Homotopic HopfGalois extensions of commutative differential graded algebras


 Cuthbert Greene
 3 months ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Homotopic HopfGalois extensions of commutative differential graded algebras THÈSE N O 6150 (2014) PRÉSENTÉE LE 20 JUIN 2014 À L FCULTÉ DES SCIENCES DE BSE GROUPE HESS BELLWLD PROGRMME DOCTORL EN MTHÉMTIQUES ÉCOLE POLYTECHNIQUE FÉDÉRLE DE LUSNNE POUR L'OBTENTION DU GRDE DE DOCTEUR ÈS SCIENCES PR Varvara KRPOV acceptée sur proposition du jury: Prof. M. Troyanov, président du jury Prof. K. Hess Bellwald, directrice de thèse Dr. Berglund, rapporteur Prof. B. Richter, rapporteuse Prof. J. Thévenaz, rapporteur Suisse 2014
2 2
3 3 bstract This thesis is concerned with the definition and the study of properties of homotopic HopfGalois extensions in the category Ch 0 of chain complexes over a field, equipped with its projective model structure. Given a differential graded Hopf algebra H of finite type, we define a homotopic HHopfGalois extension to be a morphism ' : B! of augmented Hcomodule dgalgebras, where B is equipped with the trivial Hcoaction, for which the associated Galois functor ( ' ) : M W ' can! M W and the comparison functor (i ' ) : Mod hcoh! Mod B are Quillen equivalences. Here hcoh denotes the object of homotopy Hcoinvariants of the dgalgebra, andmod hcoh denotes the category of right modules over hcoh in Ch 0, endowed with the model category structure rightinduced by the forgetful functor from Ch 0 (and similarly for B). The categories M W ' can and M W denote, respectively, the categories of right B  and Hcomodules in the category Mod, and they are equipped with the model category structures leftinduced from Mod by the forgetful functor. We investigate the behavior of homotopic HopfGalois extensions of commutative dgalgebras under base change. First, we study their preservation under base change. Given a homotopic HHopfGalois extension ' : B!, with B, commutative, and a morphism f : B! B 0 of commutative dgalgebras, we determine conditions on ' and f, under which the induced morphism ' : B 0! B 0 B is also a homotopic HHopfGalois extension. Secondly, we examine the reflection of such extensions under base change. We suppose that the induced morphism ' : B 0! B 0 B is a homotopic H HopfGalois extension, and we specify conditions on ' and f that guarantee that ' : B! was a homotopic HHopfGalois extension. The main result of this thesis establishes one direction of a HopfGalois correspondence for homotopic HopfGalois extensions over cocommutative dghopfalgebras of finite type. We show that if ' : B! is a homotopic HHopfGalois extension, and g : H! K is an inclusion of cocommutative dghopfalgebras of finite type, then hcok! is always a homotopic K HopfGalois extension, and B! hcok is a homotopic H hcok HopfGalois extension, provided that is semifree as a Bmodule. We end with an example, derived from the context of simplicial sets, which offers interesting possibilities of application of our main result to principal fibrations of simplicial sets. Key words: Hopf algebra, homotopic HopfGalois extension, Hopf Galois correspondence, homotopic descent, coring, category of comodules over a coring, homotopy coinvariants.
4 4 Résumé Cette thèse élabore une définition et étudie les propriétés des extensions de HopfGalois homotopiques dans la catégorie Ch 0 des complexes de chaînes sur un corps, munie de sa structure de catégorie modèle projective. Étant donné H une algèbre de Hopf différentielle graduée de type fini, on appelle Hextension de HopfGalois homotopique un morphisme ' : B! de dgalgèbres augmentées, où B est munie avec une Hcoaction triviale, pour lequel le foncteur de Galois associé ( ' ) : M W ' can! M W et le foncteur de comparaison associé (i ' ) : Mod hcoh! Mod B sont des équivalences de Quillen. Ici, hcoh dénote l objet des Hcoinvariants homotopiques de l algèbre, et Mod hcoh est la catégorie des hcoh modules à droite dans Ch 0, munie de sa structure de catégorie modèle induite à droite par le foncteur oubli depuis Ch 0 (et de même, pour B). On note par M W ' can et M W, respectivement, la catégorie des B  et Hcomodules à droite dans la catégorie Mod. Elles sont toutes les deux équipées de structures de catégorie modèles induites à gauche par le foncteur oubli depuis Mod. Nous examinons le comportement des extensions de HopfGalois homotopiques de dgalgèbres commutatives sous changement de base. Dans un premier temps, nous étudions leur préservation sous changement de base. Étant donné une Hextension de HopfGalois homotopique ' : B!, avec B, commutatifs, et un morphisme f : B! B 0 de dgalgèbres commutatives, nous déterminons les conditions sur ' et f, sous lesquelles le morphisme induit ' : B 0! B 0 B est aussi une Hextension de HopfGalois homotopique. Dans un deuxième temps, nous considérons la question de réflexion de telles extensions sous un changement de base. Nous supposons que le morphisme induit ' : B 0! B 0 B est une Hextension de HopfGalois homotopique, et nous spécifions les conditions sur ' et f qui garantissent que ' : B! était une Hextension de HopfGalois homotopique. Le résultat principal de cette thèse établit une direction d une correspondance de HopfGalois pour des extensions de HopfGalois homotopiques sur des dgalgèbres de Hopf cocommutatives de type fini. Nous démontrons le résultat suivant: si ' : B! est une Hextension de HopfGalois homotopique et g : H! K est une inclusion de dgalgèbres de Hopf cocommutatives de type fini, alors hcok! est toujours une Kextension de HopfGalois homotopique, et B! hcok est une H hcok extension de HopfGalois homotopique, à condition que soit un module Bsemilibre. Nous terminons avec un exemple, issu du contexte des ensembles simpliciaux, qui offre des possibilités intéressantes d application de notre résultat principal aux fibrations principales des ensembles simpliciaux. Motsclés: algèbre de Hopf, extension de HopfGalois homotopique, correspondance de HopfGalois, descente homotopique, coanneau, catégorie des comodules sur un coanneau, coinvariants homotopiques.
5 cnowledgements First and foremost, I would lie to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor Prof. Kathryn Hess Bellwald for having supervised my thesis. I than her for her availability and encouragement, her rigor and motivation, her generosity and her support through all these years. It was a pleasure and an honor for me to wor with her and to learn from her lectures and from her mathematical experience. I am also grateful to Kathryn for giving me the opportunity to travel and attend numerous conferences and for supporting my participation in numerous activities lined to pedagogy and to promoting mathematics to young people. I would lie to than the president of the jury Prof. Marc Troyanov and the members of the jury, Prof. lexander Berglund, Prof. Birgit Richter and Prof. Jacques Thévenaz for having accepted to examine my wor and for having done it with great care. I am grateful for all their questions and helpful comments that allowed me to improve the final version of this document. I was extremely lucy with my colleagues. Ilias mrani, Nicolas Michel, Patric Müller, Marc Stephan, Kay Werndli, Martina Rovelli, Dimitri Zaganidis, Sophie Raynor, Eric Finster, Gavin Seal, Justin Young, Giordano Favi and Jérôme Scherer, I would lie to than each of you for your readiness and willingness to discuss all sorts of mathematical questions and life concerns, and for all the fun moments that we shared together. I would lie to say than you to the secretaries Maria Cardoso Kühni, Pierrette PaulouVaucher and nna Dietler for their professionalism and for having made the administrative side of my PhD life easier. It was a pleasure for me to collaborate with Rosalie Chevalley on the creation of two Welcome worshops for new PhD s, as a contribution to the EDM program. I would also lie to than lix Leboucq, Claudio Semadeni and Shahin Tavaoli for our team wor in the QED association. Many words of gratitude go to Caroline Lassueur, David Kohler, Helena Palmqvist, Jen Lehe, Valérie Seal, Maria Simonoff and Joseph Stupey for their believing in me. Bob Bidon, Noisette, Walnut and Freya, without you wrting my thesis definitely would not be the same. Clearly, I am grateful to Guillaume Tellez for having taught me how 5
6 6 to drive during the second and third years of my PhD and for maing me discover that, most of the time, I thin too much. I than Sylvie Dentan for her young spirit and positive energy. nd Jazz,...on t aime! Many very special thans go to Peter Jossen who supported me unconditionally through all these years, encouraged me in difficult moments, helped me to distract myself from wor when I seriously needed a brea and made me feel better by understanding me and by adding a good deal of humor in all situations. I would lie to than my parents Lilia Karpova and lexander Karpov for their patience, love and support, and for putting up with me being eternally busy. I would also lie to than my parents inlaw Helga and Michael Jossen for their indness, and for welcoming me into their family (and also for putting up with me being eternally busy...).
7 Contents bstract / Résumé 3 Notations 9 Introduction 12 1 Bacground material The zoo of categories Monoidal categories language Lifting adjunctions Digression on Hopf algebras lgebraic tools Cobar construction and twisted structures Semifree modules in Ch 0 R toolbox of spectral sequences Homologically faithful modules in Ch 0 R Model category theory Recognizing Quillen equivalences Some relevant model structures Quillen pairs and Quillen equivalences between categories of modules Quillen pairs induced by morphisms of algebras Quillen equivalences induced by quasiisomorphisms of algebras djunctions between categories of comodules over corings Quillen adjunctions induced by bimodules Quillen equivalences induced by quasiisomorphisms of corings Foundations of homotopic HopfGalois extensions (Homotopy) Ccoinvariants Calculating Ccoinvariants Homotopy Ccoinvariants in Comod C Homotopy Hcoinvariants in lg " H
8 8 CONTENTS 2.2 Special maps associated to a morphism of augmented Hcomodule algebras ' The comparison map i ' The Galois map ' The definition of homotopic HopfGalois extensions Connections to other wors Brief reminder of Galois extensions of fields Galois extensions of commutative rings HopfGalois extensions of algebras Homotopifying (Hopf)Galois extensions Relation to (homotopic) Grothendiec descent Bujard s Master Thesis Behavior of homotopic HopfGalois extensions under base change The context Some comments on the comparison maps i ', i ' and their induced functors The context in which the Galois functors ( ' ) and ( ' ) arise Preservation of homotopic HopfGalois extensions under base change The behavior of the comparison functor (i ' ) The behavior of the Galois functor ( ' ) Reflection of homotopic HopfGalois extensions under base change The behavior of the Galois functor ( ' ) The behavior of the comparison functor (i ' ) One direction of the homotopic HopfGalois correspondence Generalized situation brief reminder of Galois correspondence for fields One direction of homotopic HopfGalois correspondence The setting The candidate Hopf algebra and the Main Theorem Technical preliminaries Proof of the Main Theorem (Theorem 4.3.6) n example The simplicial context Obtaining a cocommutative Hopf algebra from a simplicial set n example of application of Theorem Perspectives 135
9 Index 136 References 137 9
10 10
11 Notations coh hcoh lg " H ut (E) B(B) B Bimod, B Mod C(X, Y ) Ch 0 Coalg R Comod C grmod 0 R Hom (X, Y ) M N C Hcoinvariants of homotopy Hcoinvariants of category of augmented Hcomodule algebras group of automorphisms of E bar construction on B category of Bbimodules homset of morphisms from X to Y in a small category C category of nonnegatively graded chain complexes over a field category of Rcoalgebras category of Ccomodules category of graded Rmodules homomorphisms from X to Y cotensor product of M and N over C M X M is semifree on X M W category of W comodules in the category Mod Mod category of modules Set category of sets sset category of simplicial sets X c X is a cofibrant object X f X is a fibrant object X G Gfixed points of X (; H; ) onesided cobar construction on an Hcomodule algebra (; H; H) twosided cobar construction on an Hcomodule algebra (C) cobar construction on C! wea equivalence fibration cofibration 11
12 12
13 Introduction The origins of (homotopic) HopfGalois theory It is certainly classical Galois theory that lies at the origin of (homotopic) HopfGalois theory. Given a finite algebraic field extension :,! E, an important object associated to is the group of automorphisms of the field E that fix, which we denote by G. The extension :,! E is called GGalois if it is normal and separable. In this case, the Galois correspondence {fields M : M E}!{subgroups N apple G} holds. To a field M it associates the group ut M (E) of automorphisms of E that fix M, andtoagroupn it associates the field of fixed points E N, thus defining a bijection between the set of intermediate field extensions of :,! E, and the set of subgroups of the Galois group G. The first generalization of the Galois theory goes bac to the sixties and the wor of uslander and Goldman [G60], who were the first to generalize the notion of Galois extension to commutative rings. This theory was developed further by Chase, Harrison and Rosenberg in [CHR65], who proposed six equivalent ways of characterizing a Galois extension of commutative rings. One of these equivalent characterizations was formulated in terms of two particular maps associated to this extension. Namely, an inclusion of commutative rings : R,! S was called GGalois for G apple ut R (S), finite, if certain maps i : R,! S G and : S R S! Y G S (see Section 2.4.2) areisomorphismsofralgebras, where S G is the ring of Gfixed points in S and Q G S is the set of all Gindexed sequences of elements in S, equipped with pointwise multiplication. In the case where S and R are fields, the definitions of uslander and Goldman, and Chase, Harrison and Rosenberg coincide with the original definition of a finite Galois extension of fields. This not only offered a different, zoomedout perspective on what it means for a finite field extension to be Galois, but it also turned out to be fruitful for proving a version of Galois 13
14 correspondence for commutative rings ([CHR65]) and crucial for the future developments of Galois and (homotopic) HopfGalois theory in various contexts. dualization of the theory started with the emergence of HopfGalois extensions of (not necessarily commutative) algebras over a commutative ring R. This notion was first developed in a purely algebraic context, by Chase and Sweedler in [CS69] and by Kreimer and Taeuchi in [KT81]. The idea was to dualize the framewor, by replacing the action of a group G by a coaction of a Hopf Ralgebra H. HopfGalois data consist of a morphism of Hcomodule Ralgebras ' : B!, where B is augmented and has the trivial Hcoaction. One should not be surprised to learn that ' will be an HHopfGalois extension, if a relevant pair of maps, associated to ', are isomorphisms. These maps are the Galois map ' : B B / B H µ H / H, defined in Section 2.2.2, and the comparison map i ' : B! coh. Here is the Hcoaction on, and coh denotes the Hcoinvariants of. HopfGalois extensions are noteworthy for numerous reasons. It turns out that a HopfGalois extension arises naturally from a free group action on a set, as we will explain in Example , and they can also be used as a tool in the study of the structure of Hopf algebras themselves ([Sch04]). Moreover, HopfGalois extensions have an important relation to descent theory. The classical descent problem for rings can be informally formulated as follows. Given an inclusion of (not necessarily commutative) rings i : B! and an module M, whatextrastructureonm guarantees that there exists a Bmodule N, suchthatn B = M? In order to answer this question, one needs to wor with the category D(i) of descent data, associated to i, which is actually isomorphic to the category M W i can of right B comodules in Mod. Given a Hopf algebra H that is flat over a commutative ring R, Schneider s structure theorem, established in [Schn90], states that i : B! is an HHopfGalois extension, such that is faithfully flat over B, if and only if the category Mod B is equivalent to the category M W of right Hcomodules in Mod (i.e., ' satisfies effective descent). The philosophy of homotopy theorists consists in studying objects and concepts up to homotopy. So, a homotopic HopfGalois extension, living in whichever category, will tae into account the homotopical information contained in the model structure of this category. 14
15 The first homotopic analog of Galois theory was studied in [Rog08] by Rognes, in the category of structured ring spectra. He formulated the definition of a Galois extension of ring spectra (which mimiced the definition from [CHR65]) and studied many of their properties, such as their behavior under cobase change. Rognes also proved a full version of homotopic Galois correspondence for ring spectra. He discovered that the unit map from the sphere spectrum S to the complex cobordism spectrum MU, can not be realized as a Galois extension, for any group spectrum G, but rather constitutes an example of a homotopic HopfGalois extension for the Hopf algebra given by 1 BU +, the unreduced suspension spectrum of BU. Motivated by the desire to provide a general framewor in which to study homotopic HopfGalois extensions, Hess laid the foundations of a theory of HopfGalois extensions in monoidal model categories in [Hes09], generalizing both the classical case of rings and its extension to ring spectra. Just as in the algebraic case, there exists a close relation between homotopic HopfGalois extensions and homotopic descent theory, for which a new homotopytheoretic framewor was developed by Hess in [Hes10] for simplicially enriched categories, and by Müller in [Mul11] for categories enriched in an arbitrary model monoidal category V. In this spirit, Berglund and Hess established in [BH12] that a homotopic analog of Schneider s result holds and allows one to view homotopic HopfGalois extensions of dgalgebras as an interesting class of morphisms, satisfying effective descent. In [Hes09] homotopic HopfGalois extensions in two particular examples of categories were briefly studied. These were the category of simplicial monoids and the category of finitetype chain algebras of vector spaces. The topic of this thesis taes its roots in [Hes09] and develops in yet another category of interest, the category of chain complexes of vector spaces. It also taes its inspiration from the wor of Rognes [Rog08]. The goal of this thesis is to refine the definition of homotopic Hopf Galois extensions proposed in [Hes09] (see Definition ), which allows us to study the behavior of homotopic HopfGalois extensions in Ch 0 under cobase change and to prove successfully one direction of homotopic Hopf Galois correspondence. We show that if ' : B! is a homotopic H HopfGalois extension, and g : H! K is an inclusion of cocommutative dghopfalgebras of finite type, then hcok! is always a homotopic K HopfGalois extension, and B! hcok is a homotopic H hcok HopfGalois extension, provided that is semifree as a Bmodule. 15
16 Organization of the thesis Chapter 1 gathers the categorical, algebraic and modeltheoretic bacground material that we will need for studying homotopic HopfGalois extensions. In particular, the model category section contains all the right and lefttransfer results that we will need to ensure that our categories of interest are equipped with the appropriate model structures. The lefttransfer results appear in a very recent preprint [BHKKRS14]. One can formulate reasonable conditions under which a quasiisomorphism of algebras (respectively, of corings) induces a Quillen equivalence on the categories of modules (respectively, the categories of comodules over corings). Reciprocally, one can determine when having a Quillen equivalence implies that the underlying morphism is a quasiisomorphism. These characterizations, some of which were established in [BH12], are given in Chapter 1 and will prove extremely useful to us throughout the thesis. The goal of Chapter 2 is to introduce our definition of homotopic Hopf Galois extensions. This definition involves the homotopy coinvariants of a coaction of a Hopf algebra, so we will first need to now how to calculate the homotopy coinvariants hcoh of an Hcomodule algebra. Tobeabletodo this, it is important to have valid models for fibrant replacements in the category lg " 0 H of augmented Hcomodule algebras in Ch. They will be given by the twosided cobar construction (; H; H), sothat hcoh is modeled by the onesided cobar construction (; H; ). The twisted multiplication, defined in Corollary 3.6 [HL07], allows us to endow both (; H; H) and (; H; ) with a natural differential graded algebra structure. We explain the construction of the Galois functor ( ' ) : M W ' can! M W and the comparison functor (i ' ) : Mod hcoh! Mod B, which are essential to our definition of a homotopic HopfGalois extension (Definition 2.3.1). To mae connections between this definition and other concepts of (nonhomotopic) (Hopf)Galois extensions, mentioned earlier in this Introduction, we end Chapter 2 with a more detailed panorama of (homotopic) HopfGalois theory. Chapter 3 explores the behavior of homotopic HopfGalois extensions of commutative algebras under cobase change. The commutativity assumption guarantees that the pushout of two algebras B 0 and over an algebra B, is given by the coequalizer B 0 B. Given a homotopic HHopfGalois extension ' : B! and its pushout ' : B 0! B 0 B along a map f, we explain in detail how the pairs of associated Quillen equivalences ( ' ), (i ' ) and ( ' ), (i ' ) are related. fter that, we address the question of preservation if ' is HHopfGalois, when is ' HHopfGalois? (Proposition 3.2.7), followed by the question of reflection if ' HHopfGalois, under which conditions was 'HHopfGalois? (Proposition 3.3.5). In both cases, 16
17 ( we wor under conditions such that the results from Chapter 1 on relation between quasiisomorphisms and associated Quillen equivalences are applicable, which facilitates our tas. We need primarily to impose semifreeness and homological faithfulness assumptions on some of the algebras. The fourth chapter of this thesis is devoted to establishing the bacward direction of homotopic HopfGalois correspondence in Ch 0. We will need to wor in the framewor of conormality, developed in [FH12] anddualto the Galois framewor. n important observation is the following. Since we are woring up to homotopy, studying a homotopic HHopfGalois extension ' is equivalent to studying the normal basis extension associated to ', H : (; H; )! (; H; H), which is also homotopic HHopfGalois. So, instead of woring directly with the factorization B! hcok!, we wor with a certain commuting diagram of cobar constructions. Here is the exact statement of our HopfGalois correspondence result. We refer the reader to the body of the thesis for the necessary definitions and terminology. Theorem (Theorem 4.3.6). Let be a field and g : H! K amorphism of cocommutative, 1connected, degreewise finitely generated Hopf algebras in Ch 0,suchthatK 2 =0. Let ' : B! be a homotopic H HopfGalois extension in Ch 0 and consider the following diagram (; H; ) H / ' (; H; H) / (; K; K),! K SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS) 5 (; K; ) where H and K denote the normal basis homotopic HopfGalois extensions, associated to Hopf algebras H and K, respectively.if (1) is semifree as a left Bmodule on a generating graded module X, such that X n is finitely generated for all n 0; and (2) g :(H, H,d H ),! (K, K,d K ) is an inclusion of differential graded coalgebras, then the map! : (; H; ) / (; K; ) is a generalized homotopic (H; K; )HopfGalois extension in Ch 0. Using results from Chapter 1 on the relation between quasiisomorphisms and associated Quillen equivalences, the proof proceeds by establishing that 17
18 the comparison map i! and the Galois map! are quasiisomorphisms, which is done in several steps. In particular, properties of twisted extensions and of semifree extensions allow us to apply spectral sequence techniques to establish the existence of some of the intermediate quasiisomorphisms. Finally, Chapter 5 contains a few open questions. 18
19 Chapter 1 Bacground material 1.1 The zoo of categories Notation The following notation is used throughout this thesis. If is an object of a small category C, we write 2 C. The set of morphisms from 2 C to B 2 C is denoted by C(, B). The identity morphism on an object is denoted by or Id Monoidal categories language The goal of this section is to clarify the categorical context we are woring in, and also to fix notation. It starts with a brief reminder about monoidal categories, as well as related categories, such as the categories of (co)modules in a monoidal category, and then describes our categories of interest in this project. Definition monoidal category (M,, I) is a category M, together with a bifunctor : M M! M, called the monoidal product and an object I 2 M, called the unit, suchthat is associative and unital with respect to I. More precisely, this means that for every triple, B, C 2 M, there is given an isomorphism,b,c :( B) C! (B C), natural in, B, C, and for all 2 M, there exist isomorphisms l : I! and r : I!, 19
20 & natural in, suchthatthediagram (( B) C) D B,C,D / ( B) (C D),B,C D ( (B C)) D,B,C D,B C,D ((B C) D) B,C,D / (B (C D)) commutes for all, B, C, D 2 M, andthediagram,i,b / ( I) B (I B) r MMMMMMMMMM B xqqqqqqqqqq l B B commutes for all, B 2 M. monoidal category (M,, I) is called symmetric if, for all, B 2 M, there is given an isomorphism tw,b : B! B, naturalin an B, appropriately compatible (see Chapter 7, 7 in [McL98]) with the associativity isomorphism and the unit isomorphisms l and r, andsuch that tw B, = tw 1,B, i.e., such that the diagram B R tw B, / B = RRRRRRRRRRRR) tw,b B commutes. monoidal category (M,, I) is called closed if for any X 2 M, the functor X : M! M has a right adjoint, denoted Hom M (X, ):M! M. Notation To avoid heavy notation, we will omit the names of the natural isomorphisms, l, r and tw in the diagrams and simply write the symbol = when necessary. Example Our main underlying closed symmetric monoidal category in this project is the category of nonnegatively graded chain complexes of modules over a field, with differential of degree 1, denoted Ch 0,, [0]. Here, is the usual tensor product of chain complexes, and [0] stands for the chain complex with value, concentrated in degree 0. Occasionally, we will wor in the category Ch 0 R,,R[0] of chain complexes over a commutative ring R. 20
21 o Notation For any X 2 Ch 0,ifx2X m,wesaythatthedegree of x, denoted deg(x), is equal to m, for all m 0. Moreover, we adopt the notation X applem := {x 2 X :deg(x) apple m}, and will sometimes identify this set of elements with the chain complex X applem :!X m! X m 1!!X 1! X 0! 0. Remar Note that, given X, Y 2 Ch 0, the symmetry isomorphism is defined by for all x 2 X, y 2 Y. tw : X Y! Y X : x y 7! ( 1) deg(x)deg(y) y x, Notation For any X 2 Ch 0, we will denote by \X the underlying graded module of X. Terminology chain complex X 2 Ch 0 is connected if X 0 =, and is 1connected if X 0 =, X 1 =0. Definition Let (M,, I) be a symmetric monoidal category. monoid (, µ, ) in M consists of an object 2 M, equipped with two morphisms µ :! and : I! such that the following diagrams commute. µ / µ µ / µ / I P I µ = = PPPPPPPPPPPP' wnnnnnnnnnnnnn The monoid is commutative if the diagram tw, / = µ µ commutes. The category of monoids in (M,, I) will be denoted lg. 21
22 o o 2 Remar Under suitable assumptions on M, the forgetful functor U : lg! M, given on objects by U(, µ, )=, for any monoid, admits a left adjoint F lg : M! lg, called the free monoid functor, so that there exists an adjunction M F lg / U lg. For example, if M has all coproducts and is closed monoidal, then for all X 2 M, X : M! M preserves coproducts. In this case, F lg (X) :=(t n 0 X n,µ X, X ), for all X 2 M, with X 0 := I, where µ X is given by concatenation of tensors, and X is the inclusion of the summand I. comonoid (C, C," C ) in M consists of an object C 2 M, equipped with two morphisms C : C! C C and " C : C! I such that the following diagrams commute. C C / C C C C C C C C C / C C C C " C C I C O C gppppppppppppp C = C " C C / I C = nnnnnnnnnnnnn7 The comonoid C is cocommutative if the diagram C C C C tw C,C C C / = C C commutes. bimonoid (H, µ H, H, H," H ) in M consists of an object H 2 M, such that (H, µ H, H ) is a monoid in M, (H, H," H ) is a comonoid in M, µ H and H are morphisms of comonoids, where H H is equipped with the comonoid structure given by H H H H / H H H H H tw H,H H / = H H H H H H 22
23 and H H " H " H / / 4 I I = I, " H H and, moreover, " H H =Id I. Remar The condition µ H and H are morphisms of comonoids is equivalent to the condition H and " H are morphisms of monoids ; one just changes the viewpoint on the corresponding commuting diagrams. Definition Let be a monoid in (M,, I). The category Mod of right modules has as objects pairs (M,r), where M 2 M and r : M! M is a morphism that maes the following diagrams commute. M M µ M r / r M / M r M / = r wnnnnnnnnnnnnn M M I M The morphisms in Mod are morphisms in M that respect the structure maps r. For any monoid 2 M, there exists an adjunction M / o Mod, U where is the left adjoint, which sends X 2 M to (X, X µ ) 2 Mod,andU denotes the forgetful functor, given by (M,r) 7! M, for all (M,r) 2 Mod. One defines similarly the category Mod of left modules in M. Definition Let (M,, I) be a monoidal category that admits coequalizers. Given (, µ, ) 2 lg, (M,r) 2 Mod and (N,l) 2 Mod, one defines the tensor product of M and N over to be the coequalizer computed in M. M N := coequal M N r N / M l / M N Note that if (M,, I) admits coequalizers, then one can define the category Mod,, of bimodules, with the monoidal structure given by the tensor product. 23,
24 / / Definition Let C be a comonoid in (M,, I). The category Comod C of right Ccomodules has as objects pairs (M, ), where M 2 M and : M! M C is a morphism, maing the following diagrams commutative. M M C C M C M / M C C C M M C = wnnnnnnnnnnnn M " C M I The morphisms in Comod C are morphisms in M that respect the structure maps. For any comonoid C 2 M, there exists an adjunction Comod U / C o M, C where C is the right adjoint, sending X 2 M to (X C, X C ) 2 Comod C,andU is the forgetful functor, given by (M, ) 7! M, for all (M, ) 2 Comod C. Definition Let (M,, I) be a monoidal category that admits equalizers. Given (C, C," C ) a comonoid in M, (M, ) 2 Comod C and (N, ) 2 C Comod, one defines the cotensor product of M and N over C to be the equalizer computed in M. M N := equal M N N / C M / M C N Definition Let (M,, I) be a symmetric monoidal category and H a bimonoid in M. The category of right Hcomodule algebras in M will be denoted lg H. Its objects are monoids (, µ, ) in M, thatarealso equipped with a compatible Hcomodule structure (, ), i.e., such that the Hcoaction :! H is a morphism of monoids. Here, the monoid structure on H is defined by and µ H :( H) ( H) = H H µ µ H / H H : I = I I There exists a cofreeforgetful adjunction lg U / H o lg, H similar to the one in Definition H / H.,
25 Definition Let (M,, I) be a monoidal category and be a monoid in M. n coring (W,, ") is a comonoid in Mod,,. In other words, W is an object in M, equipped with a left action l : W! W, arightaction r : W! W, a comultiplication : W! W W, a counit " : W!, where l and r are compatible, is coassociative and counital with respect to ", and and " are both morphisms of bimodules. We now introduce two examples of corings that are essential for the rest of this project. Examples (1) Let ' : B! be a morphism of monoids in (M,, I). The canonical coring associated to ' is denoted by W' can and has as underlying bimodule B. It is endowed with the comultiplication ' can that given by the composite B = B B B ' B B / B B = ( B ) ( ). B The counit " can ' is the morphism µ : B! induced by the multiplication µ :!, using the definition of the tensor product B and the universal property of coequalizers. The left and right actions l' can and r' can on B are both induced by µ. (2) Let (H, µ H, H, H," H ) be a bimonoid in a symmetric monoidal category (M,, I) and let (, µ,, ) be an Hcomodule algebra. The tensor product H can naturally be endowed with the structure of an coring, denoted W, and called the coring associated to. Its left module action l is given by ( H) = ( ) H µ H / H, and its right module action r by ( H) H! H H = H H µ µ H! H, 25
26 o o o O o o where we have used the symmetry isomorphism in the second composite. The comultiplication is H / H H = ( H) ( H), and the counit " is defined by H " H / I =. Definition Let be a monoid in a symmetric monoidal category (M,, I) that has coequalizers, and let (W,, ") be an coring, with right action r : W! W. We denote by M W the category of right W  comodules over the coring, i.e., the category of right W comodules in Mod. n object of M W is a triple (M,, ), where M 2 M, : M! M is the right action on M and : M! M W is the W coaction on M. Recall that the object M W is computed as a coequalizer in M (see Definition ). Depending on the context, we will use for objects of M W the notation (M,, ), or(m, ), when the action is not relevant. Later on in this project, adjunctions of the form M W U / W Mod, will play an essential role (namely, in obtaining a model category structure on the category M W ). Here, W is the right adjoint, which sends (M,r) 2 Mod to (M W, M r, M ) 2 M W,andU is the forgetful functor, given by (M,, ) 7! (M, ), forall(m,, ) 2 M W. Remar We found helpful to end this section with a diagram offering a general view of our zoo of categories and adjunctions between them, with right adjoints always beneath and to the right of the corresponding left adjoints. lg H U / lg H F lg U Comod H U / M H / U Mod U / M W W Here M is a symmetric monoidal category, (e.g., M := Ch 0 ),, H are, respectively, a monoid and a bimonoid in M, andu denotes the forgetful functor. 26
27 / Lifting adjunctions In Section of this thesis, we will need to show the existence of (right) adjoints of certain functors. Different adjoint functor theorems exist and give methods for finding adjoints. Our situation will be somewhat particular, since we will be interested in lifting an existing adjunction. In other words, given an adjunction (F, G) between a pair of categories C and D, we will need to establish the existence of an adjunction ( ˆF,Ĝ) between another pair of categories Ĉ and ˆD that are related to C and D in a special way. Because of the particular nature of the adjunctions and functors involved, we will be able to use the djoint lifting theorem for comonadic functors, presented below. Remar Let K =(K,,") be a comonad on a category C. We denote by C K the EilenbergMoore category of Kcoalgebras in C. Its objects are pairs (C, ), where C 2 C and 2 C(C, KC) is a morphism satisfying K( ) = C and " C =Id C. morphisminc K from (C, ) to (C 0, 0 ) is a morphism f : C! C 0 in C such that K(f) = 0 f. Definition functor :W! C is called comonadic if there exists a comonad K =(K,,") on C and an equivalence of categories J : W! C K, such that the composite of functors U K J : W! C is naturally isomorphic to, where U K : C K! C denotes the left adjoint of the cofree coalgebra functor F K : C! C K, i.e., U K is the forgetful functor. Theorem (Dual version of Theorem 4.5.6, [Bor94]). Let Q B be a diagram of functors, where (i) L U = V Q; U C L / D V (ii) the functors U and V are comonadic; (iii) the category has all equalizers. Then the functor Q has a right adjoint, whenever L has a right adjoint. Francis Borceux offers in his boo [Bor94] a detailed proof of the dual result about lifting a left adjoint in a monadic context. The entry djoint lifting theorem on nlab can also be enlightening, because it reformulates and highlights the ey steps of Borceux s proof. 27
28 O o o O Remar Observe that the forgetful functor U K : C K! C is comonadic, for any comonad K on C. Therefore, Theorem is useful, for example, if one wishes to prove the existence of a right adjoint ˆR in the following situation ˆL / C K D K 0 ˆR U K F K U K 0 F K 0 C L / R where K, K 0 are comonads on C and D, respectively, and left adjoints are displayed on top and on the left Digression on Hopf algebras few words should be said about the concept of a (graded) Hopf algebra over a field or a commutative ring, as there are a few subtleties. The classical algebraic definition of a Hopf algebra over a field is the following. Definition Hopf algebra (H, µ H, H, H," H,S H ) over a field consists of an vector space H, together with five linear morphisms, such that (1) (H, µ H, H ) is a algebra; (2) (H, H," H ) is a coalgebra; (3) the maps µ H, H are morphisms of coalgebras (or, equivalently, H, " H are morphisms of algebras); and (4) the morphism S : H! H, called the antipode, maes the following diagram commute. H H S H H H w w wwwwwww; " H H / G GGGGGGGG R H # H H H S H D, / H HG GGGGGGGG µ H H # / ; H µ w wwwwwwww H / H H Example Let G be any group and a field. The group ring H := [G] :={ X g2g g g : g 2, for all g 2 G} 28
29 is a vector space with basis given by the set of elements of G. The algebra structure on [G] is given on basis elements by the group structure on G, and then extended linearly to all of [G]. One defines a coalgebra structure on [G] on basis elements by and [G] : [G]! [G] [G] :g 7! g g " [G] : [G]! : g 7! 1, for all g 2 G, and then extends it linearly to all of [G]. The antipode S : [G]! [G] is given by S(g) :=g 1,forallg 2 G. Example If the group G is finite, then the dual of the group ring H := Hom ([G], ) is also a Hopf algebra. Its algebra structure is defined by µ : Hom ([G], ) Hom ([G], )! Hom ([G], ) :f h 7! µ(f h), with µ(f h)(g) :=µ (f h) [G](g), for all g 2 G. Its coalgebra structure is given by the formal dual of the algebra structure: with : Hom ([G], )! Hom ([G], ) Hom ([G], ) :f 7! (f) (f)(g g 0 ):=f(gg 0 ), for all g, g 0 2 G. The antipode is S : Hom ([G], )! Hom ([G], ) :f 7! S(f) with S(f)(g) :=f(s (g)), for all g 2 G. Note that H = Hom ([G], ) is always commutative, and is cocommutative, if the group G is abelian. This example truly is a fundamental example for constructing Hopf algebras, in the sense that many Hopf algebras arise by dualizing a group structure. Example beautiful example of a Hopf algebra that is of interest to algebraic topologists is given by the direct sum H = L n 0 H n(x) of all homology groups of an Hspace X. Itisagraded Hopf algebra. In [MM65], Milnor and Moore introduced the definition of a graded Hopf lgebra H =(H,µ H, H, H," H ) over a commutative ring R. It consists of a nonnegatively graded Rmodule H, equipped with four morphisms of graded Rmodules, which satisfy properties, analogous to properties (1) (3) in the Definition , only in the graded setting. Observe that the antipode S is not explicitly part of the definition of a graded Hopf algebra, so that H is actually only a bialgebra in the category of graded Rmodules. However, if a graded Rbialgebra H is connected (see Terminology 1.1.8), then the bimonoid structure on H is sufficient to define an antipode map S : H! H, recursively for all x 2 H n and all n 0 (see Proposition in [HGK10]). 29
30 Terminology Since we will mainly wor in the symmetric monoidal category Ch 0,, [0] of differential graded modules over a field, by a Hopf algebra H we will mean a bimonoid (H, µ H, H, H," H ) in Ch 0 (which, eventually, will be taen to be connected). More precisely, a Hopf algebra is an object (H, d H,µ H, H, H," H ),such that (i) (H, d H ) is a nonnegatively graded chain complex, with differential d : H! H of degree 1, satisfying d 2 =0; (ii) (H, d H,µ H, H ) is a unital, associative, differential graded algebra, i.e., amonoidinch 0, with µ H and H of degree 0, andtheleibniz rule holds for all h, h 0 2 H; d H (hh 0 )=d H (h)h 0 +( 1) deg(h) hd H (h 0 ) (iii) (H, d H, H," H ) is a counital, coassociative, differential graded coalgebra, i.e., a comonoid in Ch 0, with H and " H of degree 0, andthe dual Leibniz rule H d H (h) = d H H + tw (d H H) tw H(h) holds for all h 2 H (see [Tan83], Definition 0.3 (7)), i.e., d H coderivation; is a (iv) µ H and H are morphisms of comonoids; (v) " H H =Id [0]. Remar We will see other topologically interesting examples of graded cocommutative Hopfalgebra in Section lgebraic tools Cobar construction and twisted structures The classical cobar construction ( ) is a functor from the category Coalg,1 R of 1connected, coaugmented differential coalgebras in Ch 0 R to the category lg ",0 R 0 of connected, augmented differential algebras in ChR. We will use the cobar construction in Chapter 2, in order to build valid models for fibrant replacements in the categories Comod C and lg C, which will allow us to define valid models for homotopy coinvariants of Ccomodules and Ccomodule algebras, under mild hypotheses on the coalgebra C. Before introducing the definition of the cobar construction for coalgebras of chain complexes, we recall some preliminary constructions. Our references 30
31 for this section are [Hes07], Chapter 10 in [Nei10] and Chapter 0 in [Tan83]. We fix a commutative ring R and denote by grmod 0 R the category of nonnegatively graded modules over R. Whenever we need to commute elements of a graded module past each other, or commute a morphism of graded modules past an element in its source, we will apply the Koszul sign convention. For instance, if X and Y are graded algebras, then for all x y, x 0 y 0 2 X Y their product is given by (x y) (x 0 y 0 )=( 1) mn xx 0 yy 0, if x 0 2 X m and y 2 Y n.lso,iff : X! X 0 and g : Y! Y 0 are morphisms of graded modules, of degree p and q, respectively, then we have for all x y 2 X m Y n. Reminder (f g)(x y) =( 1) mq f(x) g(y), (1) Let X 2 grmod 0 R. The tensor algebra on X, denoted T (X), is defined as follows. s a graded Rmodule, it is given by T (X) =R[0] X (X X) (X X X).... We write T (X) = L n 0 T n (X). n element of T (X), coming from the summand T n (X), will be denoted by x 1... x n. The multiplication µ : T (X) T (X)! T (X) is given on elementary tensors of length n by concatenation for all n, m The unit µ (x 1 x n ) (x 0 1 x 0 m) = x 1 x n x 0 1 x 0 m 0, x 1 x n 2 T n (X), x 0 1 x0 m 2 T m (X). : R[0]! T (X) is simply the inclusion. Moreover, the algebra T (X) is augmented via " : T (X)! R[0] defined by "(r) =r, forallr 2 R and "(v) =0, for all v 2 X. (2) For any (X, d) 2 Ch 0 R,thedesuspension of X is a chain complex (s 1 X, D) given by (s 1 X) n = X n+1, for all n 0 and D(s 1 (x)) = s 1 d(x), forallx 2 X. (Note that the suspension of X is a chain complex (sx, D 0 ) given by (sx) n = X n 1, for all n 0, where X 1 =0and where D 0 (s(x)) = sd(x), forallx 2 X). 31
32 (3) Given a coalgebra (C,,") in Ch 0 R, the associated reduced coalgebra is defined to be C =er(" : C! R[0]). If the coalgebra C is coaugmented, i.e., has a unit : R[0]! C, then " =Id R[0] and we have a direct sum decomposition C = C (R) = C R. The comultiplication :C! C C can be described by (1) = 1 1 and (c) =c 1+1 c + X i c i c i, for all c 2 C, and where c i,c i 2 C. Thus, the reduced comultiplication :C! C C is given for all c 2 C by (c) = X i c i c i. (4) n element c 2 C of a coaugmented coalgebra C is called primitive if (c) =c 1+1 c. coalgebra C is primitively generated if any c 2 C can be expressed as an Rlinear combination of primitive elements in C. Now we can state the definition of the classical cobar construction. lthough this construction is defined for any coaugmented coalgebra C, we will assume our coalgebras to be 1connected. This choice maes the cobar construction (C) easier to handle in degree 0. Definition Let R be a commutative ring. The cobar construction functor :Coalg,1 R! lg",0 R is defined as follows. For any (C, d C ) in Coalg,1 R, its cobar construction ( C, D C,µ C, C," C ) has the following description. s an augmented graded algebra, C := T (s 1 C),µ C, C," C i.e., it is the tensor algebra on the desuspension of the reduced coalgebra C. The differential D C maes C into a dga and is given by D C = d I + d E, 32
33 where d I is the internal differential, specified on generators by d I (s 1 c)= s 1 (d C (c)), for all c 2 C, and d E is the external differential, specified on generators by d E (s 1 c)= X i ( 1) deg c i s 1 c i s 1 c i, for all c 2 C. mapf 2 Coalg,1 R (C, C0 ) induces a map f 2 lg ",0 R ( C, C0 ), satisfying f(s 1 c)=s 1 f(c). In addition to classical cobar construction, we will need a few other ingredients for constructing fibrant replacements and homotopy coinvariants in Comod C and lg C in Chapter 2. Definition Let (C, d C ) 2 Coalg,1 R and (, d ) 2 lg ",0 R. twisting morphism from (C, d C ) to (, d ) is a morphism t : C! of graded Rmodules, of degree 1, suchthat d t + t d C = µ (t t) C. Example The universal twisting morphism, associated to a connected augmented chain coalgebra C is the morphism t : C! C specified by t (1) = 0 and t (c) =s 1 (c), foranyc 2 C. Twisting morphisms allow one to define twisted extensions. Definition Let (C, d C ) 2 Coalg,1 R, (, d ) 2 lg ",0 R and let t : C! be a twisting morphism. Let (N,d N ) be a right Ccomodule with coaction : N! N C and (M,d M ) a left module with action : M! M. The twisted extension of N by M is where (N,d N ) t (M,d M ):=(N M,D t ), D t = d N M + N d M +(N ) (N t M) ( M). In other words, the twisted extension of N by M has N M as its underlying graded Rmodule, and its differential has an additional term, involving the module and the comodule structure maps and t. Let : C! C 0 be a morphism of coalgebras, and (N, ) 2 Comod C, (N 0, 0 ) 2 Comod C 0. Note that induces a C 0 coaction (N ) on N. Let g :(N,(N ) )! (N 0, 0 ) 33
34 be a morphism of C 0 comodules. Let also :! 0 be a morphism of algebras, and (M, ) 2 Mod, (M 0, 0 ) 2 0 Mod. Similarly, induces an action 0 ( M 0 ) on M 0. Let g 0 :(M, )! (M 0, 0 ( M 0 )) be a morphism of modules. Suppose now that we are given t : C! and t 0 : C 0! 0 two twisting morphisms. If t = t 0, then g and g 0 induce a morphism of twisted extensions g g 0 :(N M,D t )! (N 0 M 0,D t 0):x y 7! g(x) g 0 (y) which is a morphism of chain complexes from (N M,D t ) to (N 0 M 0,D t 0). Notation To simplify notation slightly, we will write N t M instead of (N M,D t ). Thus, a morphism of twisted extensions induced by g and g 0 as above will be written g g 0 : N t M! N 0 t 0 M 0. Example The twisted extension (C, d C ) t ( C, D C )=C t C, associated to a connected augmented chain coalgebra C, is called the acyclic cobar construction. The reason for this terminology is that there exists a contracting homotopy c : C t C! C t C of chain complexes, such that C t C '! R[0] is a homotopy equivalence (see Proposition in [Nei10]). Proposition (Proposition 3.5(2), [HMS74]). Let (C, d C ) 2 Coalg,1 R and (, d ) 2 lg ",0 R.Thereisafunctorial,bijectivecorrespondence twisting morphisms t : C!! morphims of algebras t : C!, where t : C! gives rise to t : C!, determinedby t (s 1 c)=t(c), for all c 2 C; t : C! gives rise to t : C!, givenbythecomposite C t! C!. Example The morphism of algebras, associated via this correspondence to the universal twisting morphism t : C! C, is t =Id: C! C. 34
35 z Remar Let C 2 Coalg,1 R. If the comultiplication C on C is cocommutative, then one can define a comultiplication on C, which maes the cobar construction into a cocommutative Hopf algebra. We will now explain the construction. First of all, the fact that C is cocommutative ensures that the map C : C! C C is a map of coalgebras, because then the diagram C C / C C C C C C C (C C) (C C) C C C tw C = C C ) C C C C commutes. The desired comultiplication map C : C! C C is constructed as the composite C : C ( C) / (C C) m ' / C C, where m : (C C)! C C is a morphism of chain algebras, called the Milgram map. It is the map of algebras associated to the twisting morphism t t := t C " C + C " C t : C C! C C using the correspondence described in Proposition Unravelling the definition, we see that m is defined on generating elements of (C C) by 8 < 0, if deg(c 1 ) > 0, deg(c 2 ) > 0, m(s 1 (c 1 c 2 )) = 1 s 1 c 2, if c 1 =1, 8c 2 2 C, : s 1 c 1 1, if c 2 =1, 8c 1 2 C, for all s 1 (c 1 c 2 ) 2 (C C). Theorem (Theorem.1, [HPS07]). Let C and C 0 be coaugmented differential graded coalgebras in Ch 0 R. There exists a strong deformation retract of chain complexes C C 0 / o (C C 0 ) h. m In particular, m is a chain homotopy equivalence. 35