9n)x 0 + ( 6n)y 0 and hence x n = ( + 6n)x 0 + 4ny 0 and y n = ( 9n)x 0 + ( 6n)y 0, for n 4 PROBLEMS Let A, B, C, D be matrices defined by A = 3 0, B = ,

35 34 CHAPTER MATRICES 3 C =, D = 4 3 [ 4 0 Which of the following matrices are defined? Compute those matrices which are defined A + B, A + C, AB, BA, CD, DC, D [Answers: A + C, BA, CD, D ; , , , [ Let A = then [ 0 0 Show that if B is a 3 such that AB = I, B = a a a + b b b for suitable numbers a and b Use the associative law to show that (BA) B = B [ a b 3 If A = c d, prove that A (a + d)a + (ad bc)i = 0 [ If A =, use the fact A 0 = 4A 3I and mathematical induction, to prove that A n = (3n ) A + 3 3n I if n 5 A sequence of numbers x, x,, x n, satisfies the recurrence relation x n+ = ax n +bx n for n, where a and b are constants Prove that [ xn+ x n [ xn = A x n,

36 4 PROBLEMS 35 [ [ [ a b xn+ x where A = and hence express in terms of 0 x n x 0 If a = 4 and b = 3, use the previous question to find a formula for x n in terms of x and x 0 [Answer: [ a a 6 Let A = 0 x n = 3n x + 3 3n x 0 (a) Prove that [ A n (n + )a n na = n+ na n ( n)a n if n (b) A sequence x 0, x,, x n, satisfies the recurrence relation x n+ = ax n a x n for n Use part (a) and the previous question to prove that x n = na n x + ( n)a n x 0 for n [ a b 7 Let A = and suppose that λ c d and λ are the roots of the quadratic polynomial x (a+d)x+ad bc (λ and λ may be equal) Let k n be defined by k 0 = 0, k = and for n k n = n i= λ n i λ i Prove that k n+ = (λ + λ )k n λ λ k n, if n Also prove that { (λ n k n = λ n )/(λ λ ) if λ λ, nλ n if λ = λ Use mathematical induction to prove that if n, A n = k n A λ λ k n I, [Hint: Use the equation A = (a + d)a (ad bc)i

37 36 CHAPTER MATRICES 8 Use Question 6 to prove that if A = if n A n = 3n [ [ + ( )n, then [ 9 The Fibonacci numbers are defined by the equations F 0 = 0, F = and F n+ = F n + F n if n Prove that if n 0 F n = 5 (( + ) n ( 5 ) n ) 5 0 Let r > be an integer Let a and b be arbitrary positive integers Sequences x n and y n of positive integers are defined in terms of a and b by the recurrence relations x n+ = x n + ry n y n+ = x n + y n, for n 0, where x 0 = a and y 0 = b Use Question 6 to prove that x n y n r as n 5 Non singular matrices DEFINITION 5 (Non singular matrix) A square matrix A M n n (F ) is called non singular or invertible if there exists a matrix B M n n (F ) such that AB = I n = BA Any matrix B with the above property is called an inverse of A If A does not have an inverse, A is called singular

38 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 37 THEOREM 5 (Inverses are unique) If A has inverses B and C, then B = C Proof Let B and C be inverses of A Then AB = I n = BA and AC = I n = CA Then B(AC) = BI n = B and (BA)C = I n C = C Hence because B(AC) = (BA)C, we deduce that B = C REMARK 5 If A has an inverse, it is denoted by A So AA = I n = A A Also if A is non singular, it follows that A is also non singular and (A ) = A THEOREM 5 If A and B are non singular matrices of the same size, then so is AB Moreover Proof (AB) = B A (AB)(B A ) = A(BB )A = AI n A = AA = I n Similarly (B A )(AB) = I n REMARK 5 The above result generalizes to a product of m non singular matrices: If A,, A m are non singular n n matrices, then the product A A m is also non singular Moreover (A A m ) = A m A (Thus the inverse of the product equals the product of the inverses in the reverse order) EXAMPLE 5 If A and B are n n matrices satisfying A = B = (AB) = I n, prove that AB = BA Solution Assume A = B = (AB) = I n Then A, B, AB are non singular and A = A, B = B, (AB) = AB But (AB) = B A and hence AB = BA

39 38 CHAPTER MATRICES [ EXAMPLE 5 A = is singular For suppose B = 4 8 is an inverse of A Then the equation AB = I gives [ [ [ a b 0 = 4 8 c d 0 [ a b c d and equating the corresponding elements of column of both sides gives the system which is clearly inconsistent a + c = 4a + 8c = 0 [ a b THEOREM 53 Let A = and = ad bc 0 Then A is c d non singular Also [ A = d b c a REMARK 53 The expression ad bc is called the determinant of A and is denoted by the symbols det A or a b c d Proof Verify that the matrix B = [ AB = I = BA d c b satisfies the equation a EXAMPLE 53 Let A = Verify that A 3 = 5I 3, deduce that A is non singular and find A Solution After verifying that A 3 = 5I 3, we notice that ( ) ( ) A 5 A = I 3 = 5 A A Hence A is non singular and A = 5 A

40 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 39 THEOREM 54 If the coefficient matrix A of a system of n equations in n unknowns is non singular, then the system AX = B has the unique solution X = A B Proof Assume that A exists (Uniqueness) Assume that AX = B Then (A A)X = A B, (Existence) Let X = A B Then I n X = A B, X = A B AX = A(A B) = (AA )B = I n B = B THEOREM 55 (Cramer s rule for equations in unknowns) The system ax + by = e cx + dy = f has a unique solution if = a b c d 0, namely where = e f x =, y =, b d and = a c e f [ a b Proof Suppose 0 Then A = has inverse c d and we know that the system A = [ A [ x y = d c [ e f b a

41 40 CHAPTER MATRICES has the unique solution [ [ x = A e y f [ = = [ d c [ b e a f = de bf ce + af [ = [ / / Hence x = /, y = / COROLLARY 5 The homogeneous system ax + by = 0 cx + dy = 0 has only the trivial solution if = a b c d 0 EXAMPLE 54 The system 7x + 8y = 00 x 9y = 0 has the unique solution x = /, y = /, where = = 79, = = 980, = = 30 So x = and y = THEOREM 56 Let A be a square matrix If A is non singular, the homogeneous system AX = 0 has only the trivial solution Equivalently, if the homogenous system AX = 0 has a non trivial solution, then A is singular Proof If A is non singular and AX = 0, then X = A 0 = 0 REMARK 54 If A,, A n denote the columns of A, then the equation AX = x A + + x n A n holds Consequently theorem 56 tells us that if there exist scalars x,, x n, not all zero, such that x A + + x n A n = 0,

42 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 4 that is, if the columns of A are linearly dependent, then A is singular An equivalent way of saying that the columns of A are linearly dependent is that one of the columns of A is expressible as a sum of certain scalar multiples of the remaining columns of A; that is one column is a linear combination of the remaining columns EXAMPLE 55 A = is singular For it can be verified that A has reduced row echelon form and consequently AX = 0 has a non trivial solution x =, y =, z = REMARK 55 More generally, if A is row equivalent to a matrix containing a zero row, then A is singular For then the homogeneous system AX = 0 has a non trivial solution An important class of non singular matrices is that of the elementary row matrices DEFINITION 5 (Elementary row matrices) There are three types, E ij, E i (t), E ij (t), corresponding to the three kinds of elementary row operation: E ij, (i j) is obtained from the identity matrix I n by interchanging rows i and j E i (t), (t 0) is obtained by multiplying the i th row of I n by t 3 E ij (t), (i j) is obtained from I n by adding t times the j th row of I n to the i th row EXAMPLE 56 (n = 3) 0 0 E 3 = 0 0, E ( ) = , E 3 ( ) =

43 4 CHAPTER MATRICES The elementary row matrices have the following distinguishing property: THEOREM 57 If a matrix A is pre multiplied by an elementary row matrix, the resulting matrix is the one obtained by performing the corresponding elementary row operation on A EXAMPLE 57 a E 3 c e b d f = a c e b d f = a e c b f d COROLLARY 5 The three types of elementary row matrices are non singular Indeed E ij = E ij ; E i (t) = E i (t ); 3 (E ij (t)) = E ij ( t) Proof Taking A = I n in the above theorem, we deduce the following equations: E ij E ij = I n E i (t)e i (t ) = I n = E i (t )E i (t) if t 0 E ij (t)e ij ( t) = I n = E ij ( t)e ij (t) EXAMPLE 58 Find the 3 3 matrix A = E 3 (5)E 3 ()E explicitly Also find A Solution A = E 3 (5)E 3 () To find A, we have = E 3 (5) A = (E 3 (5)E 3 ()E ) = E (E 3()) (E 3 (5)) = E E 3 ( )E 3 (5 ) =

44 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 43 = E E 3 ( ) = E = REMARK 56 Recall that A and B are row equivalent if B is obtained from A by a sequence of elementary row operations If E,, E r are the respective corresponding elementary row matrices, then B = E r ( (E (E A)) ) = (E r E )A = P A, where P = E r E is non singular Conversely if B = P A, where P is non singular, then A is row equivalent to B For as we shall now see, P is in fact a product of elementary row matrices THEOREM 58 Let A be non singular n n matrix Then (i) A is row equivalent to I n, (ii) A is a product of elementary row matrices Proof Assume that A is non singular and let B be the reduced row echelon form of A Then B has no zero rows, for otherwise the equation AX = 0 would have a non trivial solution Consequently B = I n It follows that there exist elementary row matrices E,, E r such that E r ( (E A) ) = B = I n and hence A = E Er, a product of elementary row matrices THEOREM 59 Let A be n n and suppose that A is row equivalent to I n Then A is non singular and A can be found by performing the same sequence of elementary row operations on I n as were used to convert A to I n Proof Suppose that E r E A = I n In other words BA = I n, where B = E r E is non singular Then B (BA) = B I n and so A = B, which is non singular Also A = ( B ) = B = Er (( (E I n ) ), which shows that A is obtained from I n by performing the same sequence of elementary row operations as were used to convert A to I n

45 44 CHAPTER MATRICES REMARK 57 It follows from theorem 59 that if A is singular, then A is row equivalent to a matrix whose last row is zero [ EXAMPLE 59 Show that A = is non singular, find A and express A as a product of elementary row matrices Solution We form the partitioned matrix [A I which consists of A followed by I Then any sequence of elementary row operations which reduces A to I will reduce I to A Here [ 0 [A I = 0 Hence R R R [ 0 0 R ( )R [ 0 0 R R R [ 0 0 Hence A is row equivalent to I and A is non singular Also [ A = We also observe that E ( )E ( )E ( )A = I A = E ( )E ( )E ( ) A = E ()E ( )E () The next result is the converse of Theorem 56 and is useful for proving the non singularity of certain types of matrices THEOREM 50 Let A be an n n matrix with the property that the homogeneous system AX = 0 has only the trivial solution Then A is non singular Equivalently, if A is singular, then the homogeneous system AX = 0 has a non trivial solution

46 5 NON SINGULAR MATRICES 45 Proof If A is n n and the homogeneous system AX = 0 has only the trivial solution, then it follows that the reduced row echelon form B of A cannot have zero rows and must therefore be I n Hence A is non singular COROLLARY 53 Suppose that A and B are n n and AB = I n Then BA = I n Proof Let AB = I n, where A and B are n n We first show that B is non singular Assume BX = 0 Then A(BX) = A0 = 0, so (AB)X = 0, I n X = 0 and hence X = 0 Then from AB = I n we deduce (AB)B = I n B and hence A = B The equation BB = I n then gives BA = I n Before we give the next example of the above criterion for non-singularity, we introduce an important matrix operation DEFINITION 53 (The transpose of a matrix) Let A be an m n matrix Then A t, the transpose of A, is the matrix obtained by interchanging the rows and columns of A In other words if A = [a ij, then ( A t) ji = a ij Consequently A t is n m The transpose operation has the following properties: ( A t) t = A; (A ± B) t = A t ± B t if A and B are m n; 3 (sa) t = sa t if s is a scalar; 4 (AB) t = B t A t if A is m n and B is n p; 5 If A is non singular, then A t is also non singular and ( A t ) = ( A ) t ; 6 X t X = x + + x n if X = [x,, x n t is a column vector We prove only the fourth property First check that both (AB) t and B t A t have the same size (p m) Moreover, corresponding elements of both matrices are equal For if A = [a ij and B = [b jk, we have ( (AB) t ) = (AB) ki ik = n a ij b jk j=

47 46 CHAPTER MATRICES = n ( B t ) ( kj A t ) ji j= = ( B t A t) ki There are two important classes of matrices that can be defined concisely in terms of the transpose operation DEFINITION 54 (Symmetric matrix) A real matrix A is called symmetric if A t = A In other words A is square (n n say) and a ji = a ij for all i n, j n Hence [ a b A = b c is a general symmetric matrix DEFINITION 55 (Skew symmetric matrix) A real matrix A is called skew symmetric if A t = A In other words A is square (n n say) and a ji = a ij for all i n, j n REMARK 58 Taking i = j in the definition of skew symmetric matrix gives a ii = a ii and so a ii = 0 Hence [ 0 b A = b 0 is a general skew symmetric matrix We can now state a second application of the above criterion for non singularity COROLLARY 54 Let B be an n n skew symmetric matrix Then A = I n B is non singular Proof Let A = I n B, where B t = B By Theorem 50 it suffices to show that AX = 0 implies X = 0 We have (I n B)X = 0, so X = BX Hence X t X = X t BX Taking transposes of both sides gives (X t BX) t = (X t X) t X t B t (X t ) t = X t (X t ) t X t ( B)X = X t X X t BX = X t X = X t BX Hence X t X = X t X and X t X = 0 But if X = [x,, x n t, then X t X = x + + x n = 0 and hence x = 0,, x n = 0

48 6 LEAST SQUARES SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS 47 6 Least squares solution of equations Suppose AX = B represents a system of linear equations with real coefficients which may be inconsistent, because of the possibility of experimental errors in determining A or B For example, the system x = y = x + y = 300 is inconsistent It can be proved that the associated system A t AX = A t B is always consistent and that any solution of this system minimizes the sum r + + r m, where r,, r m (the residuals) are defined by r i = a i x + + a in x n b i, for i =,, m The equations represented by A t AX = A t B are called the normal equations corresponding to the system AX = B and any solution of the system of normal equations is called a least squares solution of the original system EXAMPLE 6 Find a least squares solution of the above inconsistent system 0 [ Solution Here A = 0 x, X =, B = y 300 Then A t A = Also A t B = [ 0 0 [ 0 0 So the normal equations are which have the unique solution = = [ [ x + y = 400 x + y = 500 x = 300 3, y = 600 3

49 48 CHAPTER MATRICES EXAMPLE 6 Points (x, y ),, (x n, y n ) are experimentally determined and should lie on a line y = mx + c Find a least squares solution to the problem Solution The points have to satisfy mx + c = y mx n + c = y n, or Ax = B, where A = x x n, X = [ m c, B = y y n The normal equations are given by (A t A)X = A t B Here [ x [ A t x x A = n x = + + x n x + + x n x + + x n n x n Also A t B = [ x x n y y n = [ x y + + x n y n y + + y n It is not difficult to prove that = det (A t A) = i<j n (x i x j ), which is positive unless x = = x n Hence if not all of x,, x n are equal, A t A is non singular and the normal equations have a unique solution This can be shown to be m = i<j n (x i x j )(y i y j ), c = i<j n REMARK 6 The matrix A t A is symmetric (x i y j x j y i )(x i x j )

50 7 PROBLEMS 49 7 PROBLEMS [ 4 Let A = Prove that A is non singular, find A 3 and express A as a product of elementary row matrices [Answer: A = [ A = E ( 3)E (3)E (4) is one such decomposition, A square matrix D = [d ij is called diagonal if d ij = 0 for i j (That is the off diagonal elements are zero) Prove that pre multiplication of a matrix A by a diagonal matrix D results in matrix DA whose rows are the rows of A multiplied by the respective diagonal elements of D State and prove a similar result for post multiplication by a diagonal matrix Let diag (a,, a n ) denote the diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements d ii are a,, a n, respectively Show that diag (a,, a n )diag (b,, b n ) = diag (a b,, a n b n ) and deduce that if a a n 0, then diag (a,, a n ) is non singular and (diag (a,, a n )) = diag (a,, a n ) Also prove that diag (a,, a n ) is singular if a i = 0 for some i Let A = 6 Prove that A is non singular, find A and express A as a product of elementary row matrices [Answers: A = A = E E 3 (3)E 3 E 3 ()E ()E 3 (4)E 3 ( 9) is one such decomposition,

51 50 CHAPTER MATRICES 4 Find the rational number k for which the matrix A = is singular [Answer: k = 3 k [ 5 Prove that A = is singular and find a non singular matrix 4 P such that P A has last row zero [ 6 If A = 4 3 A = 3 (A I ) 7 Let A = 0 0, verify that A A + 3I = 0 and deduce that (i) Verify that A 3 = 3A 3A + I 3 (ii) Express A 4 in terms of A, A and I 3 and hence calculate A 4 explicitly (iii) Use (i) to prove that A is non singular and find A explicitly [Answers: (ii) A 4 = 6A 8A + 3I 3 = (iii) A = A 3A + 3I 3 = (i) Let B be an n n matrix such that B 3 = 0 If A = I n B, prove that A is non singular and A = I n + B + B Show that the system of linear equations AX = b has the solution (ii) If B = 0 r s 0 0 t (I 3 B) explicitly X = b + Bb + B b, verify that B 3 = 0 and use (i) to determine ;

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