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1 (1) : " (, -+ #$.#)!" #$%& '#" $() *+" $ " #0# 0 *# 1"# Culex pipiens + Anopheles stephensi * Ph.D. MS.C. Ph.D. Ph.D. & # MS.C.%" $ Ph.D.!".F#$.# AF#$4 A D8#0 4 9E$ A* 105%B+C: 2?## 2 589: ;)<= 1>%#"* : " :2??)3N ;H=# I :108 MH# 2? D. " I :)+ ;H=# I. 4 2H- $% 4-+-I$% " 4-+ J-K%- 37 (DEET) %=B+ % F+ ; G-H! 7E 0 7E -! :20 - LM % 7N, ' O 3= PC-B= 6. )-I % G' Q-R% )-8 LM )-$8 L$M 3$7 $ " ;(B 0, () )SM F% ; % )5 3= ;N $9#" -$& -$T8 $UBR%.'$ $M-9 -$5 $N+ $% $<% -H ;(B G J-K% % $% $ QWX " % ". Y (ED50, ED95)-I%." V*B. NH " - 7M.! -5 Z% " - (Merck ',- 'H ) NH " 3- H -I%." UBR% 4 : E O+ + "#) Culex " Anopheles stephensi $9 " F$% $ QW$X $% " (ASTM) $ %. Y LM %. '&[ 4 'Z+ -! %.'M % Z 0". Y "pipiens.." P \M -! QWX ] %, B8 G'M-9-5 ^%.= % 3%. _! 0! % " N% JWH " NH " - 4 N% ;(+"Y+ '(. -9 'Z+ LM % ;$(%.= " SAS (Statistical Analysis System) $M- (Probit)'"- 3-9 B=. Y `M. Z% - T-test " a" B= N$H " $- 4$ ; $7U% JWH -I%." V*B., 3 UBR% 4. FX8 QW$X $% $, ;$0. N" JWH ED50 -ED95 7% V*B. 'Z+ % " 4 B". N" 4$ $ (+"Y+ UBR% 4 % -+. ED95 + ED50 XM G -+ -Z9 7% 4.!% 9 77," 3% " -I%." V*B. 'Z+ % 9 " N$H ;$< 7N FZ " '5 '5 3-7 G! M 4 c60 - :P -$&!M 4 N+ B" G 7Z! 7 *% " U% ; QWX " % " -! 4U+ ;- 4 - "W d QWX %. -+ 7% % G)-8 LM % 'Z+ ;- %. % Culex pipiens. -+ 7% Anopheles stephensi G)-8 LM % -I% Culex G Anopheles stephensi G)-$8 L$M $% G-I$%." G G)S$M F% ; :!0 <E FRQ#+.pipiens.%& ' ( )*+,-% $ %. 0!"# $ () % " 7-8 "-9 - ' ( - 3-(+ -2.%= " > % ' %= Ph.D. ;< ;! = )*+,-% $ %. 0!"# $ () -4.BB% ;CB )*+,-% $ %. 0!"# $ () % " 7-8 "-9 - ' ( - 3-(+ 7, ;< -6

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5 F# 5SB + $E <= $E" 56 (% not biting ) *+,'- (% not biting ) *+,'- ( µgcm 2 I oäüë " - '"- 3-9 \H :1) ] %. Y An. stephensif% NH.(-Y7%." ) QWX " - '"- 3-9 \H :2 ) %. Y An. stephensif% NH. ( µgcm 2 I oäüë

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7 F# 5SB + 0)-!0 ;< QWX " ;! %. Y An. stephensi F% µgcm 2 Z8 - - LM (ED) -Iv%." "=- 3% Z% :3&'( 6 7*! y = + x y = + x ED 95 (CI 95%) () () $77, " '6Z ' Z8 An. albimanus GFM=.[20;19]!9 - Z%! G $ ) 'Z$+ ;$!P$7+ 7%., 7+ - "W 8 ] % GZ C ) 'Z+ ;!] % " (... " QWX )-8 qg% ;!9. G N" (7K% ;[ " Y$ L$M $%!$%.= ;$!'Z+ ;-! #" " (ED)-Iv$%." G$! $77, " -I $+, 4 FB.-9% )"$Y% $!$ qg% ;!9 ;" - (= 9 77," 3% ;-Z$+ " F$5 $9 P$. $%='$ $ G' " $ - ;- - ;!9 (Extrapolating) g% 9 P F% LM % -! ;!9#" 4U+ Y$!$%.= )UBR% 9 'Z%. 3+% %.= qg% 77," % Z% ;-.[18].S '$5 'Z % Y! )"Y% ;!9 ~$ $M $, -E G zg 7% ;!9 " = $ " Z$ ;$!C$ e9 ;- (= #" "! $% 4$.'Z 3Z!%.= \- 8 ] % $M $ Z$ Y!9. '.S 4$. 7 zr% C ;" - (Biting Pressure)e9 (Anthropophilic) '$ " 3Z$ ;$!$9 $% $$% $ 7% Z$ Z$ C ;- Aedes aegypti Y$ L$M $% 'Z$+ ;-$ 8 ] %., %..[20] (Zoophilic) '$ "3$8 ;$!$9. '$ -( G% " e"-$ 'B($ $6B.$ Y$!FM=. H- (CI 95%) () () ASTM "#! P - ED 95 " -Iv% ;!." Z%, 3 a7 ab, " Z7Y FM= F% NH. $ $N" L$M ~$ " -Iv$% % ;7U% JWH $+ 3-$ $7 )S$M F$%; -Iv$% % < )S$M F$%; -Iv$% % ;N 7N FZ " '5 " -$ $ c$60-. $% Merck ',- 'H LM % Z% ;- 6 7% H -Iv%." ;-$, X% ;- [ ED 95 -Iv%." " % -, ;<+ -M LM -Iv% % X 4U+ " (practical) ~$ Z$% ;- ^g 4 FB [17] "% $% $% xubr%. Y H. 'W +-+ Z7Y FM= F% NH " - -Iv% $ -$ % UBR%. -9 "=- 191 " 213 (µgcm 2 ) F% LM G-, Y %., $.[18] '$ 4$U+ 190 µgcm 2 Z$7Y F$M= $9 -$! $5M G$UBR% $% ;$!$9 -$ )6. 7Z! )SMF%; LM % '6Z (Tolerance) ED 95 " "=-$. F$X8 Z% 4 - "W ab, - 3 >Z8-4 77," % ~ 3 Z7Y FM= Z% LM % F% a7. $H- $, '$ -, 'I % )*+.!% > j=.!9 " Cx. pipiens ab, ;!9 F$M= ;!9 Z% Aedes taeniorhynchus Fr% ;$!$ 3$% " ;- ' Z8 LM % '6Z

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9 F# 5SB + 0)-!0 60 ;ÖM ^!,. % 7-14cm 3 -! 'BUM ;ÖM 4-7 '$ ÜR$ $ $(= +%! 'BUM _$ [ $ $< " $! ^$M (66 cm 2 ) 'Z$+ }-$U%. $ $ N" ' e9 GLM." ^M,!H ED 95 #" -Iv%." ^M O 'B8 4!$% F$5 )$UBR% -$ 'UT" 4 % xubr% $,!$%.= )$UBR% G$N% O$86% _[ $% ~$ ED 95 ".' -Iv$% ;$!." 4$U+ ;-$ ;-B$-[ " Z$% ;-$ $ [ G-$9$% )$X $77," $ " '$ $6 ; q$g% ;! 77, " (Screening) QWX _! " % _! ;-B-[ 4 GFB $% ~ " -! -Iv%." ;!'6Z, -E d < 3+% -!! 77," ~ -Iv%." 6Z ;!)"Y+ " % áy8 'Z$% X )UBR% 6B.'!% F5 % ~ " ;$!U% " $!$9#" " -o < U60 tw%, \- " )$$UBR% " -$$9 4$$U+ \$$*% $$77, " P$$ $$X 4$N $9à$! (Cage studies)!$%.=.[22] -9 (Field studies) -*X )UBR% 7$ )S$M F% ;, 3 -T8 xubr% '( " FZ ; 77, " % P 37 3-, "W$. $$% N$H $% '5 ;-.S ;!9#" ;$! ] $%. -+ 7% ED "=- '(N ASTM M % 4- ;-$!$%.= )$UBR% % QWX Cx. pipiens. -$( An. stephensi. Y$ ED % < +Å ;RH " % $5%4 + $.04 $ %$& '$ ( )$*+,-% B% UBR% 4 ;($g -$ " $,-% 4$ ;!) Z%..' < Z$ 3$7,, " $B $5 3-$(+ $ $77, " $ -$! $% $QWX ] % -ED 95. % ] %. -+-Z9 $% $ $ ;!-., -,o% e" 4$ $, 4$ V*B, ' 4 ASTM " _$! $7, " 0 LM % P. '&[ 7E 4$ -$I FH $+ G-9% -5 Y % 'Z+ P (Interaction treatment) $77, " % qg% ;!'&[ 4 Jo8 ;- (K&D Fr%) QWX ;!] %. N" F$%, Jo$8 $, ; 'Z+ ;!ay5 G-I ;"=$ B".-9 % 6 77, " )g -I FH + \$*% '$ly8 3%.$ % " % ;! ] % F65. QWX ;!] %.7! (EPA-ASTM) 'Z. >$ -.'$ M-o{ e" P 37 K&D -($ a$c= 4$ 2000 ]$ 'Z$ $ " -$& `$Y+ F$B K&D -& QWX ;!] % G-%= ;7N-" \$*% " - 'Z+ ay5 ;!H 4 s6+ F%, LR5. $, L$M % )g Ñ"-H ;- ;oy7% G(Enclose) 3"- 4-$7 G'!g N" G% ' [= QR -$I $+ O$ " $~6$ a$y5 ;$!$H FH ;ÖM 4$ " [24] -$9 $% (Higher repellency) 9 $77," $UBR%.!H -Iv%." 7% 3 -Z9 O 'UT" $ H ay5 -. G!% ) 'UT" 4 % " 6 (Aerodynamic) " F%, 0 QWX ~..' 77, " % )g Ñ"-H ;-.S om7% ;" 8 +."-$ " '$BUM ;Ö$M ^!$, G QWX ] % - -. % ASTM ] % Z% ] % 4! W ay5 FH ;ÖM _<8 ASTM %, ;0 ;ÖM G_7, zg 'Z+ ;- 15-9, ' 360cm 3 ] $% $, +$X.$ $!H 24cm 3 $ -$! 'BUM _Z$+ ;"Z$% 5 $ a$y5 FH _<8, QWX $,!H 72cm 3 H -! FH ;ÖM G%.-$9$% -$5 3= F$H $ $ 5-10 U+ 'Z+ L5%

10 .... " (, -+ #$.#)!" #$%& '#" $() *+" $ 4 3 <% 3", UBR% 4 77, ',-._ { zr% < c*+ 1- Bernier UR, Furman KD, Kline DL, Allan SA, Barnard DR. Comparison of contact and spatial repellency of catnip oil and N,N-diethyl-3- ethylbenzamide (deet) against mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 2005; 42(3): Costantini C, Badolo A, Ilboudo-Sanogo E. Field evaluation of the efficacy and persistence of insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and KBR 3023 against Anopheles gambiae complex and other Afrotropical vector mosquitoes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2004; 98(11): Roberts JR, Reigart JR. Does anything beat DEET? Pediatr Ann 2004; 33(7): Debboun M, Wagman J. In vitro repellency of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and N,Ndiethylphenylacetamide analogs against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 2004; 41(3): Tuetun B, Choochote W, Kanjanapothi D, Rattanachanpichai E, Chaithong U, Chaiwong P et al. Repellent properties of celery, Apium graveolens L., compared with commercial repellents, against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions. Trop Med Int Health 2005; 10(11): Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyam Y, Komalamisra N, Apiwathnasorn C. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. Phytother Res 2005; 19(4): Odalo JO, Omolo MO, Malebo H, Angira J, Njeru PM, Ndiege IO et al. Repellency of essential oils of some plants from the Kenyan coast against Anopheles gambiae. Acta Trop 2005; 95(3): Pitasawat B, Choochote W, Tuetun B, Tippawangkosol P, Kanjanapothi D, Jitpakdi A et al. Repellency of aromatic turmeric Curcuma aromatica under laboratory and field conditions. J Vector Ecol 2003; 28(2): Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A. Oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi. J Insect Sci 2005; 5: Tawatsin A, Wratten SD, Scott RR, Thavara U, Techadamrongsin Y. Repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors. J Vector Ecol 2001; 26(1): 'Z 11- Das NG, Baruah I, Talukdar PK, Das SC. Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes. J Vector Borne Dis 2003; 40(1-2): Kalyanasundaram M, Srinivasan R, Subramanian S, Panicker KN. Relative potency of DEPA as a repellent against the sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi. Med Vet Entomol 1994; 8(1): Vartak PH, Tunqikar VB, Sharma RN. Comparative repellent properties of certain chemicals against mosquitoes, house flies and cockroaches using modified techniques. J Commun Dis 1994; 26(3): Travis BV, Morton FA. Treatment of clothing for protection against mosquitoes. Proc New Jersey Mosq Exterm Assoc 1946; 33 rd : Smith CN, Cole MM, Loys GW, Selhime A. Mosquito repellent mixtures. J Econ Entomol 1952; 45(5): Schreck CE. Techniques for the evaluation of insect repellents: a critical review. Annu Rev Entomol 1977; 22: Buescher MD, Rutledge LC, Wirtz RA, Glackin KB, Moussa MA. Laboratory tests of repellents against Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Med Entomol 1982; 19(2): Robert LL, Hallam JA, Seeley DC, Roberts LW, Wirtz RA. Comparative sensitivity of four Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) to five repellents. J Med Entomol 1991; 28(3): Rutledge LC, Collister DM, Meixsell VE, Eisenberg GH. Comparative sensitivity of representative mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to repellents. J Med Entomol 1983; 20(5): Barnard DR. Repellency of essential oils to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 1999; 36(5): Klun JA, Debboun M. A new module for quantitative evaluation of repellent efficacy using human subjects. J Med Entomol 2000; 37(1): Environmental protection Agency. EPA. Product performance test guidelines: OPPTS , Insect repellents for human skin and outdoor premises. 1999; No: 712-C: Coleman RE, Richards AL, Magnon GJ, Maxwell CS, Debboun M, Klein TA et al. Laboratory and field trials of four repellents with Culex

11 F# 5SB + 0)-!0 62 pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 1994; 31(1): Environmental protection Agency. EPA. Insect repellent product performance testing guideline evaluation. FIFRA scientific Advisory Panel Meeting, SAP report. 2000; No.00-02B: