D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`-hw: bm-ymà- y-sa- v?

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1 05 ]-{Xm-[n-]À- v- ]-d-bm-\p-å-xvbp-àn-hm-zn-i-fp-ts-x-ã im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w! 1439 k^à ]p-kv-x-i-w 16 e- w 03 ]wàn-iä 04 hm-b-\- m-cp-ss- kw-hm-zw- 50 hnip-²- ]mx 10 ap-kv-x-^m X³-hoÀ D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`-hw: bm-ymà- y-sa- v? 16 \nk, ImkÀtKmUv DÂ]- n hnh-c-w- nse -"kv-{xo-bp-ss k- -Xn': hymjym-\- fnse sshcp-[y- Ä 30 A_vZp-Ãmlv sue³jn Rm³ Ckvemw kzoi-cn IY - 43 Bin-Izv imp-lm³ ^mdqizn `mcy-am-cpss {]hm-n-i³ - 46 XnÂaoZv \mkznlv H-Iv-täm-_À ^m-jn-k-s - p-dn- v- ]-d-bp- -Xv- 19 A_q Xaow Ckvem-an-t\m-SpÅ "Ncn{X']c-amb shdp pw tic-fhpw 32 B-Zn A-Xzo-^v hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³: km-ln-xy]c-amb A-Zzn-Xo-b-X 37 D½p AZo_v, Imbw-Ipfw tzh-zm-kn-iä: Ncn-{Xhpw ZÀi-\hpw 48 apln-ºpâ hzqzv kvt\l-ap-å-xpsimïv- AÃmlp \s½ ]cm-p-b-s -Sp- p Nne t\c- Ä Printed Published and owned by M. Mohammed Akbar Published From Salafi Masjid Building Vyttila, Ernakulam, Pin Published on 27/10/2018 Printed at Cochin Printech Pvt. Ltd. Plot No. 111/104, Eloor Udyogamandal P.O, Ernakulam Kerala Editor M.Mohammed Akbar Salafi Masjid Building, Vyttila Ernakulam, Pin Tel: Internet Edition 3

2 hmb-\- m-cp-ss kw-hmzw kvt\l-kw-hmzw amkni \nàh-ln- p- Xv {it²-b-amb ZuXy- Ä ^-ko-e -ap- p Sn.kn, hm-g-bqà F-UnäÀ kv-t\-l-kw-hm-zw amkn-i ]n._n. \-¼À 1981 ssh-äne, sim- nþ19 C-kv-em-an-I ZÀ-i-\w k-hn-ti-j-am-b NÀ- -IÄ- pw ]T-\- Ä- pw hn-t[- b-am-bn-s m-ïn-cn- p- H-cp Im-e- L-«- n-em-wv \-½Ä Po-hn- p- -Xv. C-kv-em-an-s\-Xn-sc hy-xy-kv-x tim- Wp-I-fn \n- p-b-cp- hn-aà-i-\- Ä- v Ir-Xy-am-bn a-dp-]-sn ]-d-bm-\pw C-kv-em-an-s\ {]-am-w-_-²-am-bn ]-cn- N-b-s -Sp- p-hm-\pw A-Xp-h-gn C-kvem-an-I {]-t_m-[-\-sa- _m-[y-x \n-à-h-ln- m-\pw B-{K-ln- p- -hà- v H-cp ap-xâ-iq-«m-wv kv-t\-l-kw-hm- Zw am-kn-i. e-fn-x-am-b B-Jym-\-ssien-bpw _p-²n-]-c-am-b A-]-{K-Y-\-hpw kv-t\-l-kw-hm-zw am-kn-i-sb C-X-c- {]-kn-²o-i-c-w- -fnâ \n- pw th-dn- «p-\n-à- p- p. C- pw k-aq-l- n-se a-lm-`q-cn-]- -hpw C-kv-em-an-s\- p-dn- v Xn-I-ª A-Ú-X-bn-tem Kp-cp-X-c-am-b sx -än-²m-c-w-bn-tem B-Wv \n-e-sim-åp- -Xv. C-kv-emw h-f-sc {]-Xn-tem-a-I-c -am-b B-ZÀ-i-am-sW- pw Nn- n- p- a-\p-jyà-s m- pw ]n- p-s-cm³ I-gn-bm- -hn-[w {]m-ir-x-am-sw- pw {]-N-cn - n- p-hm³ Nq-j-I-i-àn-IÄ simïp-]n-sn- ]-cn-{i-a- Ä \-S- ns m-ïn-cn- p- -Xv X-s Im-c-Ww. Zr-iy-þ-km-aq-ly am-[y-a- -fpw Nn-e {]-kn-²o-i-c- W- -fpw C-kv-em-w hn-aà-i-ià h-f-sc \- m-bn Zp-cp-]-tbm-Kw sn- p- p. C- -cw ]-cn-{i-a- Ä- v A-h-sc {]-tnm-zn- n- p- Xv C-kv-emw F-Ãm-hn-[ Nq-j-W- Ä- pw F-Xn-cm-bn \n-e-sim-åp- p F- -Xm-Wv. F-Ãm-hn-[ \n-b-{ -W- Ä- p-a-xo-x-am-bn Po-hn-Xw B-kz-Zn- -s -ts-ï-xm-sw- pw bm-sxmcp-hn-[ hn-e- p-i-fpw X- Ä- v _m-[-i-a-sã- pw I-cp-Xp- H-cp hn-`m-k-am-wv {]-hm-n-i³-am-cp-ss {]-t_m-[-\ Im-e-L-«- nâ X-s C-kv-em-an-s\- Xn-sc Xn-cn-ª-Xv. C- -hà ap-x-em-fn- - n-sâbpw km-{am-py-xz- n-sâ-bpw h-àm- -fm-bn {]-Xy- -s -Sp- p. a-\p-jy-\pw ssz-h- n-\p-an-s-bnâ a-[y-hà- n-i-sf kr-jv-sn- p- ]u-tcm-ln-xy-hpw C-kv-em-an-sâ F-XnÀ-]m-f-b- nâ X-s -bm-wv. C-kv-em-an-s\ X-a-kv-I-cn- m-\pw A-Xn-s\ `o-i-c-x-bp-am-bn k-ao-i-cn- p-hm-\pw {i-an- p-simïm-wv A-h-sc-Ãmw X- -fp-ss C-kv-emw hn-aà-i- \- -sf P-\-Io-b-am- p- -Xv. BÀ-P-h-an-Ãm- bp-àn-bnâ \n- pw cq-]-s -Sp- Nn-e an-yym-k- Â-]- Ä am-{x-am-wv A-h-cp-sS A-h-ew-_w. C-kv-em-an-s\ G-sX- n-epw \n-e- v `o-i-c-x-bp-ambn _-Ôn- n- -W-sa- nâ Xm-sg ]-d-bp- km- [y-x-i-fn-te-sx- n-epw H-s - n-epw h-kv-xp-\n-jvtam-bn sx-fn-bn- m³ hn-aà-i-ià _m-[y-ø-cm-wv. 1. ap-kv-enw-i-fnâ Iq-Sp-X t]-cpw `o-i-c-hm- Zn-I-fm-h-Ww. 2. `o-i-c-hm-zn-i-fnâ `q-cn-]- -hpw ap-kv-en-ifm-h-ww. 3. C-kv-em-an-I {]-am-w- Ä `o-i-c-x-sb {]-tnm-zn- n- p- -Xm-h-Ww. C-Xn H- m-a-s hm-zw hn-aà-i-ià t]m- -epw D- -bn- p-sa- v txm- p- n-ã. `o-i-c-hm-zn-iä- n-s-bn-epw ap-kv-enw-i-fnâ-s]-«-hà \yq-\mâ-\yq-- \-]- -am-sw- -Xm-Wv h-kv-xp-x.- ]-t tem-i- n-sâ G-sX- n-epw H-cp tim-wnâ H-cp C-Sn-sh- «n-bmâ t]m-epw A-Xn-\p-]n- nâ A-d-_n t]-cp-å kw-l-s-\-i-sf Xn-c-bm³ Zq-c-ZÀ-in-\n-bpw kq- va-zà-in-\n-bp-ta- n am-[y-a- Ä a-õ-c- n-em-wv. ]-t C³-Uym K-h -saân-\v G-ä-hp-a-[n-Iw X-e-th-Z-\ kr-jv-sn- p- -Xv am-thm-bn-ìp-i-fmsw- k-xyw A-hÀ ku-i-cy-]qà-hw a-d- p-sh- p- p. DÄ-^, t_m-tum, \m-km en-_-td-j³ {^-ïv Xp-S- n-b `o-i-c-kw-l-s-\-i-sf- p-dn- pw A-hÀ G-sd- p-sd a-b- - n-em-wv. ]- m-_nse Jm-en-Øm³ `o-i-cm-hm-zn-i-sf- p-dn- v NÀ- sn- -s -Sp-t¼m-gpw kn-jv a-xw {]-Xn- q-«nâ I-bdp- n-ã F- -Xv H-cp h-kv-xp-x-bm-wv. C³-Uy-bpsS N-cn-{X- n-se X-s G-ä-hpw h-en-b `o-i-cm- {I-a-W- -fnâ H- m-bn-cp- p cm-jv-{s-]n-xm-hm-b a-lm-ßm-km-ôn-bp-ss h-[w. G-sX- n-epw H-cp hyàn-bp-ss ss\-an-jn-i-am-b ssh-im-cn-i hn-t m-`- nâ \n- p-ïm-b H-cp Zp-c- -am-bn-cp- n-ã A-Xv. a-dn- v Ir-Xy-am-b B-kq-{X-W- n-eq-ss \-S- m- -s -«H-cp `o-i-c-]-²-xn-bm-bn-cp- p. C-Xn-\p-]n- - nâ {]-hà- n- ln-µp-xz `o-i-c-hm-zn-i-fp-ss ]n- ³-Km-an-I-fm-b "k-\m-x³ k³-kv-x'sb t]m-ep-å kw-l-s-\-iä C³-Uy-bn C- pw {]-hà- n- psim-ïn-cn- p- p. Im-cyw C- -s\-sbm-s B-sW- n-epw I-ivao-cn-se Nn-e t]m-cm-fn {Kq- p-iä am-{x-am-wv am- [y-a- -fp-ss I- nâ `o-i-c-hm-zn-iä. B-tKm-f Øn-Xn-hn-ti-j- Ä A-]-{K-Yn- p-t¼m-gpw Øn-Xn hy-xy-kv-x-a-ã. tem-i- v H-cp ap-kv-enw cm-jv-{s-hpw A-ap-kv-enw cm-jv-{s- -fp-ss taâ I-S- m-{i-a-ww \-S- n-bn-«n-ã. F- mâ c-ïmw tem-i a-lm-bp-²- n-\p-ti-jw am-{xw A-ta-cn- C-S-s]-«-Xv A-dp- ]- n-b-t m-fw cm-jv-{s- -fn-em-wv. In-g- ³ bqtdm- n-se F-{X-sb-{X kzm-x-{ y-k-a-c t]m- -cm-«- -sf-bm-wv tkm-hn-b-äv km-{am-py-xzw tnm-cbnâ ap- n-s m- -Xv. A-bÀ-e-ïn-s\ ss{i-kv-x-h cm-jv-{s-am- m³ th-ïn km-bp-[ t]m-cm-«- Ä \-S- n-b "sf-dn-jv dn- -»n- ³ BÀ-an' ss{ikv-x-h `o-i-c-kw-l-s-\-sb- v hn-fn- -s -Sp- n-ã. ^-e-kv-xo³ P-\-X-sb kz- w \m-«nâ A-`-bmÀ- n-i-fm- p-i-bpw A-h-cp-sS-ta {Iq-c-am-b aà-z- \- Ä A-gn- p-hn-sp-i-bpw sn- p- Pq-X-k-b-Wn- Ìp-I-Ä-t]m-epw ]m-ým-xy am-[y-a- -fp-ss I- nâ `o-i-c-hm-zn-i-f-ã. aym³-am-dnâ \-S-am-Sn-s m-ïn-cn- p- _u-²-`o-i-c-x-bp-ss-bpw A-h-Ø C-Xp-t]m-- se X-s -bm-wv. taâ-]-d-b-s -«`o-i-c-kw-l-s-\- I-fn \n- pw am-xr-i-bpä-s m-ïp-sim-ïm-wv ap-kv-enw-i-fnâ-s]-«h-cp \yq-\mâ \yq-\-]- w `o-i-c-hm-z- n-sâ h-gn sx-c-sª-sp- -Xv. C- -cw H-ä-s -«{Kq- p-i-sf D-bÀ- n- m-«n-bm-wv C-kv-emw `o-i-c-hm-z-am-sw- {]-Nm-c-Ww tem-i-am-[y-a- Ä \-S- n-s m-ïn-cn- p- -Xv. Xo-{h-hm-Z- n-sâ-bpw `o-i-c-hm-z- n-sâ-bpw amà-k- n-te- v hy-xn-n-en- k-tlm-z-c- -sf t\-cm-b ]m-x-bn-te- v sim-ïp-hcm-\pw `o-i-c-x C-kv-em-an-sâ B-i-b-a-sÃ- p--å bm-ymà- yw tem-i-s ]Tn- n- m\pw C-kv-eman-I {]-t_m-[-\w am-{x-am-wv t]mw-h-gn! ½ 4

3 - ]-{Xm-[n-]À- v- ]-d-bm-\p-å-xv- bp-àn-hm-zn-i-fp-ts-x-ã im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w! "im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[-s -bpw am-\-hn-i-x-sb-bpw A-t\z-j-W-þ]-cn-jv- I-c-W- -fp-ss B-ßm-hn-s\-bpw hn-i-kn- n- p-i' (to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform) Hm-tcm C- y³ ]u-c-sâ-bpw D- -c-hm-zn- -am-sw- v ]-Xn-s\m- v ]u-c-_m-[y-x-isf- p-dn- v {]-kv-xm-hn- p- `-c-w-l-s-\-bp-ss 51 F h-ip- n-sâ 4 F `m-k- v (Art. 51A, Part IVA of the Indian Constitution) ]-d-bp- p-ïv. ap-t m-«v Ip-Xn- p sim-ïn-cn- p- H-cp hn-i-kz-c-cm-jv-{s-sa- \n-e-bnâ ]u-c- mà- n-s-bnâ imkv-{xm-h-t_m-[w h-fà- m³ th-ïn {i-an-t -ï-xv \m-sn-s\-bpw \m-«p-im-sc-bpw kv-t\-ln- p- -h-cp-ss-sb-ãmw _m-[y-x-bm-sw- h-kv-xp-x-bm-wv `-c-w-l-s-\ C-hn-sS hy-à-am- p- -Xv. im-kv-{x-t_m-[-hpw A-t\z-j-Wm-ß-I-X-bp-an-Ãm- ]u-c- m-cpä-s m-åp- H-cp cm-{ã-kw-hn-[m-\- n-\v ]p-xn-b tem-i-{i-a- nâ am-\y-am-bn \n-e\nâ- m³ t]m-epw I-gn-bn-Ã. im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[-ap-å k-aq-l- n-te K-th-j-W- -fpw au-en-i-am-b ]T-\- -fpw I-ïp-]n-Sp- - -fp-sa-ãmw \-S- p-i-bp-åq. tem-i- n-\p ap-¼nâ \-½p-sS \m-sv X-e-bp-bÀ- n \nâ- -Wsa- m-{k-ln- p- -h-sc-ãmw ]u-c- m-cnâ im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w h-fà- -W-sa- `-c-w-l-s-\m-\nà-tz-iw ]m-en- -W-sa- v ]-d-bp- -Xv A-XpsIm-ïm-Wv. im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[-sa- v \mw a-e-bm-f- nâ ]-cn-`m-j-s -Sp- n-bn-cn- p- - Xv "k-bân-^n-iv ss-¼à' (scientific temper) F- Cw- o-jv ]-Z-Zz-b-s -bm-wv. im-kv-{x-t_m-[-hpw A-t\z-j-Wmß-I-X-bp-an-Ãm- ]u-c- m-cpäs m-åp- H-cp cm-{ã-kw-hn-[m- \- n-\v ]p-xn-b tem-i-{i-a- nâ am-\y-am-bn \n-e\nâ- m³ t]m-epw I-gn-bn-Ã. im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[-ap-å k-aq-l- n-te K-th-j-W- -fpw au-en-i-am-b ]T-\- -fpw I-ïp-]n- Sp- - -fp-sa-ãmw \-S- p-i-bp-åq. 5

4 ]-{Xm-[n-]À- v- ]-d-bm-\p-å-xv- Cu ]-Z-Zz-bw tem-i- v X-s B-Zy-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- -Xv kzm-x-{ -C- y-bp-ss B- Zy-s {]-[m-\-a-{ n-bm-bn-cp- P-h-lÀem s\-lv-dp-hm-wv. 1946 ]p-d- n-dn- n-b X-sâ hn-jym-x-am-b "C- y-sb I-sï- Â' (The Discovery of India) F- {K-Ù- nsâ 512þmw- ]p-d- nâ A-t±-lw F-gp-Xn: "im-kv-{xo-b k-ao-]-\w, km-l-kn-i-hpw hn-aà-i-\m-ß-i-hp-am-b im-kv-{xm-h-t_m- [w, k-xy- n-sâ-bpw \-h-hn-úm-\- - fp-ss-bpw A-t\z-j-Ww, ]-co- n- v D-d- p h-cp- m-sx-bpw hn-nm-c-w Iq-Sm-sX-bpw bm-sxm- pw kzo-i-cn- m-xn-cn- Â, ]p-xn-b sx-fn-hp-i-fp-ss A-Sn-Øm-\- nâ ap-¼p-å \n-k-a-\- -sf am-äm-\p-å ti-jn, t\-c-s bp-å kn-²m- - nâ A-Ån- n-sn- p- -Xn- \p ]-I-cw \n-co-j-wm-ß-i-am-b h-kv-xp-x- I-sf B-{i-bn- Â, a-\-ên-sâ ITn-\-am-b A- -S- w F- n-h-bm-wv \-ap- m-h-iyw. im-kv-{x- n-sâ {]-tbm-k- n-\p-th-ïn am- {X-a-Ã, Po-hn-X- n-\p X-s -bpw, A-Xn-se ]-e {]-iv-\- -fp-ss-bpw ]-cn-lm-c- n-\pw C-Xm-h-iy-am-Wv.' ]u-c-_m-[y-x-bm-bn `-c-w-l-s-\ {]-kv- Xm-hn- im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w h-fà- p- - Xn-\v th-ïn-sb- v {]-Jym-]n- p-sim-ïv `m-c-x-kà- m-dn-sâ "Iu -knâ Hm-^v k-bân-^n-iv B³-Uv C³-U-kv-{Sn-b dnkà- n'\v (CSIR) Io-gn-ep-Å "\m-j- W C³-Ìn-äyq-«v Hm-^v k-b³-kv Bâv C³-^À-ta-j³ dn-tkm-gv-kv' (NISCAIR), 2013 ap-xâ "tpà-wâ Hm-^v k-bân-^n-iv ssw-s]à' F- t]-cnâ X-s H-cp im-kv- {X-s{sX-am-kn-I ]p-d- n-d- p- p-ïv s^-{_p-h-cn 28 tz-io-b im-kv-{x-zn-\-am-bn ti-{µ-kà- m-cn-\v Io-gn-ep-Å "\m-j-wâ Iu -knâ t^mà k-b³-kv Bâv ss-ivt\m-f-pn I-½yq-Wn-t -j³' {]-Jym-]n- -Xpw s\-lv-dp-hn-b³ ho- -W- n-ep-å im-kv- {Xm-h-t_m-[w h-fà- p- -Xn-\v th-ïn-bp- Å {i-a- -fn-sem- v F- v ]-d-ªp-simïm-bn-cp- p. \n-co-iz-c-hm-zn-bm-wv Xm-s\- v kz-bw {]-Jym-]n- -bm-fm-wv P-h-lÀ-em s\-lv-dp-sh- n-epw A-t±-lw ]-d-ª im-kv- {Xm-h-t_m-[w C- y³-]u-c- m-cn-se-ãmw h-fà- p h-tc-ï-xp-sï- Im-cy- nâ \m-sn-s\ kv-t\-ln- p- a-x-hn-izm-kn-iä- mà-s - n-epw kw-i-b-ap-ïm-hp-sa- v txm- p- n-ã. im-kv-{x-km-t -Xn-I-cw-K- - fnâ Ip-Xn- p-nm-«- Ä \-S- m³ \m- {]m-]- n-i-{]-xn-`m-k- -sf- p-dn- ]T-\- n-\v a-\p-jy-t\m-fw X-s ]-g- -ap-sï- m-wv DÂ-J-\-\-K-th-j- W- Ä hy-à-am- p- -Xv. H-cp-hn-[w F-Ãm \m-k-cn-i-x-i-fn-epw {]-]- -s bpw Np-äp-]m-Sp-I-sf-bpw Ip-dn- ]T-\- Ä \-S- n-cp- p. Cu ]T-\- -fn-e- [n-i-hpw A-h-cp-sS a-x-t m-tsm- -tam a-x- n-sâ `m-k-tam B-bn \-S- -h-bmbn-cp- p-sh- m-wv a-\-ên-em-ip- -Xv. Sn-s\ ]-cym-]v-x-am- p- -Xn-\v ap- nâ \nâ- p- -h-cn-e-[n-i-hpw ssz-h-hn-izm-kn-i-fpw a-x-hn-izm-kn-i-fp-am-sw- h-kv-xp-x BÀ- m- W-dn-bm- -Xv?!! "tpà-wâ Hm-^v k-bân-^n- Iv ssw-s]à' s{sx-am-kn-i- nâ C-Xp-h-sc h- K-th-j-W-]T-\- Ä ]-cn-tim-[n- mâ, A-h-bn an- -Xn-sâ-bpw IÀ- m- Ä sszh-hn-izm-kn-i-fpw a-x-hn-izm-kn-i-fp-am-sw- v Im-Wm³ I-gn-bpw. tz-io-b im-kv-{x-zn-\- nsâ `m-k-am-bn \-S- t{]m-{km-ap-i-fn-se k-poh-km- n-[yw ]-cn-tim-[n- m-epw A-h-bn-e- [n-i-hpw ssz-h-hn-izm-kn-i-fm-bn-cp- p-sh- h-kv-xp-x a-\-ên-em-ipw. a-x-hy-xym-k-tam B-i-b-hy-Xn-cn-à-X-I-tfm ]-cn-k-wn- m-sx C- y-sb kv-t\-ln- p- ap-gp-h³ t]-cpw \m- «n-se ]u-c- mà- n-s-bnâ im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w h-f-c-w-sa- pw \n-e-\nâ- -W-sa- pw B-{Kln- p- -h-cm-wv F- h-kv-xp-x-bm-wv C-hsb-Ãmw hy-à-am- p- -Xv. im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[-sa- mâ `u-xn-i-hm-zkzo-i-c-w-am-sw- v h-cp- n XoÀ- p- -Xn-\p th-ïn-bp-å ]-cn-{i-a- Ä- v ti-c-f- n-sâ sx-cp-hp-iä km- n-i-fm-bn-s m-ïn-cn- p- hà- -am-\-im-e- n-sâ `q-an-i-bnâ k-b³sk-hn-ss-\n- p-ïm-bn-sb- pw k-b³-knâ \n- p-ïm-th-ï-sx- m-wv F- p-ap-å A-t\z-j-W- n-\v G-sd {]-k-àn-bp-ïv. {]m-]- n-i-{]-xn-`m-k- -sf- p-dn- ]T-\- n-\v a-\p-jy-t\m-fw X-s ]-g- - ap-sï- m-wv DÂ-J-\-\-K-th-j-W- Ä hy-à-am- p- -Xv. H-cp-hn-[w F-Ãm \m-kcn-i-x-i-fn-epw {]-]- -s -bpw Np-äp-]m-- Sp-I-sf-bpw Ip-dn- ]T-\- Ä \-S- n-cp- p. Cu ]T-\- -fn-e-[n-i-hpw A-h-cpsS a-x-t m-tsm- -tam a-x- n-sâ `m-ktam B-bn \-S- -h-bm-bn-cp- p-sh- m-wv a-\-ên-em-ip- -Xv. kp-ta-dn-b- m-cpw Cu- Pn-]v-Xp-Im-cp-sa-Ãmw B-Im-i-\n-co- -Ww \-S- p-i-bpw `u-a-{]-xn-`m-k- -sf ] T-\-hn-t[-b-am- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xn-cp- p-sh- -Xn-\v sx-fn-hp-i-fp-ïv. {In-kv-Xp-hn-\v G-gv \q-äm-ïp-iä- v ap³-]v X-s {Ko-kn-epw tdm-an-epw t] À-jy-bn-ep-sa-Ãmw Ir-Xy-am-b {]-]- -] T-\-kw-cw-`- Ä cq-]-s -«n-cp- p. A-cnkv-täm-«n-epw BÀ-s -sa-uo-kpw lnt m-{i-ä-kpw Km-e-\pw tsm-f-an-bpw bq- n-up-sa-ãmw X- Ä {]-Ir-Xn-X-Xzim-kv-{Xw (Natural Philosophy) F- v hn-fn- A- -s im-kv-{x-cw-k-s A-Xn-Im-b- m-cm-bn-cp- p. {]-Ir-Xn-]T-\- cw-k-s bq-tdm- n-sâ ap-t -äw X-Icm³ Xp-S- p- -Xv tdm-am-km-{am-py- nsâ ]-X-\-t m-sv Iq-Sn-bm-sW- m-wv N-cn-{X-Im-c- m-cnâ ]-e-cpw ]-d-ªn-«p-å- Xv. {In-kv-Xm-Ðw A- mw \q-äm-ïn-sâ A- h-km-\w ap-xâ ]-Xn-\m-dmw \q-äm-ïn-sâ B-Zyw h-sc bq-tdm- n-sâ C-cp-ï bp-k (dark age)am-bm-wv A-dn-b-s -Sp- -Xv. ]p-- cm-x-\ {Ko-kn-sâ-bpw tdm-an-sâ-bpw ssh-úm-\n-iu- -Xy- nâ \n- v A- [x-]-xn- p-i-bpw A-dn-hn-t\m-Sv ]p-dw Xn-cn-ªp\nÂ- p-i-bpw sn-bv-x bq-tdm-]y-- m-cp-ss Im-e-am-Wn-Xv. F- p-sim-ïn- Xp kw-`-hn- p-sh- tnm-zy- n-\v hy-xykv-x-am-b D- -c- Ä \-ÂI-s -«n-«p-ïv. Po-hn-X-s - p-dn- v Ku-c-h-X-c-am-bn Nn- n- n-cp- ]u-cm-wn-i-cnâ \n- v hy-xykv-x-am-bn Po-hn-Xw kp-jn- p-hm³ am-{xap-å-xm-sw- ho- -W- n-te- p-å ]-X-\- nâ \n- m-wv ssh-úm-\n-i-c- K- pw A-hÀ B-]-Xn- -Xv F- m-wv a-\- Ên-em-Ip- -Xv. a-[y-im-e-s bq-tdm-]y³ c-n-\-i-fnâ ap-gp-h³ \n-d-ªp\nâ- p- -Xv B-k-àn-bpw kzmà-y-x-bp-am-wv. Xym-K-am-h-iy-ap-Å ssh-úm-\n-i-k-]- 6

5 cy-iä- v B-k-àn-sb Po-hn-X-e- y-am- n-b-hà- v km-[n- p-i-bn-ã-tãm. ssh-úm-\n-i-c-k- v bq-tdm- v C-cp-ïm-]-Xn- n-cp- a-[y-im-e- v tem-iw C-cp-«n-em-bn-cp- p-sh- v I-cp- Xp- -hà- v sx-än. B-[p-\n-I-im-kv- {X- n-sâ A-Sn- -d-bm-bn hà- n- \n-co- -Wm-ß-I-hn-i-I-e-\-co-Xn- v A-Sn- -d-bp-ïm-b-xv C- m-e- m-wv F- -Xm-Wv bm-ymà-yyw. C- m-e-s im-kv-{x-{]-xn-`-i-fn-e-[n-i-hpw a-[y-]u-- c-kv-xy-tz-i- v \n- p-å-h-cm-bn-cp- p. A-Xn-\v k-hn-ti-j-am-b H-scm-ä Im-c- W-ta-bp-Åq: C-kv-em-an-sâ B-K-a-\w. {]m-]- n-i-{]-xn-`m-k- -sf- p-dn- v A- t\z-jn- p-hm-\pw A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ krjv-sn-ssh-`-hw a-\-ên-em- n A-h-s\ A-dn-ªm-cm-[n- p-hm-\p-ap-å IzpÀ-B- \n-sâ B-lzm-\-apÄ-s m-ï ap-kv-enw {]-Xn-`-IÄ \-S- n-b K-th-j-W- -fm-wv A- m-e- v tem-i- n-\v sh-fn- -am-b-xv. \-thm- m-\- n-\p-ti-jw bq-tdm- nâ \m-¼n-sp-i-bpw ]n- o-sv k-b³-kv F- v A-dn-b-s -Sp-I-bpw sn-bv-x ssh-úm- \n-i-`q-an-i-bp-ss _o-pm-hm-]w \-S- p- -Xv ap-kv-enw tem-i- m-wv. ap-kv-enw im-kv-{x-ú mà ssi sh- m- H-cp ssh-úm-\n-i ta-j-e-bp-an-ã. im-kv-{x- N-cn-{Xw ]Tn- p- BÀ- pw \n-tj-[n- m-\m-hm- bm-ymà-yy-am-wn-xv. A- ta-cn- -bp-ss ap³ {]-kn-uâv _-cm- v H-_m-a 2009 Pq \m-en-\v \-S- n-b si-bv-tdm {]-kw-k- nâ C- -s\ ]-d- ª-Xv A-t±-l- n-\v \n-tj-[n- m-\mhm- -Xm-Wv C-kv-em-an-I-tem-I- n-sâ ss]-xr-i-sa- -Xp-sIm-ïm-Wv: "bq-tdm- n-sâ \-thm- m-\- n-\pw Úm-t\m-- Z-b- n-\pw h-gn-sbm-cp- n-b-xv \q-äm-ïp- I-fn-eq-sS ]T-\- n-sâ sh-fn- w h-ln- C-kv-emw B-bn-cp- p. _o-p-k-wn-x- n-sâ {I-aw hn-i-kn- n- -Xv ap-kv-enw k-ap-zm-b- Ä- -I-s ]p-xn-b I-sï- -ep-i-fm-bn-cp- p. \-½p-sS Im- n-i Zn-im-\n-À-W-bn-bpw I- Â-bm-{Xm D-]-Ic-W- -fpw; Xq-en-I-I-fn-epw A- -Sn-bn-epap-Å \-½p-sS ]m-s-h-hpw; tcm-k-hym-]-\- s - p-dn- pw A-Xv kp-j-s -Sp- p- -Xv F- -s\-sb- -Xn-s\- p- p-ap-å \-½psS A-dn-hp-sa-Ãmw...' B-cp-sS-sb- n-epw i-¼-fw In-«p-hmt\m {]-i-kv-xn e-`n- p-hm-t\m B-bn-cp- ssh-úm-\n-i-c-k- v bq-tdm- v C-cpïm-]-Xn- n-cp- a-[y-im-e- v tem-iw C-cp-«n-em-bn-cp- p-sh- v I-cp-Xp- - hà- v sx-än. B-[p-\n-I-im-kv-{X- n-sâ A-Sn- -d-bm-bn hà- n- \n-co- -Wm-ß-I-hn-i-I-e-\-co-Xn- v A-Sn- -d-bp-ïm-b-xv C- m-e- m- Wv F- -Xm-Wv bm-ymà-yyw. C- me-s im-kv-{x-{]-xn-`-i-fn-e-[n-i-hpw a-[y-]u-c-kv-xy-tz-i- v \n- p-å-hcm-bn-cp- p. A-Xn-\v k-hn-ti-j-am-b H-scm-ä Im-c-W-ta-bp-Åq: C-kv-em-ansâ B-K-a-\w. ]-{Xm-[n-]À- v- ]-d-bm-\p-å-xv- n-ã ap-kv-enw im-kv-{x-ú- mà Xym-K- Ä k-ln- v K-th-j- -fn-teà-s -«-Xv. A-h-sc A- Xn-\v {]-tnm-zn- n- -Xv c-ïv Im-cy- -fm-bn-cp- p. {]-]- -]T-\- n-eq-ss A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ krãn-ssh-`-hw a-\-ên-em- p-i-bpw A-h-s\ A-dn-ªm-cm-[n- p-hm³ I-gn-bp-I-bpambn-cp- p A-h-cp-sS H- m-a-s e- yw. k-l-po-hn-i-sf k-lm-bn- p-hm-\pw A-h-cp-sS Zp-cn-X- Ä A-I-äp-hm-\pw A- -s\ km-aq-ly-tk-h-\- n-\pw I- gn-bp- hn-úm-\o-b- Ä I-c-Ø-am- -em-bn-cp- p A-h-sc {]-tnm-zn- n- c-ïm-a-s Im-cyw. B-Im-i-tKm-f- -sf- p-dn- pw `u-a-{]-xn-`m-k- -sf- -än-bpw Po-h-Pm-e- -sf- p-dn- pw a-\p-jy-i-co-c- - -än-bp-sa-ãmw A-hÀ ]Tn- p-t¼mä A-hÀ- p-ïm-bn-cp- -Xv kzmà- XmÂ-]- cy- -fm-bn-cp- n-ã. A- -cw XmÂ-]-cy- - sf kw-c- n- m³ I-gn-bp- -Xm-bn-cp- n-ã A- -s K-th-j-W-cw-Kw. k-aq-l- n-\pth-ïn A-dn-h-t\z-jn- p-i-sb- Xym-Kw k-ln- p-hm³ A-hÀ- v {]-tnm-z-\-am-b-xv A-Xv kà-h-i-à-sâ I-Â-]-\-bm-sW- A-dn-hpw km-aq-ly-tk-h-\- n-\v k- -²am-bm A-Xp-h-gn {k-jv-sm-hn-sâ Xr-]v- Xn e-`n- p-sa- hn-izm-k-hp-am-bn-cp- p. Xn-I-ª ssz-h-`-àn-bpw km-aq-ly-tkh-\-xz-c-bp-am-bn-cp- p a-[y-im-e-im-kv-{x- Ú-sc {]-tnm-zn- n- n-cp- -Xv F- hyà-am- p- -Xm-Wv A-h-cp-sS c-n-\-iä. A-h-cp-sS im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[- n-\v A-Sn- -d ]-Wn-X-Xv A-Ãm-lp-hn-ep-Å A-N- -e-hn-izm-k-am-bn-cp- p. A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ Xr-]v-Xn-bpw k-l-po-hn-i-fp-ss \- -bpa-ãm-sx a-säm- pw X-s X- -fp-ss im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w h-fà- p- -Xn-\pw 7

6 ]-{Xm-[n-]À- v- ]-d-bm-\p-å-xv- ïn-bm-bn-cp- p-sh- h-kv-xp-x bq-tdm-]y ³ Úm-\m-t\z-j-Ww F-{X-t m-fw kzmà- -am-bn-cp- p-sh- v \-ap- v a-\- Ên-em- n- -cp- p-ïv. ap-kv-enw-i-fnâ \n- v e-`n- ssh-úm-\n-i-ss]-xr-ihpw A-[o-i-Xz-tam-l-t m-ss \-S- n-b I-  bm-{x-i-fp-am-wv bq-tdm-]y³-am-sc im-kv-{x- n-sâ Ip- -I- m-cm- n-b-xv. im-kv-{x-hn-úm-\o-b- Ä km-t -Xn-Ihn-Zy- v h-gn am-dn-b-txm-ss Xym-K-am-h-iyan-Ãm- -Xpw XmÂ-]-cy- Ä kw-c- n- m- \m-ip- -Xp-am-b ta-j-e-bm-bn- oà- p k-b³-kn-sâ tem-iw. X- -fp-ss bq-«n-entä-dn-b³ k- Â- - n-\v A-\p-Kp-W-am-b H-cp I-d-h- -ip-hm-b-xn-\v ti-j-am-wv bqtdm- v im-kv-{x- n-sâ kq- n- p-im-cmbn- oà- -Xv. ap-x-em-fn- en-_-d-en-k- n-tâ-xmbn-cp- m-epw I-½yq-Wn-Ìv tsm-«m-en-tä-dn-b- Wn-k- n-tâ-xm-bn-cp- m-epw ]p-xn-b-ime `u-xn-i-hm-zw bq-tdm-]y³ aq-ey- -fnâ \n- v DuÀ-Ö-apÄ-s m-åp- -Xm-Wv. bq- «n-en-tä-dn-b-\n-k-am-wv bq-tdm-]y³ aq-ey- -fp-ss-sb-ãmw Nm-e-I-i-àn. X- Ä- v D-]-tbm-K- n-\v ]-äp- -sx-ãmw \- -bpw ]-äm- -sx-ãmw Xn- -bp-am-wv bq-än-en--tädn-b- mà- v. im-kv-{x-s X fp-t±-in- p- co-xn-bnâ h-f- pw hn-f- n-bp-sa- Sp- m³ A-hÀ- v a-sn-sbm- p-ap-ïm-hn-ã. Øn-c-Øn-Xn-kn-²m- -hpw ]-cn-wm-a-hm- Z-hpw bq-tdm-]y³ im-kv-{x-ú- mà- v ]-Yy-am-Ip- -Xv A-h X- -fp-ss bq-«n-en-tädn-b³ aq-ey- Ä- v A-\p-Kp-W-am-Ip- -Xv sim-ïm-wv. `u-xn-i-hm-zn-iä- pw A-hsb I-s m-gn- m³ I-gn-bm- -Xv A-h-cpsS Úm-\-`q-an-I X-s ]-cp-h-s -«n-cn-- p- -Xv bq-«n-en-tä-dn-b³ A-Sn- -d-bn-emb-xp sim-ïm-wv. Øn-c-Øn-Xn kn-²m- -s \n-e-\nà- p-hm-\m-bn s{^-uv tlm-bvâ F- {]-K-Û-\m-b tkm-f-imkv-{x-ú³ I-fn- I-fn-IÄ tim-kv-tamf-pn cw-k- v {]-Np-c-{]-kn-²-am-Wv. 1927 F-tUzÀ-Uv se-b-am-t{x-sb- ssz-hhn-izm-kn-bm-b tkm-f-im-kv-{x-ú³ A-h-X-cn- n- a-lm-hn-kv-t^m-s-\ kn- ²m- w F-Ãm sx-fn-hp-i-fpw \Â-In-bn- «pw Aw-Ko-I-cn- p-hm³ 1972h-sc Im- n-cn-t -ïn h- p, A-t±-l- n-\v. ssz-h-ap-ïm-im-\p-å km-[y-x Aw-Ko- I-cn- p- p-sh- -Xv am-{x-am-bn-cp- p a- lm-hn-kv-t^m-s-\ kn-²m- -s \n-tjap-kv-enw-i-fnâ \n- v e-`n- ssh- Úm-\n-I-ss]-Xr-I-hpw A-[o-i-Xz-- tam-l-t m-ss \-S- n-b I-  bm-{x- I-fp-am-Wv bq-tdm-]y³-am-sc im-kv- {X- n-sâ Ip- -I- m-cm- n-b-xv. im-kv-{x-hn-úm-\o-b- Ä km-t -Xn- I-hn-Zy- v h-gn am-dn-b-txm-ss Xym-Kam-h-iy-an-Ãm- -Xpw XmÂ-]-cy- Ä kw-c- n- m-\m-ip- -Xp-am-b ta- J-e-bm-bn- oà- p k-b³-kn-sâ tem--iw. X- -fp-ss bq-«n-en-tä-dn-b³ k- Â- - n-\v A-\p-Kp-W-am-b H-cp I-d-h- -ip-hm-b-xn-\v ti-j-am-wv bqtdm- v im-kv-{x- n-sâ kq- n- p-imcm-bn- oà- -Xv. \n-e-\n-à- p- -Xn-\pw A-hÀ- v {]-tnm-z- I-am-bp-ïm-bn-cp- n-ã. \-thm- m-\-sa- v (Renaissance) \mw t]-cn-«v hn-fn- p- bq-tdm- n-sâ h-fà- -bp-ss cm-jv-{so-b-n-cn-{x-am-cw-`n- p- -Xv ]-Xn-\m-emw \q-äm-tïm-sp-iq-sn-bmsw- n-epw A-Xn-sâ kmw-k-v-im-cn-i N-cn- {X- n-sâ th-cp-iä Øn-Xn sn- p- -Xv ]-Xn-s\m- mw \q-äm-ïnâ Xp-S- n ]-Xn- \- mw \q-äm-ïnâ A-h-km-\n- p- Ip-cn-ip-bp-²- -fn-em-wv. C-kv--em-an-I \m- K-cn-I-X-bp-sS a-t\m-lm-cn-x-bpw im-kv- {Xo-b-X-bpw bq-tdm- n-s\ ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp- n-b-xv Cu Ip-cn-ip-bp-²- -fm-bn-cp- p. kv-s]-bn³ A-S- -ap-å ap-kv-enw ti- {µ- -fnâ \n- v e-`n- ssh-úm-\n-i ap- p-i-fm-wv bq-tdm- n-sâ \-thm- m- \- n-\v \n-an- -am-b-xv. k-b³-kv F- C- v hy-h-l-cn- -s -Sp- B-[p-\n-I im -kv-{x- n-\v A-Sn- -d-bp-ïm-ip- -Xv \-thm- m-\-t m-sv Iq-Sn-bm-W-tÃm. `u-ati-{µ-{]-]- -sa- tsm-f-an-bp-ss tam- U-en-s\ tnm-zyw sn-bv-xp-sim-ïv kuc-ti-{µ-{]-]- -sa- B-i-bw ap-t m- «p-sh- tim- À \n- -knâ \n- v Xp-S - p- -Xm-Wv B-[p-\n-I im-kv-{x- n-sâ N-cn-{X-sa- v ]-d-bm-dp-ïv. X-sâ De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium F- {]-kn-²-am-b {K-Ù- nâ A-_q A-_v- Zn-Ãm ap-l-½-zv A _- m-\n-sb- apkv-enw im-kv-{x-ú-s\ tim- À \n- -kv C-cp-]- n-aq- v X-h-W D-²-cn- p- p-ïv. sss-t m {_m-ln, Kn-tbm-hm-\n dn- ntbm-fn F- o im-kv-{x-ú-cpw A _- m-\n-sb \n-c-h-[n X-h-W D-²-cn- p- -Xv Im-Wm-\m-hpw. ]- mw \q-ämïn-sâ B-Zyw Po-hn- a-lm-\m-b K- Wn-X-Ú-\pw tkm-f-im-kv-{x-ú-\p-ambn-cp- A _- m-\n-sb Cu im-kv- {X-Ú- mà D-²-cn- p- -Xv ]-Xn-\- v, ]-Xn-\m-dv \q-äm-ïp-i-fn-em-sw- v \mw a-\-ên-em- -Ww. tkm-f-im-kv-{x-cw-k-s bq-tdm- n-sâ \-thm- m-\w ap-kv-enw imkv-{x-ú-cp-ss kw-`m-h-\-i-fnâ I-b-dn \n- psim-ïm-bn-cp- p-sh- v C-Xv kp-xcmw hy-à-am- p- p-ïv. H-cp-hn-[w F-Ãm im-kv-{x-im-j-i-fp-ss-bpw Øn-Xn A-Xv X-s -bm-wv. Xym-K- -fm-h-iy-ap-å k-ab- v A-Xn-\m-h-iy-am-b A-Sn-Øm-\-\nb-a- Ä \nà-[-cn- -Xpw K-th-j-W- Ä \-S- n-b-xpw ap-kv--enw-i-fm-bn-cp- p. A-hcp-sS {]-tnm-z-\-am-i-s«, A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ Xr-]v- Xn-bpw k-l-po-hn-tk-h-\-hpw am-{x-am-bn-cp- p Xm-\pw. bq-«n-en-tä-dn-b³am-cm-b bq-tdm-]y- m-cp-ss ssi-i-fnâ im-kv-{xw In-«n-b-tXm-sS Øn- Xn am-dn. A-hÀ im-kv-{x-cw-k-t - v I-S- p h- -Xv X-s kzmà- -X-bp-am-bm-bn-cp- ph-tãm. \n-xy-bu-æ-\- n-\p-å Po-hm-ar-Xw \nà-an- m-\p-å amà-k-a-t\z-jn- m-wv ap-kvenw im-kv-{x-ú- mà _o-pm-hm-]w \Â-In-b BÂ-sI-an-bn-te- v bq-tdm-]y³-amà I-S- p I-b-dn-b-Xv. A-Xv si-an-kv-{sn-bm-b-t m-tg- v A- \-h-[n kw-bp-à- Ä \-ap- v e-`n- p-i-bpw aq-e-i- -sf- p-dn- \-½p-sS A-dn-hv hn-i-kn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp-sh- -Xv t\-cv. ]-s A-hbp-sS {]-tnm-z-\w Po-hm-ar-X-sa- ar-x-k-rv-pohn-\n \nà-an- m-\p-å A-S- m- kzmà- - X-bm-bn-cp- p-sh- v \mw a-d- -cp-xv. B-[p- \n-i im-kv-{x- n-sâ ]n-xm-hm-bn A-dn-bs -Sp- kà sf-k-iv \yq-«t]m-epw cm-k-k-th-j-w- Ä \-S- n-b-xv G-Xv tem-l-s -bpw Iq-«n-bp-c-kn-bm A-Xv kzà- W-am-bn- o-cp- "X- z-úm-\n-bp-ss in-e' (Philosophers' Stone) I-ïp-]n-Sn- m³ th- 8

7 - - - [n- p-hm³ tlm-bn-en-\p-å Im-c-Ww. A-h-km-\-s tkm-f-im-kv-{x-ú-\pw {]-kv-xp-x kn-²m- w Aw-Ko-I-cn- t mä A-t±-l- n-\pw A-Xv Aw-Ko-Icn-t -ïn h- p-sh- p ]-d-bp- -Xm-hpw i-cn. bq-tdm-]y³ aq-ey-k- Â-]-{]-Im-cw C-sXm-cp A-]-cm-[-ta-b-Ã. C-kv--em-an- I-aq-eyk- Â-]-{]-Im-cw A- -s\-b-ã. kzmà-y-xmâ-]-cy- n-\p th-ïn i-cntbm-sv ]p-dw-xn-cn-ªp\nâ- p-i-sb- h-en-b ]m-x-i-am-wv ap-kv-en-an-s\ kw- _-Ôn- n-s-t m-fw C-Xv. C-Xn-te-Xm-Wv im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w F- p \mw Nn- n- p-i. X-sâ {]-Xy-im-kv-{X- n-s\-xn-cp \nâ- p- im-kv-{x-k-xy- -tfm-sv ]p-- dw Xn-cn-ªp \nâ- p- -Xm-tWm, A- X-Ã, Xm³ i-cn-sb- v I-cp-Xp- -Xn-s\- Xn-cm-sW- v txm- p- -Xm-sW- n-epw sx-fn-bn- -s -«-h Aw-Ko-I-cn- p-i-bpw A-Xn-\- p-d-hpw I-sï- m-\p-sï- v I- cp-xn k-am-[m-\n- p-i-bpw sn- p- -txm G-Xm- Wv K-th-j-W-s -bpw im-kv-{x-nn- sb-bpw ]-cn-t]m-jn- n- p- im-kv-{xmh-t_m-[w? \n-co-iz-c- mà- v aq-ey- -sfm- p-an- Ãm- -Xp-sIm-ïv X-s X- Ä B-{Kln- -Xn-s\-Xn-cm-Wv im-kv-{x-sa- nâ A-Xv X-Ån- -d-bm-\pw th-ïn-h- mâ h- -\m-ß-i-am-bn im-kv-{x-s hn-i-es -Sp- m-\pw h-sc A-hÀ [rjv-s-cm-hpw. ]-cn-wm-a-hm-z- n-sâ N-cn-{X- nâ C- Xn-\v \n-c-h-[n D-Zm-l-c-W- -fp-ïv. A- h-bnâ Ip-{]-kn-²-am-Wv ]nâ-«v Uu a-\p-jy-sâ t^m-knâ. 1912 NmÄ-kv Uu-k F- ]-cn-wm-a-hm-zn k-aà- -am-bn a-\p-jy-sâ I]m-e-hpw H-dm-Mv H-«m- n-sâ Io-gv- m-sn-sb-ãpw Iq-Sn kw-tbm-pn- n- p-sim-ïv A-h-X-cn- n- t^m-knâ \m-ep ]-Xn-äm-tïm-fw Imew im-kv-{x-tem-i- p-å-h-sc-sb-ãmw I-_-fn- n- p-sim-ïv a-\p-jy-sâ-bpw Ip-c- n-sâ-bpw C-S-bv- p-å ap-dn-ª I- n-bm-bn \n-e-sim-ïp. 1953em-Wv imkv-{x-tem-i- n-\v a-\-ên-em-b-xv, ]-cn- Wm-a-hm-Zn-IÄ X- -sf \m-ep ]-Xn-äm-ïv Im-ew Ip-c- p I-fn- n- p-i-bm-bn-cp- psh- v. C- -cw hn-{in-b-i-fn-eq-ss sszh-an-sã- v Øm-]n- m³ {i-an- p- `u-xn-i-hm-zn-i-fp-ss sn-bv-xn-iä imkv-{xm-h-t_m-[-am-bn a-\-ên-em- -Wsa- nâ bq-tdm-]y³ bq-än-en-t«-dn-b³ aq-ey- -fp-ss I- -S-bn Iq-Sn X-s t\m- - Ww. C-kv--em-an-I aq-ey-apä-s m-åp- -hà- v ssz-h-in- - v ]m-{x-am-tb- m-hp- h-en-b ssz-h-an-sã- p Øm-]n- p-hm-\m-bn im-kv-{x-kn-²m- - -fp-ïm- p-i-bpw Xn-cn- p-å sx-fn-hp-iä- p t\-sc A-Ô-X \-Sn- p-i-bpw i-cn-sb- p X- Ä I-cp-Xp- hm-z- Ä Øm-]n- m-\m-bn hym-p-sx-fn-hp-iä \nà-an- p-i-bpw sn- p- hn-{in-b-iä- m- Wv im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[-sa- v `u-xn- I-hm-Zn-IÄ ]-d-bp- -sx- nâ B ss-¼à \-ap- v th-sï- v D-d-s ]-d-bm-\p- -Å N- q-äw ap-kv-enw-iä- pïv. C³-Uy³ `-c-w-l-s-\-bnâ {]-kv Xm-hn- im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w N-Xn-bp- -ss-bpw h- -\-bp-ss-bpw kzmà- -Xbp-sS-bpw `u-xn-hm-z im-kv-{x-t]- q- p-i-sf- p-dn- m-sw- v txm- p- n-ã. ]-{Xm-[n-]À- v- ]-d-bm-\p-å-xv- h- -\-bm-wn-xv. ssz-h-an-sã- p Øm-]n- p-hm-\m-bn im-kv-{x-kn-²m- - -fp-ïm- p-i-bpw Xncn- p-å sx-fn-hp-iä- p t\-sc A-Ô-X \-Sn- p-i-bpw i-cn-sb- p X- Ä I-cp- Xp- hm-z- Ä Øm-]n- m-\m-bn hym-psx-fn-hp-iä \nà-an- p-i-bpw sn- p- hn-{in-b-iä- m-wv im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[-sa- v `u-xn-i-hm-zn-iä ]-d-bp- -sx- nâ B ss-¼à \-ap- v th-sï- v D-d-s ]-d-bm-\p-å N- q-äw ap-kv-enw-iä- p-ïv. C³-Uy³ `-c-w-l-s-\-bnâ {]-kv-xm-hn- im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[w N-Xn-bp-sS-bpw h- - \-bp-ss-bpw kzmà- -X-bp-sS-bpw `u-xn-hm- Z im-kv-{x-t]- q- p-i-sf- p-dn- m-sw- v txm- p- n-ã. ssz-h-an-sã- p Øm-]n- phm³ im-kv-{x-s Zp-cp-]-tbm-Kn- p- - hà-t k-bân-^n-iv ss-¼à D-ïm-hp-I-bp- Åq-sh- v `-c-w-l-s-\-tbm `-c-w-iq-s-tam ]-d-ªm-epw A-Xv Aw-Ko-I-cn- p-hm³ apkv-enw-iä- v I-gn-bn-Ã. B-t -]-lm-ky- -fn-eq-ss F-{X X-s A-]-l-kn- m-epw \n- Ä ]-d-bp- im-kv-{xm-h-t_m-[-s im-kv-{x-ap-]-tbm-kn- v X-s {]-Xn-tcm-[n- p-i-bpw k-xy-ap-]-tbm-kn- v {]-Xym-{Ian- p-i-bpw sn- p-sa- v s\- q-t m-ss ]-d-tb-ï _m-[y-x-bp-å-h-cm-wv C-kv- -em-an-i {]-t_m-[-i- mà. A-Xn-\m-bm-Wv ti-c-f- n-sâ sx-cp-hp-iä Im- n-cn- p- -Xv. A-Ãm-lp A-\p-{K-ln- -s«, B-ao³. ½ 9

8 D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`-hw: bm-ymà- y-sa- v? ap-kv-x-^m X³-hoÀ a-zo-\-bp-ss \-K-cm-XnÀ- n- p ]p-d- m-bn-cp- D-Iv tkm-{x- nâ \n- p-å G-Xm-\pw t]-cpw D-d-bv-\ {]-tz-i- p-\n- p-å G-Xm-\pw t]-cp-a-s- p- H-cp kw-l-s ssi-im-ep-iä to-zn- p-i-bpw I- p-iä s]m-ån- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xv a-c-w- n-\p hn-«p-sim-sp- m³ ap-l-½-zv \-_n (k) hn-[n- kw-`-hw D-²-cn- p-sim-ïv A-hn-izm-kn-I-sf Aw-K-`w-K-s -Sp- n sim-ãm³ ]Tn- n- {Iq-c-\m-bn-cp- p {]-hm-n-i-s\- v k-aà- n- p-hm³ {i-an- p- an-j-\-dn sh- _v-ssk-äp-iä [m-cm-f-ap-ïv. a- -bn-epw a-zo-\-bn-ep-am-bn B-bn-c- -W- n-\v A-hn-izm-kn-I-sf a-xm-xo-x-am-b am-\-hn-i km-tlm-z-cy- n-sâ X-Wp- n-te- v tnà- p-\nà- n-b a-\p-jy-kv-t\-ln-bm-bn-cp- p ap-l-½-zv \-_n (k) F- N-cn-{X-h-kv-Xp-X-sb a-d- p-sh- p-sim-ïpw D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`-h-s A-Xn-sâ ]-Ým- -e- nâ \n- v A-SÀ- n-am-än-s m-ïp-am-wv hn-aà-i-ià \-_n-hy-àn- Xz-s Aw-K-hn-tO-Z-\-Xz-c-bm-tcm-]n- v h-{io-i-cn- m³ {i-an- p- -Xv. b-ymà- - nâ F-Ãm-X-cw tz-tlm-]-{z-h- -sf-bpw IÀ-i-\-am-bn hn-e- n-b-xn-\p-]p-- d-sa, Aw-K-ssh-I-ey- Ä- v \n-an- -am-ip- B-{I-a-W- -sf Iq-Sp-X Ku-c-h- nâ \n-tcm-[n- v a-\p-jy-i-co-c- n-sâ B-Z-c-Wo-b-X-sb D-bÀ- n- n-sn- im- n- Zq-X-\m-bn-cp- p A- n-a {]-hm-n-i³. a-\p-jyà- v Aw-K-`w-Kw h-cp- p- -Xn-s\ \n-tcm-[n- p-sim-ïp-å D-Zv-t_m-[-\w X-sâ {]-kw-k- -fnâ Øn-c-am-bn DÄ-s - Sp- n-bn-cp- p A-t±-lw. (1) a-zo-\ C-kv-em-an-I cm-py- n-sâ A-[n-]-s\- \n-ea-zo-\ C-kv-em-an-I cm-py- n-sâ A-[n-]-s\- \n-e-bnâ cm-py- nsâ ssk-\n-i-sc i-{xp- -tfm-sv t]m-cm-sm-\-b- p-t¼mä t]m-epw i-{xp-]-«m-f- m-cp-ss ar-x-i-co-c- - sf Aw-K-hn-tO-Zw \-S- n hn- Ir-X-am- -cp-sx- v \-_n (k) \n-jv-ir-jv-s-am-bn \n-jv-ià-jn- pam-bn-cp- p. ]n-s - p-sim-ïm-wv a-zo-\-bp-ss N-cn-{X- nâ D-IvÂ-þ-Dd-bv-\ kw-`-h-ap-ïm-bx-v? \ap v A-t\z-jn- p-i. 10

9 F- n-\p-å in- -bm-wv D-IvÂ-þ-D-dbv-\ kw-l- n-\v hn-[n- s «sx- v A-Xv kw-_-ô-am-b \n-th-z-\- -sf- Ãmw kp-x-cmw hy-à-am- p- p-ïv. an-j-\-dn-amà B-tcm-]n- p- -Xp-t]m -se "A-hn-izm-kw' B-bn-cp- n-ã A-Xn-\p-Å Im-c-Ww. C-kv-emw kzo-icn- -ti-jw A-Xp-t]- n- v _-lp-sszhm-cm-[-\-bn-te- p-x-s a-s- m³ Xo-cp-am-\n- -Xn-\m-Wv D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv- \- mà Aw-K-hn-tO-Zw h-gn h-[n- -s -«-sx- an-j-\-dn {]-N-c-Ww h-kv-xp-xm-]-c-a-sã- v l-zo-yp-i-fpw ko-dm {K-Ù- -fpw ]-cn-tim-[n- mâ a-\-ên-em-ipw. [w i-à-hpw ^-e-{]-z-hp-am-wv C-kv-em-an-I cm-jv-{s-kw-hn-[m-\- n-\m-bn ]-S- -h³ A-h- X-cn- n- n-«p-å in- m-\n-b-a- Ä. A-h-sb ap-jw t\m- m-sx \-S- n-em- p-i-bm-wv `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-bp-ss D- -c-hm-zn- w; F- nte \m-«nâ \o-xn-bpw k-am-[m-\-hpw ]p-- e-cq. cm-py-t m-spw k-aq-l-t m-sp-am-wv, Ip-ä-hm-fn-I-tfm-Spw Ip-ä- -tfm-sp-a-ã `-c-wm- [n-im-cn- v A-\p-I-¼-bp-ïm-tI-ï-sX- v A-dn-hp-Å BÀ- pw a-dn-s m-cp \n-e-]m-ss-sp- m³ I-gn-bn-Ã. D-Iv-ep-Im-cpw D-d-bv-\- m-cp- IhÀ tìmdn bnâ cm-py- n-sâ ssk-\n-i-sc i-{xp- -tfm-sv t]m-cm-sm-\-b- p-t¼mä t]m--epw i-{xp -]-«m-f- m-cp-ss ar-x-i-co-c- -sf Aw-Khn-tO-Zw \-S- n hn-ir-x-am- -cp-sx- v \-_n(k) \n-jv-ir-jv-s-am-bn \n-jv-ià-jn- pam-bn-cp- p. (2) "apl-½zv \_n (k) IhÀ bpw AwK-hn to-z-\hpw \ntcm-[n- p' F Ak- n-kv[-amb lzoyv hmniw apkvenw temi v hfsc {]kn-²-am-wv. (3) ]n-s -sb p-sim-ïv a-zo-\-bp-ss N-cn-{X- nâ D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`-h-ap-ïm-bn-? \ ap v A-t\z-jn- p-i. ]-c-kv-]-cw B-{I-an- -cp-sx- pw Aw-K-- `w-k-s -Sp- -cp-sx- pw sim-ã-cp-sx- p -sa-ãm-ap-å Im-cp-Wy-]m-T- Ä D-]-tZ-in- {]-hm-n-i-\pw {]-t_m-[-i-\pw am-{x-am-bn-cp-- n-ã ap-l-½-zv \-_n(k); {]-XypX A-hn-Sp-s `-c-wm[n-im-cn-bpw ssk-\ym -[n-]-\pw- \ym-bm-[n-]-\pw Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp- p. Ip-g- - -fp-ïm- -cp-sx- v D-Zv-t_m-[n- n- p-i am-{x-a-ã, Ip-g- - -fp-ïm- p- - h-sc A-[n-Im-c-ap-]-tbm-Kn- v \n-e-bv- v \n-à- p-i Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp- p {]-hm-n-i-sâ D- -c-hm-zn- w. Ip-g- - Ä- pw {Iq-c-Xbv- pw ap-xn-cp- -h-sc IÀ-i-\-am-bn t\-cn-«v A-h-cp-sS A-Xn-{I-a- Ä- v A-dp-Xn h-cp- n C-c-IÄ- v \o-xn-bpw Im-cp-Wy-hpw cm-py- v kz-ø-x-bpw D-d- p-h-cp- p-ibm-wv G-Xp cm-py-kw-hn-[m-\-hpw sn-t - ï-xv. I-Sp- Ip-ä-Ir-Xy- -sf cm-pyw ssi-im-cyw sn-t -ï-xv A-lnw-km ImÂ-]-\n-I-X sim-ï-sã- p X-s -bm-wv C-kv-em-an-sâ \n-e-]m-sv. A-Xn-{Iq-c-am-b I-t -ä- Ä \-S- n-b Ip-ä-hm-fn-I-sf tih-ew P-bnÂ-hm-kw sim-ïv "in- n- mâ' \o-xn-bp-à-am-b {]-Xn-{In-b-bpw A- -cw Ip-ä- Ä B-hÀ- n- -s -Sm- km-aqly-km-l-n-cy-hpw \n-e-hnâ h-cpw F- B-[p-\n-I P-\m-[n-]-Xy- n-sâ B-ß-hnizm-kw F-{X bp-àn-iq-\y-am-sw- v {]m- -tbm-kn-i-am-bn \-ap-s -Ãmw t_m-[y-ap- Å-Xm-W-tÃm. Ip-ä-hm-fn-I-sf Ip-ä- n-\v B-\p-]m-Xn-I-am-bn in- n- m-t\m C-c- I-sf k-am-[m-\n- n- m-t\m k-am-\-am-b Ip-ä- Ä- p-å B-tem-N-\-I-fnÂ-\n- v Ip-ä-hm-k-\-bp-Å-h-sc `-b-s -Sp- n ]n-- n-cn- n- m-t\m I-gn-bm- A-Xn-ZpÀ-_-eam-b B-[p-\n-I in- m-\n-b-a- -fnâ-\n- v hy-xy-kv-x-am-bn {]-kv-xp-x e- y- -sf Ir-Xy-am-bn t\-sn-sb-sp- m³ I-gn-bpw-hnapÄ-s -«kw-l- n-\p-å \-_n(k)bp-ss hn-[n, C-kv-em-an-I cm-py- n-sâ in- m- ZÀ-i-\- n-sâ {]-tbm-k-hâ- -c-w-am-bn-cp- p; A-Ãm-sX a-\p-jy-cp-ss A-h-b-h- Ä sh-«n c-kn- p- {Iq-c-X-bp-sS \n-zà-i-\- am-bn-cp- n-ã. A- -cw {Iq-c-X-IÄ- p ap- Xn-cp- -h-cnâ \n- v cm-py-s \-à ]u- -c³-am-sc kw-c- n- p-hm-\p-å km-aq-lykp-c- m-]-²-xn-bm-wv C-kv-em-an-I in- m \n-b-a- -fp-ss B-ßm-sh- -Xm-Wv hm-kv-xhw. A-{I-a-{]-hÀ- -\- -sf \n-tcm-[n- p- C-kv-em-an-I Im-cp-Wy- n-sâ \oä X-s - bm-wv A-{I-a-{]-hÀ- -\- -sf Zm- n-wyan-ãm-sx t\-cn-sp- C-kv-em-an-I co-xn-bnâ \mw Im-Wp- -Xv; A-h X-½n bm-sxm-cp ssh-cp-[y-hp-an-sã- -Xm-Wv k-xyw. F- n-\p-å in- -bm-wv D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-l- n-\v hn-[n- s «sx- v A-Xv kw- _-Ô-am-b \n-th-z-\- -sf-ãmw kp-x-cmw hyà-am- p- p-ïv. an-j-\-dn-amà B-tcm-]n- p- -Xp-t]m-se "A-hn-izm-kw' B-bn-cp- n-ã A-Xn-\p-Å Im-c-Ww. C-kv-emw kzo-i-cn- -tijw A-Xp-t]- n- v _-lp-ssz-hm-cm-[-\-bnte- p-x-s a-s- m³ Xo-cp-am-\n- -Xn-\m-Wv D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\- mà Aw-K-hn-tO-Zw h-gn h-[n- -s -«-sx- an-j-\-dn {]-N-c-Ww h-kv-xp-xm- ]-c-a-sã- v l-zo-yp-i-fpw ko-dm {K-Ù- -fpw ]-cn-tim-[n- mâ a-\-ên-em-ipw. b-ymà- - nâ, {]-hm-n-i³-am-cp-ss amà-k-zà-i-\w kzo-i-cn- v G-I-ssZ-hm-cm-[-\-bp-sS ]m-xbnâ N-en- p- k-aq-l- -fnâ _-lp-sszhm-cm-[-\-bp-ss h-gn ]p-wà- v amà-k-{`w-i- n-e-i-s -Sp- -h-sc sim- p-i-f-b-w-sa- hn-[n-bp-å-xv an-j-\-dn-am-cp-ss kz- w ss_- 11

10 _n-fnâ B-Wv. "\n-sâ ssz-h-am-b IÀ- m-hv \n-\- v X-cp- G-sX- n-epw ]-«-W- nâ kv-{xo-tbm ]p-cp-j-t\m B-b B-sc- n-epw Xn- {]-hà- n- v A-hn-Sp-s D-S-¼-Sn ew- Ln- p-i-bpw Rm³ hn-e- n-bn-«p-å A-\ytZ-h³-am-sc-tbm kq-cy-s\-tbm N-{µ-s\-tbm a-tä-sx- n-epw B-Im-i-i-àn-tb-tbm tk-hn- p-i-bpw B-cm-[n- p-i-bpw sn- p- p-sh- v B-sc- n-epw ]-d-ªv \o ti-«mâ, D-S-s\ A-Xn-s\- -än kq- v-a-am-bn A-t\z-jn- - Ww. C-{k-tb-en A- -s\m-cp lo-\-ir- Xyw \-S- n-cn- p- p-sh- v sx-fn-ªmâ B Xn- {]-hà- n- -bm-sf ]-«-W-hm-XnÂ-  sim-ïp-h- v I-sÃ-dn-ªp sim-ã-ww' F- txm-d-bn-se \n-b-aw (4) `-c-wm-[n-im-cn- I-fm-b {]-hm-n-i³-amà X- -fp-ss cm-py- v _-lp-ssz-hm-cm-[-\ \-S- p- -h-sc I-sÃ-dn- ªp sim-ã-w-sa- m-wv \n-in-x-am-bn {]- Jym-]n- p- -Xv. A-hn-izm-k- n-\v/_-lpssz-hm-cm-[-\-bv- p-å ssz-h-z- -am-b cm- Py-in- m-\n-b-aw I-sÃ-dn-ªp sim-ãâ B-bn-cp- p-sh- v hn-iz-kn- p- -hà D-Iv-ep-Imcp-sS-bpw D-d-bv-\- m-cp-ss-bpw Ip-äw A-hn-izmk-am-bn-cp- p-sh- v h- mâ X-s A-Xn Im-Wp- sx-äpw {Iq-c-X-bp-sa- m-wv? {]-hm- N-I-s\ hn-aà-in- m³ th-ïn kz- w hn-izmk- -sf X-s a-d- p-sh- v \-S- p- B-ß -h- -\-bv- v ]-c-tem-i-s {]-Xn-^-ew F- mbn-cn- p-sa- m-hpw an-j-\-dn-amà I-cp-Xp- -Xv! ln-pv-d B-dmw hà-jw i-æmâ am-k- nem-wv ]-cm-ar-jv-s D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-lw a-zo- \-b-se- n-b-sx- m-wv Nn-e ]m--c-¼-cy- -fpss A-Sn-Øm-\- nâ N-cn-{X-]-Wv-Un-X³-amÀ A-\p-am-\n- p- -Xv. (5) {]-hm-n-i-in-jy-\m-b A-\-kv (d) \Â-In-b hn-h-c-w- -fm-wv kw- `-h-s - p-dn- v G-ä-hpw {]-_-e-am-b \n-th- Z-I ]-c-¼-c-i-fn-eq-ss D-²-cn- -s -«n-«p-å-xv. kw-l- nâ F-«p-t]-cm-Wv D-ïm-bn-cp- -Xv. A-hÀ \-_n(k)bp-ss A-Sp- p-h- v C-kvemw B-tÇ-jn- -Xm-bn {]-Jym-]n- p-sh- pw a-zo-\-bnâ X-¼-Sn- p-sh- pw a-zo-\-bn-se Im-em-h-Ø A-h-sc {]-Xn-Iq-e-am-bn _m[n- p-sh pw A-X-h-sc tcm-kn-i-fm- n-sb- pw A-tX Xp-SÀ- v A-hÀ {]-hm-n-i-s\ k-ao-]n--- v ]-cn-lm-c-a-t\z-jn- p-sh- pw \-_n (k) A-hÀ- v \-K-c-a-[y- nâ \n- Â-]w-am-dn G-Xm-\pw ]m-ep-å s]-s m-«-i- -sf \Â-In-sb- pw H-cp H-«-I- m-c-s\-bpw GÂ-]n--- p-sim-sp- p-sh- pw H-«-I- m-ep-sim-ïpw H-«-I-aq-{Xw sim-ïpw tcm-kw Nn-In-Õn- m³ \n-à-tz-in-s - pw D-Å ln-pv-d B-dmw hà-jw i-æmâ amk- n-em-wv D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-lw a-zo-\-b-se- n-b-sx- m-wv Nn-e ]m- -c-¼-cy- -fp-ss A-Sn-Øm-\- nâ N-cn-{X-]-Wv-Un-X³-amÀ A-\p-am-\n- p- -Xv. {]-hm-n-i-in-jy-\m-b A-\-kv (d) \Â-In-b hn-h-c-w- -fm-wv kw- `-h-s - p-dn- v G-ä-hpw {]-_-e-am-b \n-th-z-i ]-c-¼-c-i-fn-eq-ss D-²-cn- - s -«n-«p-å-xv. kw-l- nâ F-«p-t]- cm-wv D-ïm-bn-cp- -Xv. Im-cy- -fm-wv A-\-kv (d) ]-Ým- -e hn-h-c- -fm-bn \Â-Ip- -Xv. H-«-I- Ä P-\- Ä k-im-xm-bn \Â-In-b-h-bm-bn-cp- p; H-«-I- m-c³ B-I-s«, A-h-sc ]-cn-n-cn- m³ cm-py- -e-h³ F- \n-e-bnâ \-_n (k) \n-tbm-kn- D-tZym-K-Ø-\pw- B-bn-cp- p. Nn- In-Õ sim-ïv kw-lmw-k- -fp-ss A-kp-Jw t`-z-am-hp-i-bpw i-co-c-]p-jv-sn Xn-cn- p-in-«p-ibpw sn-bv-xp. A-t mä, C-kv-emw D-t]- n- v A-hn-izm-k- n-te- v Xn-cn- p-t]m-ip- - Xm-bn {]-Jym-]n- v C-S-b-s\ h-[n- p-i-bpw H-«-I- -sf I-hÀ-s -Sp- v kz- w \m-sp-ifn-te- v H-fn-t m-sp-i-bp-am-wv A-hÀ sn-bv- X-Xv. hn-h-c-a-dn-ª \-_n (k) Nn-e in-jy³ -am-sc hn-«v Ip-ä-hm-fn-I-sf ]n-- p-sà- p ]n- Sn-Iq-Sp-I-bpw, I- p Nq-gp-I-bpw ssi-im-ep- IÄ hn-tñ-zn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xv sim-ãm-\ p-å in- \-S- n-em- p-i-bp-am-wp-ïm-b-xv F- v A-\-kv (d) Xp-SÀ- v hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- p. (6) D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ in- m-hn-[n-bp-ss Im-c- W- -fm-wv A-\-kv (d)hn-sâ hn-i-zo-i-c-w- nâ \n- v \mw a-\-ên-em- p- -Xv. ti-he-am-b cn-±xv (a-x-]-cn-xym-kw) A-Ã, a-dn- v a-x-]-cn-xym-k {]-Jym-]-\-s Xp-SÀ- v kw-l-sn- n- ss]-im-nn-i-am-b I-em-]-am-Wv A-h-sc in- mà-l-cm- n-b-xv. \-_n (k) ]m-en-\pw aq-{x- n-\p-am-bn A-\p-h-Zn- H-«-I- -sf sim-å sn-bv-xv X- -fp-ss cm-py- -fn-te- v Xn-cn- p-sim-ïp-t]m-ip- - Xn-\n-sS-bm-Wv A-hÀ ]n-sn- -s -«-Xv. km-[mc-w-am-b H-cp I-hÀ- -b-ã A-sX- Im-cyw \-½-tfmÀ- -Ww. k-im-xv h-cp-am-\-am-bn \-_n(k)bp-ss taâ-t\m-«- n-se- n-b H-«- I- -sf I-s«-Sp- p- p-sh- v ]-d-bp-t¼mä cm-py- n-sâ s]m-xpj-p-\m-hnâ-\n- v X- - fp-ss cm-py-t - v h-kv-xp-h-i-iä H-fn- p- I-S- p- p-sh- m-wv A-Xn-\À- w. H-cp cm- Pyw G-ä-hpw {]-[m-\-am-bn ]-cn-k-wn- p- tam-j-w- p-ä-am-bn-cn- pw A-Xv F- p {]-txy-iw ]-d-tb-ï-xn-ã-tãm. Ku-c-h-X-cam-b tam-j-w- Ä- v I-cw to-zn- -em- Wv C-kv-em-an-I cm-py-s in- m-hn-[n. (7) ssi to-zn- -s -Sm-\À-l-am-b Ip-äw H-«-I- -sf I-hÀ- p-å H-fn-t m-«w am-{xw ]-cn- K-Wn- mâ X-s D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-lw sn-bv-xn-«p-sï- v km-cw. a-\x-]qà-hw \-S- p- h-en-b tam-j- Ä- m-wv C-kv-emw ssi-sh-«v in- -bm-bn \n-ý-bn- p- -Xv. F- mâ ss_-_n-fn-sâ Im-cy-a-X-Ã. X-sâ `À- m-hn-s\ a-säm-cp ]p-cp-j³ aâ-]n- -Sp- - nâ Io-g-S- m³ H-cp-s¼-Sp-t¼mÄ `À- m-hn-s\ c- -s Sp- m³ th-ïn a-tä-bm-sf A-bm-fp-sS enw-k- nâ ]n-sn- v ]-cn-{`m- -\m- p- `m-cy-bp-ss ssi H-cp Im-cp-Wy-hpw Im-Wn- m-sx sh-«n- -f-b-wsa- m-wv txm-d-bp-ss A-\p-im-k-\. (8) Cu \n-b-a-s ]-cn-ip-²-am-bn kzo-i-cn- p- an-j-\-dn-amà H-cp cm-py- n-sâ-bpw A-Xn-se P-\- -fp-ss-bpw kz- n-\v kp-c- D-d- p-hcp- m-\p-t±-in- p-å, tam-jv-sm-hn-sâ I-cw to-zn- p-hm-\p-å IzpÀ-B-\n-I IÂ-]-\-sb "{Iq-c'tam "A-\m-h-iy'tam B-bn ]-cn-k- Wn- p- -Xn bm-sxm-cp kmw-k-xy-hp-an-ã. a-zo-\ cm-py- n-sâ J-P-\m-hnÂ-\n- v i-{xpcm-py- -fn-te- v k-¼- v I-S- n-s m-ïp t]m-ip-hm-\p-å ]-cn-{i-aw am-xr-im-]-c-am-bn in- n- -s -ts-ï-xv A- -cw {i-a- Ä- v ]n- o-sv F-{X sx-½m-sn-bm-b tam-jv-sm-hn-\pw -ss[-cyw h-cm-xn-cn- p- -Xn-\v A-\n-hm-cyam-sW- v km-am-\y-_p-²n-bp-å B-cpw k-½-xn- pw. H-«-I- -sf I-S- n-s m-ïpt]m-hp-i F- Zp-jv-S-e- yw km-[n- m³ th-ïn H-«-I- m-c-s\ ti-h-e-am-bn h-[n- p-i-b-ã, A-t±-l-s sim-ãp- -Xn-\p-ap-¼v A-Xn-{Iqc-am-bn D-]-{Z-hn- p c-kn- p-i-bm-wv D-IvÂ-þ- 12

11 - H-«-I- -sf I-S- n-s m-ïpt]mhp-i F- Zp-jv-S-e- yw km-[n- m³ th-ïn H-«-I- m-c-s\ ti-he-am-bn h-[n- p-i-b-ã, A-t±-l-s sim-ãp- -Xn-\p-ap-¼v A-Xn-{Iq-c-am-bn D-]-{Z-hn- p c-kn- p-i-bm-wv D-IvÂþ-D-d-bv-\ sim-å-kw-lw sn-bv-x-xv. \-_n (k) H-«-I- -fp-ss Im-h-teÂ-]n- n-cp- C-S-b-sâ I- p-i-fn-te- v sim-ãp- -Xn-\p-ap-¼v ap-åp-iä Ip- n-bn-d- n lnw-k-bp-ss D- m-z-a- \p-`-hn- kw-lmw-k- -sf- p-dn- v C-_v -\p C-kv -lm-izv tc-j-s -Sp- p- \n-th-z-\- n-ep-ïv. D-d-bv-\ sim-å-kw-lw sn-bv-x-xv. \-_n (k) H-«-I- -fp-ss Im-h-teÂ-]n- n-cp- C-S-b-sâ I- p-i-fn-te- v sim-ãp- -Xn-\pap-¼v ap-åp-iä Ip- n-bn-d- n lnw-k-bpss D- m-z-a-\p-`-hn- kw-lmw-k- -sf- p-dn- v C-_v-\p C-kv-lm-Izv tc-j-s -Sp- p- \n-th-z-\- n-ep-ïv. (9) A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ {]-hm-n-i³ D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ A-Xn-{I-a-Imcn-I-fp-sS I- nâ Ip- m³ B-Úm-]n-- -Xv A-hÀ H-«-I ]-cn-]m-e-i-sâ I- p-iä A-{]-Im-cw sn-bv-x-xpsim-ïm-bn-cp- p-sh- v A-\-kv (d) hy-à-am- n-b-xv ap-kv-enan-se H-cp l-zo-ynâ X-s -bp-ïv. (10) H-cp ]- a-\p-jy-sâ I- v Ip- n s]m-«n- p- - Xn B-\-µ-a-\p-`-hn- p- {Iq-c-lr-Z-b-sc in- n-t -ï-xv A-tX th-z-\ km-[y-am- Ipw-hn-[w A-h-sc Xn-cn- -\p-`-hn- n- p-simïm-sw- pw A-t m-tg A-hÀ ]mtw ] Tn- p-i-bpw k-am-\-lr-z-b-cm-b Ip-ä-hm-fn- IÄ `-b- v A-Xn-{I-a- -fp-t]- n- p-i-bpw sn- q F- p X-s -bm-wv C-kv-em-an-sâ ho- -Ww. \o-xn-bp-ss {]-Im-i-tKm-]p-c-ambn-cp- ap-l-½-zv \-_n (k) H-cp ]m-hw C-Sb-sâ I- n-\p-th-ïn \n-e-sim-åp-i-bpw {]-Xn-{In-b D-d- p-h-cp- p-i-bp-am-wv sn-bv- X-Xv. t]-io-_-e-hpw F- -_-e-hpw sh- v B-cpw B-cp-sS-bpw I- v s]m-ån- m³ ss[-cy-s -«piq-sm F- i-à-am-b \n-e-]m- -Sm-W-Xv. A-Xn-s\ a-\p-jy-cp-ss I- v s]m -Ån- m-\p-å B-lzm-\-am-bn hm-bn- p- an-j-\-dn-am-cp-ss I- v h-kv-xp-x-iä- p-ap- nâ Xp-d- m-dn-sã-t ]-d-bm³ I-gn-bq. I- v am-{x-a-ã, H-cp a-\p-jy-sâ G-Xv A-h-b-hw a-säm-cmä A-\m-h-iy-am-bn A-]-l-cn- m-epw Ip-ä-hm-fn- v `-c-w-iq-sw X-Xp-ey-am-b {]-Xn-{In-b hn-[n- -W-sa- m-wv IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ IÂ-]-\. Aw-K-hntO-Z-\- Ä-s -Xn-cm-b IÀ-i-\-am-b B {]-Jym-]-\- n-sâ {]-tbm-k-hâ- -c-ww a-zo-\-bnâ \-S- -Xn-s\-bm-Wv Aw-K-hntO-Z-\- Ä- p-å {]-I-S-\-]-{Xn-I-bm-bn \-_n-hn-aà-i-ià X-e-Ip- -s\ \nà- n A-h-X-cn- n- p- -Xv. C-hn-sS HmÀ-t -ï {]-[m-\-s -«H-cp Im-cy-ap-ïv. "Po-h-\p Po-h³, I- n-\p I- v, aq- n-\p aq- v, ]-Ãn-\p ]-Ãv' F- hn-«p-ho-gv-n-bn-ãm- \o-xn-bp-ss hn-fw-_-cw IzpÀ-B³ \nà-hln- p- -Xv tam-si {]-hm-n-i-\v A-Ãm-lp A-h-X-cn- n- p-sim-sp- Xu-dm- n-epw A-tX \n-b-a-am-wp-ïm-bn-cp- -sx- pw C-{km-Cu-eyÀ- n-s-bn-se {]-hm-n-i³-amcpw d-ºn-am-cpw ]-Wv-Un-X³-am-cpw Xu-dm- nse \n-b-a- -f-\p-k-cn- m-wv hn-[n- ncp - sx- pw {]-Jym-]n- p-sim-ïm-wv. (11) A-]q- À-W-hpw hn-i-e-hpw I-eÀ- p-i-fp-å-xp-am-b \n-e-bn-em-sw- n-epw, Xu-dm- n-sâ Nn-e `m-k- Ä C- -s ]-g-b-\n-b-a- n-se "txm-d' F- -dn-b-s -Sp- ]- -{K-Ù- -fn-ep-ï-tãm. IzpÀ-B³ Xu-dm- n-ep-ïm-bn-cp- p-sh- p ]-d-bp- "]-I-c- n-\p ]-I-cw' \n-b-aw C-t mgpw txm-d-bnâ D-sï- -Xm-Wv k-xyw. "I- n- IhÀ tìmdn \p ]-I-cw I- v, ]-Ãn-\p ]-I-cw ]-Ãv, ssibv- p ]-I-cw ssi, Im-en-\p ]-I-cw Im-ev, s]m-å-en-\p ]-I-cw s]m-åâ, ap-dn-hn-\p ]-I-cw ap-dn-hv, {]-l-c- n-\p ]-I-cw {]-l-cw' F- ]p-d- m-sv h-n-\w (12) an-j-\-dn-amà C-Xph-sc hm-bn- n-«n-tã? "Po-h-\p ]-I-cw Po-h³, I- n-\p ]-I-cw I- v, ]-Ãn-\p ]-I-cw ]-Ãv, ssi-bv- p ]-I-cw ssi, Im-en-\p ]-I-cw Imev' F- v B-hÀ- -\ ]p-kv-x-i-hpw B-hÀ- n- p- -Xv Im-Wmw. (13) Cu ssz-hn-i \n-baw \-S- n-em- n-b-xn-sâ t]-cnâ ap-l-½-zv \-_n(k)sb B-{I-an- p- -Xn-sâ tn-txmhn-im-cw A-Ô-am-b Ip-Sn- -I-b-Ãm-sX a-sä- m-wv! "ssi-bv- p ssi, Im-en-\p Im-ev' F- v ]-g-b-\n-b-aw c-ïn-s- p {]-Jym-]n- p- -Xv \mw I-ïp. {]-hm-n-i-sâ H-«-I-kwc- -I-s\ D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\- mà sim- p- I-f-ª-Xn-sâ hn-i-zmw-i- Ä C-_v-\p k-a-zv tc-j-s -Sp- n-bn-«p-ïv. A-t±-l- n-sâ I- v Ip- n-s m-ån- -Xp-t]m- -se \m-hn-epw A-hÀ ap-f-fp-iä X-d- n-cp- p-sh- pw ssi-i-fpw Im-ep-I-fpw A-hÀ sh-«n- -f-ªn-cp- p-sh- pw B \n-e-bnâ B-b-Xn-s\ Xp-SÀ- v A-t±-lw a-cn- p-ibm-wp-ïm-b-sx- pw A-hn-sS Im-Wmw. (14) ap-l-½-zv \-_n (k) D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\- m-sc ssi-im-ep-iä sh-«n a-c-w- n-\p hn-«p-sim- Sp- -Xv IzpÀ-B-\pw Xu-dm- pw A-\p-imkn- p- {]-Xn-{In-bm \n-b-aw \-S- n-em- p- -Xn-sâ `m-k-am-sw- p Np-cp- w. sim-e-]mx-in- v h-[-in- -bm-wv C-kv-em-an-I cm-jv-{sw hn-[n-t -ï-sx- m- Wv IzpÀ-B³ ]Tn- n- p- -Xv; ss_-_n-fn -sâ-bpw ]- w A-Xp-X-s -bm-wv. ta- 13

12 ep-²-cn- {]-Xn-{In-b-bp-am-bn _-Ô-s -«IzpÀ-B³ ss_-_nä h-n-\- -fn-se "Po-h- \p ]-I-cw Po-h³' F- {]-tbm-k- n-sâ hn-h- A-Xm-Wv. \n-c-]-cm-[n-bp-ss Po-h³ sim-ïv ]- m-sp- -hà- v A-Xn-i-à-am-b a-dp -]-Sn h-[-in- -bn-eq-ss \Â-Im³ `-c-w-iq-sw X- m-dm-i-w-sa- th-z-\nà-tz-i-s B-[p- \n-i tem-iw A-h-K-Wn- -Xn-sâ si-sp-xn- IÄ ap-gp-h-\pw A-\p-`-hn- p- -Xv C-c-I-fm- Wv. B-\p-Iq-eyw ]-äp- -Xm-I-s«, c-à-zmln-i-fm-b sim-spw Ip-ä-hm-fn-I-fpw. \o-xn- \n-jvt-bp-ss a-ip-tsm-zm-l-c-w-am-bn-cp- a-zo-\ A-{]-Im-c-ap-Å H-cp Zp-c- -a-ãm-xncp- -Xp-sIm-ïv D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\- mà- p-å h-[-in- A-hn-sS Ir-Xy-am-bn \-S- nem- -s -«p. C-c sim-ã-s -«-Xv I- pw I- pw Im-epw \-jv-s-s -«v tnm-c hmà- m-b-xn-\mâ {]-Xn-IÄ- pw A-tX K-Xn-bp-ïm-bn; \o-xn-bp-ss ]p-eà-, im- n-bp-ss-bpw! \-_n (k) hn-iz-kn-t Â-]n-- -Xm-bn-cp- p B H-«-I- -sf. F- mâ A-hÀ h- -\- p ap-xnà- p. A-h-cp-sS tamj-w- n-epw sim-e-]m-x-i- n-epw N-Xn- p txmâ-]n- m-\p-å sh-¼-ep-ïm-bn-cp- p. N-Xn- p-sim- v I-S- p-i-f-bm³ t\m- p- - Ipä-hm-fn-Isf A-h-cp-sS ]m-«n-\p t]m-im³ A-\p-h-Zn- -twm? A-tXm tx-sn-s - v ]n-- Sn- v hn-nm-c-w- pw in- - pw lm-p-cm- -twm? an-j-\-dn-amà- v kw-i-b-ap-sï- nâ H-cn- Â-Iq-Sn ss_-_nä a-dn- p-i: "H-cp-h³ X-sâ A-bÂ- m-c-s\ N-Xnbn sim-ãm³ ss[-cy-s -Sp- p-sh- nâ A-h-s\ F-sâ _-en-]ot- n-  \n- p-t] m-epw ]n-sn- p-sim-ïp-t]m-bn h-[n- - Ww.' (15) tem-i- n-se G-ä-hpw hn-ip-²am-b B-cm-[-\-me-b- n-\p-ånâ \n- msw- nâ t]m-epw A-bm-sf I-sï- n h-[-in- -s - n- -Ww F- ]-g-b- \n-b-a-]mtw \o-xn-bp-ss {]-tlm-j-w-am- Wv; B {]-tlm-j-w- n-sâ Xp-SÀ- X-s - bm-wv IzpÀ-B-\n-epw Xn-cp-\-_n-bp-sS Po-hn- X-N-cy-bn-epw tem-iw I-ï-Xv. D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\- m-cp-ss tam-j-ww J-P- \m-hv sim-å-bpw sim-e-]m-x-iw J-Pm-\ kq- n- p-im-c-sâ On-{X-h-[-hp-am-sW- v ]-d-bp-t¼mä X-s Ip-ä- n-sâ am-\- Ä cm-py-c- m-]-cw Iq-Sn-bm-sW- v hy-à-am- Ip- p-ïv. cm-py- n-sâ ]-c-am-[n-im-cn-bm-b {]-hm-n-i-t\m-sm-wv hn-izm-k-h- -\-bp-ïmb-sx- pw A-t±-lw t\-cn-t«â-]n- H-«-I- -fpw H-«-I- m-c-\pw B-sW- -Xpw {]-iv- D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\- m-cp-ss tam-j-ww J-P-\m-hv sim-å-bpw sim-e-]m-x-iw J-Pm-\ kq- n- p-im-c-sâ On-{X-h- [-hp-am-sw- v ]-d-bp-t¼mä X-s Ip-ä- n-sâ am-\- Ä cm-py-c- m-]- cw Iq-Sn-bm-sW- v hy-à-am-ip- pïv. cm-py- n-sâ ]-c-am-[n-im-cn-bm-b {]-hm-n-i-t\m-sm-wv hn-izm-k-h- - \-bp-ïm-b-sx- pw A-t±-lw t\-cnt«â-]n- H-«-I- -fpw H-«-I- m-c-\pw B-sW- -Xpw {]-iv-\- n-sâ Ku-chw hà-[n- n- p- p. \- n-sâ Ku-c-hw hà-[n- n- p- p. Ip-äw sn-bv-x-xm-i-s«, cm-py-s ]u-c³-am-c-ã- Xm-\pw. H-«-I- -sf sim-ïp-t]mim-\p-å {i-aw X-S-bm³ {i-an- -t m-gm-wv H-«-I- m-c³ {Iq-c-am-b B-{I-a-W- n-\v hn-t[- b-am-b-sx- v C-_v-\p C-kv-lm-Izn-sâ-bpw C-_v-\p k-av-zn-sâ-bpw hn-h-c-w- -fnâ \n- v a-\-ên-em- mw. cm-py- n-sâ kz- v kw-c- n- p-hm³ sn-dp- p-\n- kp-c- mssk-\n-i-s\ [n- m-c-]qà-hw C- n- m-bn a-cn- p- A-h-Ø-bn-em- n-bn-«m-wv kw- Lmw-K- Ä I-S- p-i-f-ª-sx- m-wv C-Xn- \À- w. A-\y-cm-Py- p-\n- v I-S- p-h- v C-kv-emw A-`n-\-bn- v a-zo-\-bp-ss hnizm-kw ]n-sn- p-]-än In-«n-b B-Zy-s A-h-k-c- nâ X-s C-kv-em-an-I cm-jv-{ss -bpw A-Xn-sâ `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-sb-bpw sh-ãp-hn-fn- v c-àw Nn- n-bp-å I-em-]- n-\p ap-xnà- D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-l- n-sâ C-kv-emw D-t]- n- m-\p-å Xo-cpam-\w cm-py-t m-spw A-hn-Sp-s \n-ba-hy-h-ø-tbm-sp-ap-å Xp-d- bp-²- {]-Jym-]-\-am-bn-cp- p. A-Xn-s\ t\- cn-ts-ï-xv IÀ- -i-am-b \-S-]-Sn-IÄ h-gn-bm-sw- v IzpÀ-B³ ]Tn- n- p- p-ïv. ""A-Ãm-lp-thm-Spw A-h-sâ Zq-X-t\m-Spw t]m-- cm-sp-i-bpw `q-an-bnâ Ip-g- -ap-ïm- m³ {i-an- p-i-bpw sn- p- -hà- p-å {]-Xn- ^-ew A-hÀ sim-s m-sp- -s -Sp-I-tbm, {Iq-in- -s -Sp-I-tbm, A-h-cp-sS ssi-i-fpw Im-ep-I-fpw F-XnÀ-h-i- -fnâ \n- m-bn ap-dn- p-i-f-b-s -Sp-I-tbm, \m-sp-i-s- -s -Sp- I-tbm sn- p-i am-{x-am-ip- p. A-X-hÀ- v C-l-tem-I- p-å A-]-am-\-am-Ip- p. ]-c-tem- I- v A-hÀ- v I-\- in- -bp-ap-ïm-bn-cn- pw.'' (16) Cu h-n-\w A-h-X-cn- n- -s -«-Xv D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`-h-s ]-cm-aà-in- p-simïm-sw- v t\-c-s kq-nn- n- l-zo-yp- I-fn-ep-Å A-\-kn-sâ (d) hn-h-c-w- -fnâ Im-Wmw. cm-py-s i-à-hpw kp-c- n-x-hpam-bn \n-e-\nà- p-hm³ B {Iq-c-kw-L-hpw A-h-sc-t m-ep-å-h-cpw ]-c-am-h-[n in- - Àl-cm-tI-ï-Xp-sï- m-wv IzpÀ-B³ C-hn-sS hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- -Xv. cm-pym-[n-im-c-s am- \n- m-sx \n-b-aw I- n-se-sp- p- -h-tcm-sp-å cm-py-x-{ -]-c-am-b bp-àn-bm-wv, A-Ãm-sX ti-h-e-am-b A-hn-izm-k-t m-sp-å \-S-]-Snb-à {]-hm-n-i³ \-S- n-em- n-b- in- -bn-epïm-b-sx- v km-cw. D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-lw H-«-I- m-c-s\ On-{X-h-[w sn-bv-xv H-«-I- -fpam-bn I-S- p-t]m-ip- h-gn-bnâ bm-{x- m-sc I-hÀ- sn- p- H-cp sim-å-kw-l-am-bn cq-]-s -«p-sh- pw kv-{xo-i-sf _-em-xv-kw-kw sn-bv-xp-sh- pw ]-d-bp- A-\-kn \n- p X-s -bp-å H-cp \n-th-z-\w Cu IzpÀ-B³ h-n-\- n-sâ hn-i-zo-i-c-w- nâ C-amw Xz- _v-cn \Â-In-bn-«p-ïv. (17) cm-pyw F-Ãm Im-e- mà- p-ap-å H-cp Zr-jv-Sm- -sa- \n-e-bnâ A-aÀ- sn-t -ïn-bn-cp-, \n-c-h-[n bm-{x- m-cp-ss k-¼- pw kv-{xo-i-fp-ss am-\-hpw I-hÀ- H-cp `o-i-c {]-Øm-\-am-bn-cp- p D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-l-sa- m-wv A-Xv kq-nn- n- p- -Xv. C-jv-t_m-sj- n-s\ A-t±-l- n-sâ D-d- -b-d-bnâ sn- v A-\ym-b-am-bn sim- td-jm-_n-s\-bpw _m-\m-sb-bpw Zmho-Zv cm-pm-hv ssi-im-cyw sn-bv-x-xv F- - s\-bm-bn-cp- p-sh- v ss_-_nä hn-h-cn- -Xv an-j-\-dn-amà-t mà-a-bn-tã? ""kz-`-h-\- nâ D-d- n- n-s- H-cp \o-xn-am-s\ sim- p-if-ª Zp-jv-S³-am-tcm-Sv Rm³ F-{X-b-[n-Iw {]-Xn-Im-cw sn- p-i-bn-ã! A-h-sâ c-à- n-\v Rm³ ]-I-cw ho-«n \n- -sf `q-ap-j- p-\n- v Xp-S- p-i-f-bm-xn-cn- p-tam? Zm-ho-Zv X-sâ tkh-i-tcm-sv IÂ-]n- p. A-hÀ A-h-sc sim- v, ssi-im-ep-iä ap-dn-s -Sp- v sl-t{_m-wn-se Ip-f- n-\-cn-si A-h-sc Xq- n.'' (18) t\m- q; `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-sb h- n- Â, cm- Pym-[n-Im-c-s sh-ãp-hn-fn- Â, I-em-]w- ]-SÀ- Â, J-P-\m-hv sim-å-bn-sn- v i-{xp-cm- Py-t - v sim-ïp-t]m-iâ, kp-c- m-ssk- 14

13 \n-i-s\ h-[n- Â, A-t±-l- n-sâ I- v \-in- n-  ssi-im-ep-iä to-zn- Â, h-gns m-f-f, _-em-xv-kw-kwþ-f-{x Ip-ä- -fm-wv B F-«p-t]À sn-bv-x-xv! C-kv-em-an-I in- m- \n-b-a- Ä {]-Im-cw A-h-bv- p-å {]-Xn-{In-bbm-bn sn-t -ï Im-cy- -fm-wv {]-hm-n-i³ (k) sn-bv-x-xv. a-\p-jy-cp-ss Po-h-\pw kz pw B-{I-an- m³ B-sc-bpw A-\p-h-Zn- p-iq-sm F- am-\-hn-i t_m-[-am-wv C-kv-em-an-I in- m-\n-b-a- -fp-ss b-ymà- B-ßm-hv; A-Xp-X-s -bm-bn-cp- p D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`h- n-sâ B-ßm-hpw. h-[-in- -b-s- -ap-å {]-Xn-{In-b-IÄ h-gn C-kv-emw D-d- p-h-cp- p- -Xv \n-c-]-cm-[n-iä- v Po-hn- p-hm-\p-å kzm-x-{ y-am-sw- v IzpÀ-B³ hy-à-am-bn ]-d-bp- p-ïv þ"{]-xn-{in-b-bnâ \n- Ä- v Pohn-X-ap-ïv; \n- Ä _p-²n D-]-tbm-Kn- p- -hcm-sw- nâ.' (19) cm-py-t m-sv bp-²w {]-Jym-]n- - p- -hà- v I-Sp- in- -IÄ \nà-tz-in- p- ]-cm-ar-jv-s h-n-\w IzpÀ-B-\n-ep-Å-Xv H-cp \n-c-]-cm-[n-bp-ss Po-h³ tem-i- n-se ap-gp-h³ a-\p-jy-cp-ss-bpw Po-h-\p Xp-ey-am-s - v A-Ãm-lp C-{km-Cu-ey-sc ]Tn- n- n-«pw A-h-cn ]-e-cpw A-Xn-{I-a-Im-cn-I-fm-bn am-dnsb- v hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- h-n-\- n-\p sxm-«pti-j-am-sw- h-kv-xp-x ]-cn-k-wn- mâ (20) C-kv-em-an-I-cm-Py- n-sâ in- m-zà-i-\w Ir- Xy-am-bn a-\-ên-em- mw. D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`hw D-²-cn- n-cn- p- -Xv A-\-kv (d) B-sW- v ]-d-ªp-h-tãm. A-t±-l- n-sâ in-jy-\pw {]-KÂ-` ]-Wv-Un-X-\p-am-bn-cp- p Xm-_n-D-IfnÂ-s]-«A-_q Izn-em-_ (d). D-a-ho `-c-wm-[n- Im-cn-bm-bn-cp- D-a-dp-_v-\p A-_v-Zn A-kokn-sâ (d) k-z-ênâ-sh- v A-t±-lw H-cn-  ]-d-ªp: "C-kv-em-an H-cm-sf sim-ãp- -Xv \n-b-a-]-c-am-hp-i aq- v A-h-k-c- -fnâ am-{xam-wv; hy-`n-n-cn- p- hn-hm-ln-x³, a-äm-scmsf A-\ym-b-am-bn h-[n- -h³, A-Ãm-lp-hn-t\m- Spw {]-hm-n-i-t\m-spw bp-²w sn- p- -bmä.' C-Xp-tI-«v k-z-ên-ep-ïm-bn-cp- Nn-eÀ D-IvÂþ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`-h-s - p-dn- p tnm-zn- p. A-\- knâ \n- v B kw-`-h- n-sâ hn-h-c-ww t\- cn-«p-tiä- m³ A-h-k-c-ap-ïm-bn-«p-Å A-_q Izn-em-_-bp-sS {]-Xn-I-c-Ww C-{]-Im-c-am-bn-cp- p: ""A-h-sc in- n- p- -Xn H-cp A-am- hp-ap-ïm-im³ ]m-sp-ïm-bn-cp- n-ã; Im-c-Ww A-hÀ H-cm-sf sim- p, A-Ãm-lp-hn-t\m-Spw {]-hm-n-i-t\m-spw bp-²w sn-bv-xp.'' (21) A-\ymb-am-bn H-cm-sf-bpw h-[n- p-iq-ss- pw h-[-in- cm-pyw \-S- n-em-t -ï-xv A-Xn-{I-a-Imcn-I-sf \n-e- p-\n-à- m-\m-sw- p-ap-å ap-l-½-zv \-_n (k) A-{I-ankw-L -s ]n-sn-iq-sm³ th-ïn A-b- - Xv IpÀ-kv C-_v-\p Pm-_n-dn-s\ (d) B-bn-cp- p-sh- v ]-d-bp- C-_v-\p C-kv-lm-Izpw C-_v-\p k-av-zpw, sim- Ã-s -«H-«-I ]-cn-]m-e-i³ b-kmà H-cp A-Sn-a-bm-bn-cp- p-sh- pw tc-js -Sp- p- p-ïv. A-Sn-a-bp-sS Po-h-\v ]p-ãp-hn-e t]m-epw IÂ-]n- -s -Sm-Xncp- H-cp Ø-e-Im-e- n-te- m-wv \-_n(k)bp-ss {]-hm-n-i-xz \n-tbm- K-ap-ïm-b-Xv. C-kv-em-an-sâ A-Sn-Øm-\ ]mtw X-s -bm-wv D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-`-h- n-epw {]-hà- n- sx- m-wv {]-hm-n-i-\nâ \n- v A-Xn-s\- pdn- v a-\-ên-em- n-b-hà {K-ln-s -Sp- -sx- v A-_q Izn-em-_(d)bp-sS a-dp-]-sn kv-]-jv-s-am- p- p-ïv. ap-l-½-zv \-_n (k) A-{I-ankw-L-s ]n- Sn-Iq-Sm³ th-ïn A-b- -Xv IpÀ-kv C-_v-\p Pm- _n-dn-s\ (d) B-bn-cp- p-sh- v ]-d-bp- C-_v- \p C-kv-lm-Izpw C-_v-\p k-av-zpw, sim-ã-s -«H-«-I ]-cn-]m-e-i³ b-kmà H-cp A-Sn-a-bm-bn-cp- p-sh- pw tc-j-s -Sp- p- p-ïv. A-Sn-a-bp-sS Po-h-\v ]p-ãp-hn-e t]m-epw IÂ-]n-- -s -Sm-Xncp- H-cp Ø-e-Im-e- n-te- m-wv \-_n(k) bp-ss {]-hm-n-i-xz \n-tbm-k-ap-ïm-b-xv. A-Sn-a- I-fpw a-\p-jy-cm-sw- v A-d-_n-I-sf ]Tn- n- -Xv ap-l-½-zv \-_n(k)bm-bn-cp- p. A-Sna-I-sf On-{X-h-[w sn- p- -Xpw sim-ãp- - Xpw cm-py- n-sâ {]-Xn-{In-b- À-l-am-Ip- a-lm-]m-x-i-am-bn K-Wn- m³ B-fp-IÄ- v I-gn-bm-Xn-cp- H-cp Im-e- v, ""B-sc- n-epw X-sâ A-Sn-a-sb h-[n- mâ A-h-s\ Rm³ h-[n- pw, B-sc- n-epw X-sâ A-Sn-a- v Aw- K-`w-Kw h-cp- n-bmâ A-h-s\ Rm-\pw Aw-K- `w-kw h-cp- pw'' F- p [o-c-am-bn {]-Jym-]n-- v am-\-h -km-tlm-z-cy-s D-bÀ- n- n-sn- `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-bm-wv ap-l-½-zv \-_n (k). (22) H-c-Sn-a-sb I- p s]m-«n- pw Aw-K-hn-tO-Z- \w \-S- n-bpw sim- p c- -s -Sm³ {i-an- D-IvÂ-þ-D-d-bv-\ kw-l-s \o-xn- pw \n-ba- n-\pw ap- nâ ]n-sn- p-si-«n-b ap-l-½-zv IhÀ tìmdn \-_n (k), am-\-h-k-a-xz- n-sâ A-Xyp-Öze-am-b H-cp A-[ym-b-am-Wv N-cn-{X- n-te- v Xp- n-t À- -Xv. ½ Ipdn- p-iä 1. \kmc, kp\³/ InXm_p Xlvco-an- ±w, _m_p- -lvbn- A-\n apyve. 2. XpÀap-Zn, Pman-Av/ InXm-_p-±nbmXn A³ dkq-en-ãm-lv, _m_p am Pm-A ^n lvbn A\n apyve. 3. _pjmcn, kzlolv/ InXm-_p afzm-enw, _m_p- plv_m _nkzbvcn CZv\n kzmln-_n-ln. 4. ss nä/ BhÀ \w 17:2þ5 5. See, for instance, Dr. Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad, A Biography of The Prophet of Islam, In the Light of the Original Sources (Riyadh: Darussalam, 2005), Vol. 2, p apkvenw, kzlolv/ InXm-_p IzkmaXn hâ aplm-cn-_o\ hâ Iznkzmkzn h±nbm-xv, _m_p lpivanâ aplm-cn-_o\ hâ apàx-±o³; _pjmcn, kzlolv/ InXm-_p lpzq-zv. 7. IzpÀ-B³ 5: ss nä/ BhÀ \w 25: A. Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad. A translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2007), p apkvenw, kzlolv/ InXm-_p IzkmaXn hâ aplm-cn-_o\ hâ Iznkzmkzn h±n-bm-xv, _m_p lpivanâ aplm-cn-_o\ hâ apàx-±o³. 11. IzpÀ-B³ 5:44, ss nä/ ]pd- msv 21:24þ ss nä/ BhÀ \w 19: S.Moinul Haq, Ibn Sa'd's Kitab Al- Tabaqat Al-Kabir. 15. ss nä/ BhÀ \w 19: IzpÀ-B³ 5: A_q PAv^À apl-½zv C_v\p Pcodp- z-_vcn, Pman-D _bm\n A³ XAv-hoen A nâ IzpÀ-B³, ss nä/ 2 kmap-hâ 4:11þ IzpÀ-B³ 2: IzpÀ-B³ 5:32þ3 ImWp-I. 21. _pjmcn, kzlolv/inxm-_p- ^vkoà. 22. XpÀapZn, Pman-Av/ InXm-_p-±n-bmXn A³ dkq-en-ãm-lv, _m_p ampma ^nàdpven bizvxpep A_vZlp; \km-c, kp\³/ InXm -_pâ Izkm-a, _m_pâ IzuZn an -Ê- nzn enâ auem. 15

14 DÂ]- n hnh-c-w- nse -"kv-{xo-bp-ss k- -Xn': hymjym-\- fnse sshcp-[y- Ä \nk, ImkÀtKmUv ssz-hni amà-kw A-\p-[m-h-\w sn- -W-sa- ssz-h-k-tµ-iw A-[ym- ]-\w sn- m-\m-bn- "h-gn-bpw sh-fn- -hpw k-xy'hp-am-bn h-cp- tb-ip-hn-s\ \mw ss_-_n-fnâ Im-Wp- p. F- mâ ssz-hni amà-kw ]n-- p-s-cm³ a-\-ên-ãm- tb-ip-hn-sâ P-\-X-tbm, A-hÀ tb-ip-hn-s\ F-XnÀ- p- -Xm-bm-Wv Im-Wp- -Xv. A-h-sc tb-ip bp-àn-]qà-æw D-]-tZ-in- p-i-bpw F-XnÀ-hm-Z- -sf J-Þn- p-i-bpw Xn-cp- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp-sim-ïn-cp- p. A- -cw H-cp k-µà-`- nâ H-cp hn-izm-kn-\n-bm-b kv-{xo h- p tb-ip-hn-t\m-sv ]-d-bp- p, "\n-s h-ln- D-Z-c-hpw \n-s ]m-eq-«n-b ap-e-i-fpw `m-ky-ap-å-h.' A-Xv ti-«-t mä tb-ip C- -s\ ]-d-ªp: "ssz-h h-n-\w ti-«v A-Xp ]m-en- p- -hà Iq-Sp-X `m-ky-hm³-amà.' (eq- m 11:27) X-sâ am-xm-hm-b ta-cn-sb `m-ky-h-xn F- v ]-d-bp-t¼mä tb-ip B kv-{xo-sb J-Þn- p-i-b-ã C-hn-sS sn- p- -Xv, a-dn- v A-Xn-t\- mä `m-kyhm³-amà ssz-h-h-n-\w ti-«v A-h ]m-en- p- -hà B-sW- v D-]-tZ-in- p-ibm-wv, A-Xm-b-Xv b-ymà- ku-`m-kyw In-«m-\p-Å h-gn ssz-h h-n-\- Ä ]men- pi-bm-sw- ]mtw ]Tn- n- m-\m-bn B k-µà-`w D-]-tbm-Kn- p-i-bmbn-cp- p tb-ip. G-Xm-bm-epw ta-cn ]p-wy-h-xn-bm-sw- -Xn ss_-_n-fn-\v F-XnÀ- v D-Å-Xm-bn txm- p- n-ã. Po-h-sâ sh-fn- w In-«-W-sa- nâ tb-ip-hn-s\ A-\p-K-an- p-i F- -Xp X-sâ am-xm-hm-b ta-cn-sb `m-kyh-xn F- v ]-d-bp-t¼mä tb-ip B kv-{xo-sb J-Þn- p-i-b-ã C-hn-sS sn- p- -Xv, a-dn- v A-Xnt\- mä `m-ky-hm³-amà ssz-h-h- N-\w ti-«v A-h ]m-en- p- -hà B-sW- v D-]-tZ-in- p-i-bm-wv, A-Xm-b-Xv b-ymà- ku-`m-kyw In-«m-\p-Å h-gn ssz-h h-n-\- Ä ]m-en- p-bm-sw- ]mtw ]Tn- n- m-\m-bn B k-µà-`w D-]-tbm-Kn- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p tb-ip. 16

15 tb-ip-hn-sâ D-]-tZ-i-am-bn-cp- -tãm (tbm-l m³ 8:12). "tb-ip-hn-s\ A-\p-K-an- p-i' F- -Xv sim-ïv D-t±-iyw tb-ip ]-d-ª-xv A-\p-k-cn- p-i, tb-ip-hn-s\ am-xr-i-bm- p-i, F-s m-s -bm-wv. B tb-ip X-sâ am-xmhm-b a-dn-b-s "am-xm-th/a-t½' F- p hnfn- m-sx "kv-{xo-tb' F- v hn-fn- p- -Xm-bn-«v ss_-_n-fnâ \mw Im-Wp- p. (tpm 19:26). A-Xv hm-bn- p- -hà- v, tb-ip A-sX- m-wv am-xm-hn-s\ H-cp _-lp-am-\-an-ãm- t]m-se, F- p H-cp kw-i-bw txm- p- A-h-Ø D-ïm-hp- p... am-xm-]n-xm- -sf _-lp-am-\n- p-i-bpw A-\p-k-cn- p-i-bpw sn- p-i-bm-wv ssz-hni \nà-tz-iw F- m-w-tãm ap³-im-e {]-hm-n-i- mà ]Tn- n- n-cp- -Xv. F- n-«v tbip A-Xn-\p hn-cp-²-am-bn {]-hà- n- p-i-tbm? tb-ip-hn-sâ A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- p kz-bw hn-tijn- n- p- {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-tfm-Sv A-Xn-s\- -än tnm-zn- mâ A-hÀ ss_-_nä ]-g-b \n-b-a- n-se H-cp {]-h-n-\- n-te- v ssi Nq-ïn-bn- «v, A-Xv Im-c-W-am-Wv tb-ip A- -s\ sn-bv-x- Xv F- v ]-d-bpw. DÂ- - n 3:15þmw h-n-\-am-wv B {]-h-n-\w. A-Xv \-ap- v ]-cn-tim-[n- mw. DÂ- - n aq- mw A-[ym-bw Xp-S- p- - Xp C- -s\-bm-wv: 1. b-tlm-h-bm-b ssz-hw D-ïm- n-b F-Ãm Im-«p-P- p- -sf- m-fpw ]m-¼v Iu-i-eta-dn-b-Xm-bn-cp- p. A-Xp kv-{xo-tbm-sv, txm- «- n-se bm-sxm-cp hr- - n-sâ ^-e-hpw \n- Ä Xn- -cp-sx- p ssz-hw hm-kv-x-h-am-bn IÂ-]n- n-«p-tïm F- p tnm-zn- p. 2. kv-{xo ]m-¼n-t\m-sv, txm-«- n-se hr- - -fp-ss ^-ew R- Ä- p Xn- mw; 3. F- mâ \n- Ä a-cn- m-xn-cn-t -ï-xn-\p txm-«- n-sâ \-Sp-hn-ep-Å hr- - n-sâ ^-ew Xn- -cp-xv, sxm-sp-i-bpw A-cp-Xv F- p ssz-hw IÂ-]n-- n-«p-ïv F- p ]-d-ªp. 4. ]m--¼p kv-{xotbm-sv, \n- Ä a-cn- -bn-ã \n-ý-bw; 5. A-Xp Xn- p- \m-fnâ \n- -fp-ss I- p Xp-d- - bpw \n- Ä \- -Xn- -I-sf A-dn-bp- -h-cm-bn ssz-h-s -t m-se B-I-bpw sn- pw F- p ssz-hw A-dn-bp- p F- p ]-d-ªp. 6. B hr- -^-ew Xn- m³ \-Ã-Xpw Im- m³ `w-knbp-å-xpw Úm-\w {]m-]n- m³ Im-ay-hpw F- p kv-{xo I-ïp ^-ew ]-dn- p Xn- p `À- m-hn- pw sim-sp- p; A-h-\pw Xn- p. 14. b-tlm-h-bm-b ssz-hw ]m-¼n-t\m-sp IÂ-]n-- -Xv: \o C-Xp sn-bv-i-sim-ïp F-Ãm I- p- Im-en-I-fn-epw F-Ãm Im-«p-ar-K- -fn-epw-sh- p \o i-]n- -s -«n-cn- p- p; \o D-c-Êp-sIm-ïp ssz-hni {XnXz-Xn-se H-cp B-f- Xz-am-b tb-ip `q-an-bn-te- v- a-\pjy-\m-bn h-cn-i-bpw a-\p-jyà- vc- -s -Sm³ I-gn-bm- B-Zn-]m -]w F- `m-c-s X-sâ taâ h-ln- v A-h-bv- v ]-cn-lm-c-ambn _-en-bm-hpw F- k-tµ-iw B-Wv ss_-_n-fn-ep-s-\o-fw D-Å- Xv, A-Xn B-Zy-t -Xv F- AÀ- - nâ {]-Y-a an-in-lm {]-h-n-\w B-Wv C-Xv F- m-wp s{si-kv-x-hà hn-iz-kn- p- -Xv. K-an- p \n-sâ B-bp-jv-Im-e-sam-s -bpw s]m-- Sn Xn- pw. Im-«p-P- p- -fnâ sh- v G-ä-hpw Iu-i-eta-dn-b P- p-hm-b ]m-¼v kv-{xo-sb (l-æ-sb) ssz-h- n-sâ IÂ- -\ A-\p-k-cn- p- -Xn \n- v sx-än- -Xn-\m ]m-¼n-s\ ssz-hw i-]n-- -Xm-Wp ]-Xn-\m-emw h-n-\- nâ Im-Wp- - Xv. ]n-s -bm-wv \mw A-t\z-jn- p- {]-h-n- \ `m-kw h-cp- -Xv. A-Xn- -s\-bm-wv. 15. Rm³ \n-\- pw kv-{xo- pw \n-sâ k- -Xn- pw A-h-fp-sS k- -Xn- pw X-½n i-{xp-xzw D-ïm- pw. A-h³ \n-sâ X-e X-IÀ- ss{ikvx-hx pw; \o A-h-sâ Ip-Xn-Im X-IÀ- pw. sszhni {XnXz- n-se H-cp B-f-Xz-am-b tb-ip `q-an-bn-te- v- a-\p-jy-\m-bn h-cn-i-bpw a-\p-jyà- v- c- -s -Sm³ I-gn-bm- B-Zn-]m-- ]w F- `m-c-s X-sâ taâ h-ln- v A-hbv- v ]-cn-lm-c-am-bn _-en-bm-hpibpw sn pw F- k-tµ-iw B-Wv ss_-_n-fn-ep-s-\o-fw D-Å-Xv, A-Xn B-Zy-t -Xv F- AÀ- - nâ {]-Y-a an-in-lm {]-h-n-\w (Protoevangelium) B-Wv C-Xv F-s ms bm-wv s{si-kv-x-hà hn-iz-kn- p- -Xv. tb-ip-hn-sâ B _-ena-c-w- nâ hn-iz-kn- p- -hà-s - Ãmw ]m-]- nâ \n- p-å c- e-`n- p- p, A-Ãm- -hà ]m-]- nâ X-s I-gn-ªp Iq-Sp- p F- -Xm-Wv s{si-kv-x-h a-x- n-sâ Im-X X-s. B "{]-h-n-\' n-\p ti-jw kv-{xo-sbbpw ]p-cp-j-s\-bpw ssz-hw C- -s\ i-]n- p- -Xm-bpw Im-Wp- p: 16. kv-{xo-tbm-sp IÂ-]n- -Xv: Rm³ \n-\- p I-jv-S-hpw KÀ-`-[m-c-W-hpw G-ä-hpw hà[n- n- pw; \o th-z-\-tbm-ss a- -sf {]-k-hn- pw; \n-sâ B-{K-lw \n-sâ `À- m-hn-t\m-sp B-Ipw; A-h³ \n-s `-cn- pw. 17. a-\p-jy-t\m-sp IÂ-]n- -txm: \o \nsâ `m-cy-bp-ss hm- p A-\p-k-cn- -bpw Xn- - cp-sx- p Rm³ IÂ-]n- hr- -^-ew Xn- p- I-bpw sn-bv-x-xp-sim-ïp \n-sâ \n-an- w `q-an i-]n- -s -«n-cn- p- p; \n-sâ B-bp-jv-Im-esam-s -bpw \o I-jv-S-X-tbm-sS A-XnÂ-\n- p A-tlm-hr- n I-gn- pw. ]m-¼n-s\ i-]n- -Xv A-Xv D-Z-c- nâ C-g- ªp \o- p-i-bpw s]m-sn Xn- p-i-bpw sn- psa- m-w-tãm. ]m-¼v s]m-sn Xn- p- -Xm-bn F-hn-Sp- pw \mw ti-«n-«n-«n-ã. Nn-e-t mä A-Xv 17

16 "A-]-am-\n-X-\m-Ipw" F- AÀ- - nâ Cw- o-jnâ ]-d-bm-dp-å 'bite the dust' F- -Xv t]m-- se-bp-å H-cp {]-tbm-k-am-bn-cn- mw. ]m-¼v A-]-am-\n- -s -Sp- p-tïm F- v A-dn-bn-Ã. F- mâ D-Z-c- n-eq-ss C-g-ªp \o- p- p-ïv F- -Xv i-cn X-s -bm-w-tãm. F- mâ ]m-¼v D-Z-c- n-eq-ss k- -cn- p- -Xv ssz-h-im-]w Im-c-W-am-sW- nâ D-c-K hà-k- nâ-s -«A-c-W, Hm- v ap-x-em-b a-äp P- p- Ä F- v sim-ïm-wv A- -s\ D-Z-c- n-eq-ss C-g-ªp \o- n k- -cn- p- -Xv? ]m-¼n-sâ im-]w A-h-bv- pw _m-[-i-am-tbm? C-\n, H-cp P- phn-\v F-{X X-s _p-²n-tbm Ip-_p-²n-tbm D-ïm-bn-cp- m-epw a-\p-jy-t\- m-fpw _p-²nbpw A-dn-hpw D-ïm-Im-\n-S-bn-à F- v \-½p-sS km-am-\y _p-²n ]-d-bp- p. DÂ- - n-bn-se ]m-¼v A-Y-hm kà- w F- -Xv b-ymà- - nâ ]m-¼-ã, ]n-im-nn-sâ symbol A-Y-hm {]-Xo-Iw B-sW- m-wv- ]-d-b-s -Sp- -Xv-. B-b-Xn-\m i-]n- -s -«-Xv- ]n-im-nm-sw- À- w. A- -s\ h-cp-t¼mä H-cp {]-iv-\w D-ïm-hp- -Xv, ssz-hw ss_-_n-fnâ i-]n- p- -Xm-bn Im-Wp- -Xv ]n-im-nn-s\-b-ã, ]m-¼ns\- -s -bm-wv. A-Xv sim-ïm-w-tãm H-cp ti-h-e P- p-hm-b ]m-¼v D-Z-c- nâ C-g-bm³ C-S-h- -Xv-. A-sXm-cp A-\o-Xn-b-tÃ? ]n-im-nnsâ {]-Xo-I-am-bn Rm³ \nâ- mw F- v ]m- -¼v ]-d-ªn-cp- n-ã-tãm. ]n-s C- -s\ kw-`hn- -Xn-sâ \ym-bw F- m-wv? DÂ- - n 3:15se "{]-Y-a an-in-lm {]-h-n- \' n-te- v- h-cp-t¼mä A-hn-sS-bpw {]-Xn-]m- -Zn- -s -Sp- -Xv ]m-¼-ã, km- m-\m-sw- m- W-tÃm ]-d-b-s -Sp- -Xv-. A-sÃ- nâ an-in-lmbm-b tb-ip-hn-\pw ]m-¼v F- ar-k- n-\pw X-½n `-b- -c i-{xp-x-bm-bn-cp- p F- v ]-d-tb-ïn-h-cpw. A- -s\ B-cpw ]-d-bp- n-ã. Iq-Sm-sX sh-dpw H-cp km-[m-c-w Im-«p-P- phn-sâ hm- v (\- Xn- -IÄ A-dn-bpw, F- v ]-d-ª-xv) F- -s\ k-xy-am-bn? a-\p-jy-\v A-dn-hv \Â-In-b-Xn-t\- mä Iq-Sp-X Im-«p- P- p- Ä- v \Â-In- m-wp-tam? A- -s\ D-ïm-hm³ h-gn-bn-ã. A-hn-sS i-]n- -s -«-Xv ]n-im-nm-bn-cp- p F- v sh- p- -Xv X-s -bm- Wv D-Nn-Xw. ]-s ]n-im-nn- p In-«n-b im-]w (D-Z-c- nâ N-en- -epw s]m-sn Xn- Â/A-]- am-\n-x-\m-h-epw) ar-k-am-b ]m-¼n-\v kw-`-hn- -sx- -s\ F- -Xv A-t m-gpw D- -cw In-«mtNm-Zy-am-bn \n-e \nâ- p- p. C-\n kv-{xo-sb i-]n- -Xv- t\m- mw. "Rm³ \n-\- p I-ã-hpw KÀ-`-[m-c-W-hpw kà- w A-Y-hm ]n-im-nn-t\m-sv- sszhw, "Rm³ \n-\- pw kv-{xo- pw i-{xp-xzw D-ïm- pw' F- v ]-d-bpt¼mä A-hn-sS D-ïm-bn-cp- kv-{xo l-æ-bm-wv. F- mâ l-æ-bpw ]n-- im-npw X-½n {]-txy-i-am-b H-cp i-{xp-x-bn-ã. A-t mä A-Xv ta-cnsb- p-dn- p-å {]-h-n-\-am-hm-\m-wv km-[y-x. "kv-{xo-bp-ss k- -Xn' tbip-hm-sw- nâ "kv-{xo' ta-cn B-hpa-tÃm F- H-cp hm-zw D-ïm-hp- p. F- mâ ta-cn-bpw ]n-im-npw _-²-i-{Xp- -fm-bn-cp-t m? G-ä-hpw hà-²n- n- pw; "\n-sâ B-{K-lw \nsâ `À- m-hn-t\m-sp B-Ipw,' F- m-w-tãm. `À- m-hn-t\m-sv B-{K-lw txm- m³ i-]n- - Xv- \- m-bn F-t ]-d-bm-\p-åq. A-sÃ- nâ kv-{xo-iä- v X- -fp-ss `À- m- - m-tcm-sv kvt\-l-an-ãm-sx B-bn-t m-tb-s\. ]-s H-cp-]m- Sv kv-{xo-iä Cu im-]- nâ \n- v H-gn-ªp am-dn `À- m-hn-\p ]-I-cw th-sd ]p-cp-j- m-sc B-{K-ln- p- {]-Xn-`m-k-s - p-dn- v F- v ]-d-bp- p? F- -s\-bm-w-hà "im-] tam-nn-xcm'b-xv? C- -s ]-e kv-{xo-i-fpw KÀ-`-[m-c- Ww F- "im-]'s kz-bw \n-cm-i-cn- p a- - Ä th-sï- p Xo-cp-am-\n- -Xv- F- -s\? ssz-h im-]-s a-\p-jyà- v- b-ty-jv-sw X-Åm-\pw sim-åm-\pw I-gn-bp-tam? Iq-Sm-sX, a-\p-jy kv-{xo- v ]m-]w sn-bv-x-xn-sâ in- -bm-bn "I-jv-S-hpw KÀ-`-[m-c-W-hpw hà-²n-s ' nâ ]m -]w sn- m- a-äp k-kv-x-\n Po-hn-I-fn-se kv- {Xo-hÀ-K- n-\p F- p-sim-ïm-wv A- -s\ kw-`-hn- p- -Xv-? A-sXm-s A-hn-sS-bn-cn- -s«. \-ap- v \-½p-sS hn-j-b- n-te- v Xn-cn- p h-cmw. B-Zy "an-in-lm {]-h-n-\'am-b DÂ- - n 3: 15se "Rm³ \n-\- pw kv-{xo- pw \n-sâ k- -Xn- pw A-h-fp-sS k- -Xn- pw X-½n i-{xp- Xzw D-ïm- pw. A-h³ \n-sâ X-e X-IÀ- pw; \o A-h-sâ Ip-Xn-Im X-IÀ- pw" F- h-n-\w. C-Xn-se ]m-¼n-sâ/]n-im-nn-sâ Ip-Xn- Im X-IÀ- p- "kv-{xo-bp-ss k- -Xn' tbip X-s -bm-sw- v A-hÀ hn-iz-kn- p- p. A-Xn-\p A-hÀ ]-d-bp- \ym-bw, sk-an-än-iv ]m-c-¼-cy- nâ k- m-\- -sf ]n-xm- - mtcm-sp tnà- m-wv ]-d-bm-dp-å-xv. ss_-_nfn-se hw-im-h-en-iä t\m- n-bmâ A-Xv a-\-ên-em-ipw. F- mâ C-hn-sS ]-d-bp- -Xv kv-{xo-bp-ss k- -Xn F- m-w-tãm. tb-ip I-\y-I-bn \n- v P-\n- -Xm-Wv. tb-ip-hn-sâ ]n-xm-hv ssz-hw X-s -bm-wv. a-\p-jy-\m-b H-cp ]n-xm-hn-te- v tnà- v ]-d-bm³ ]-äm- -Xn-\m-em-Wv kv-{xo-bp-ss k- -Xn F- v ]-d-ªn-cn- p- -Xv. A- -s\ P-\n- -hà tbip-h-ãm-sx th-sd B-cp-an-Ã-tÃm. A-Xn-\m A-Xv tb-ip X-s F- m-w-h-cp-ss hm-zw. tb-ip-hn-sâ am-xm-hv a-\p-jy kv-{xo-bm-b ta-cn-bpw ]n-xm-hv ssz-h-hpw F- v ]-d-bp- A-tX \m-hp sim-ïv X-s A-hÀ tb-ip Zmho-Zn-sâ ]p-{x³ F- pw ]-d-bp- p. ss_-_nfnâ sim-sp- n-cn- p- tb-ip-hn-sâ hw-im-hen-bnâ ssz-h-s H- v kq-nn- n- p- p-t]m -ep-an-ã. a-\p-jyk- -Xn am-{x-am-bn-«m-wv A-Xn tb-ip-hn-s\ A-h-X-cn- n- n-cn- p- -Xv. Iq-Sm-sX ss_-_n-fnâ tb-ip-hn-s\ a-\p-jy-]p- {X³ F- m-wp ]-d-bp- -Xv. kv-{xo-bp-ss ]p- -{X³ F- -Ã. A-t mä ss_-_n-fnâ, tb-ip "kv-{xo-bp-ss ]p-{x³' B-Wv F- B-i-b- n-\v Øm-\-an-à F- -tã C-sXm-s Im- Wn- p- -Xv? kà- w A-Y-hm ]n-im-nn-t\m-sv- ssz-hw, "Rm³ \n-\- pw kv-{xo- pw i-{xp-xzw D-ïm- pw' F- v ]-d-bp-t¼mä A-hn-sS D-ïm-bncp- kv-{xo l-æ-bm-wv. F- mâ l-æ-bpw ]n-im-npw X-½n {]-txy-i-am-b H-cp i-{xp- X-bn-Ã. A-t mä A-Xv ta-cn-sb- p-dn- p-å {]-h-n-\-am-hm-\m-wv km-[y-x. "kv-{xo-bp-ss k- -Xn' tb-ip-hm-sw- nâ "kv-{xo' ta-cn B-hp-a-tÃm F- H-cp hm-zw D-ïm-hp- p. F- mâ ta-cn-bpw ]n-im-npw _-²-i-{Xp- - fm-bn-cp-t m? A- -s\ H-cp Im-cy-hpw ss_- _n-fn-tem JpÀ-B-\n-tem D-Å-Xm-bn ti-«n-«n-ã. ]n-s F- -s\ "kv-{xo-bp-ss k- -Xn'bm-b tb-ip-hpw ]n-im-npw i-{xp- -fm-bn? ½ 18

17 ^mjnkw/ckv-emtamt^m_nb A_q Xaow Ckvem-an-t\m-SpÅ "Ncn{X']c-amb shdp pw tic-fhpw D-]-`q-J-Wv-U- n-se ap-kv-enw `-c-w-im-e- -sf kw-_- Ôn- ^m-jn-ìv \p-w-{]-n-c-w-]-²-xn-bp-ss G-d-d-hpw h-en-b C-c-I-fn-sem- v ae-_mà Ncn-{X-hp-ambn At`- Zy-amb _Ô-apÅ Sn- p kpâ-xzm³ (1750þ1799) B-Wv. D- -tc³-uy-bn-se- -t]m-se sx- n³-uy-bn-epw {_n-«ojv B-[n-]-Xy- n-\v Im-ep-d- n- m³ t]m-cm-ts-ïn h- -Xv {]-[m-\-am-bpw ap-kv-enw `-c-w-t m-sm-bn-cp- p. Sn- p-hn-sâ km-c-yy- nâ ssa-kqà {_n-«o-jv A-[n-\n-th-i-{i-a- Äs -Xn-cn \-S- n-b [o-tcm-zm- -hpw {]-KÂ-`-hp-am-b sn-dp- p-\nâ-]v, C³-Uy-bn a-säm-cp \m-«p-cm-py- n-\pwkz-]v-\w Im-Wm³ t]m-epw I-gn-bm- -{X D-Öz-e-am-bncp- p. {_n-«o-jv km-{am-py-xzw A-Xn-sâ {]m-cw-`-z-i-bnâ t\-cn-«g-ä-hpw i-à-am-b C³-Uy³ sh-ãp-hn-fn Sn- p kpâ-xzm³ B-bn-cp- p-sh- Im-cyw sim-tfm-wn-bâ tc-j-i-fnâ kp-x-cmw hy-à-am-wv. ssa-kq-cn-\p Np-äp-apïm-bn-cp- C³-Uy³ cm-py- -sf-ãmw H- p-xoà- p-iä- v h-g- n km-{am-py-xz-k-jy- n-sâ `m-k-am-b-t m-gpw A-\n- Sn- p-hn-sâ km-c-yy- nâ ssa-kqà {_n-«ojv A-[n-\n-th-i-{i-a- Ä-s -Xn-cn \-S- n-b [o-tcm-zm- -hpw {]-KÂ-`-hp-am-b sn-dp- p-\n- Â-]v, C³-Uy-bn a-säm-cp \m-«p-cm-py- n-\pw kz-]v -\w Im-Wm³ t]m-epw I-gn-bm- -{X D-Öz-e-ambn-cp- p. {_n-«o-jv km-{am-py-xzw A-Xn-sâ {]m-cw-`-z-ibnâ t\-cn-«g-ä-hpw i-à-am-b C³-Uy³ sh-ãp-hn-fn Sn- p kpâ-xzm³ B-bn-cp- p-sh- Im-cyw sim-tfm- Wn-b tc-j-i-fnâ kp-x-cmw hy-à-am-wv. X-c-am-b B-ßm-`n-am-\-t m-ss-bpw B-kq-{X-W-t m-ss-bpw kzm-x-t{ y-o-bp-ss BÀ-P-h-ap-bÀ- n- n-sn- v Cu-Ìv C³-Uym I-¼-\n-sb A- -cmà- - nâ hn-d- n- "ssa-kqà I-Sp-h'tbm- Sv sim-tfm-wn-bâ X-{¼m- ³-amÀ- p-ïm-bn-cp- Ip-Sn- -I 19

18 Pm-Xn-ln-µp- -fp-ss "\n-th-z-\- -sf' h-i- ªv h-kv-xp-\n-jvt-am-bn ]-cn-tim-[n- mâ Sn- p kpâ-xzm-sâ `-c-w-im-ew a-e-_m-dnsâ kp-hà-w-bp-k- -fn-sem- m-bn-cp- psh- v Im-Wm-\m-Ipw. ]-c-kv -]-cw i-wvt-iq- Sp-, ZoÀ-L-Im-e ]-²-Xn-I-tfm a-l- m-b e- y- -tfm C-Ãm-, A-t\-Iw sn-dp-\m- «p-cm-py- -fm-bn Nn-X-dn-t m-b a-e-_m-dn-s\ G-Io-I-cn- v i-à-am-b H-cp ti-{µo-ir-x `-c-w- n-\p-io-gnâ sim-ïp-h- -Xv ssl- Z-dn-sâ-bpw Sn- p-hn-sâ-bpw ssa-kqà B-Wv. A-t±-l- n-sâ a-c-w-t m-ss A-h-km-\n- phm³ am-{xw sn-dp-xm-bn-cp- n-ã. ]-Xn-s\-«mw \q-äm-ïn-se C³-Uy-bp-sS b-ymà- lo-tdm B-b Sn- p-hn-s\ N-cn-{X-h-{Io-I-c-W- Ä h-gn C³-Uy- m-cp-ss a-\-ênâ X-s hn-ã-sâ Ip- m-b-a-wn-bn- p-hm³ Cw- o-jv A- m-z-an-i k- aq-lw {i-an- -Xv A-Xp-sIm-ïm-bn-cp- p. Sn- p A-\p-jvTm-\-ap-d-IÄ ]m-en- p-i-bpw k-zm-nm-c-hn-ip-²n Im- p-kq- n- p-i-bpw snbv-xn-cp- C-kv-em-an-I `-à-\m-sw- h-kv- Xp-X am-{xw a-xn-bm-ipw A-t±-l-s tx-tpmh-[w sn- p- -Xv C³-Uy³ k-hà-w s]m-xpa-wv-u-e- n-\v kzo-im-cy-am-im³ F- v simtfm-wn-bâ kr-km-e-_p-²n-iä- -dn-bm-ambn-cp- p. sim-tfm-wn-b-en-k-hpw ln-µp ]p-- \-cp- m-\-hm-zn-i-fpw ]- n-sp- C-kv-emw sh-dnbp-ss \n-tbm-p-i-a-wv-u-e- n-em-wv Sn- p-hnsâ Po-hn-X-s ]q-wq-enâ ap-dp- n-s m- v Ip-cn-in X-d- v hn-tzz-j- n-sâ sim- p-iä cm-in-an-\p- n-\n- I-gp-I³-amÀ- v sim- n- -dn- m-\n-«p-sim-sp- -Xv. A-[n-\n-th-i In- c³-am-tcm-sp-å t]m-cm-«- nâ am-{x-a-ã, X-sâ cm-py- n-sâ `-{Z-X-bpw A-`n-hr-²n-bpw D-d- ph-cp- p- -Xn-epw A- -s C³-Uy-bn Sn- p-hn-t\m-fw hn-p-bn- a-säm-cp `-c-wm-[n-imcn C-Ãm-bn-cp- p. C-kv-em-an-I \n-b-a- -fpw [mà-an-i-x-bpw hn-izm-k-]qà-hw ]n- p-sà- H-cp ap-kv-enw an-i- cm-py-x-{ -Ú-\m-bn N-cn-{X- nâ Aw-Ko-I-cn- -s -«p-iq-ss- imtyw Iq-Sn-bm-Wv C³-Uy I-ï G-ä-hpw an- I- `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-i-fn-sem-cm-fp-ss N-cn-{Xw X-e-Io-gm-bn \nâ- m-\n-s-bm- n-b-xv. c-twm- Õp-I tz-i-kv-t\-l- n-sâ Ip- -Im-[n-Im-cw hn-fw-_-cw \-S- n-bpw ap-kv-en-an-sâ tz-i- q-dv Hu-²Xyt m-ss tnm-zyw sn-bv-xpw X-g- m³ {i-an- ln-µp tz-io-b-x- v, Sn- p-hn-sâ `-c-w-{]m-kâ-`y-sa- -Xp-t]m-se A-t±-l- nsâ kzm-x-{ y-k-a-c-hpw X-a-kv-I-cn-t -ï-xv A-\n-hm-cy-am-bn-cp- p. C³-Uy-bn {_n-«o-jv `-c-w- n-s\-xn-cnâ G-ä-hpw {i-t²-b-am-b \n-e-bnâ s]m-cp-xn-b-xv H-cp ap-kv-enw `-c-wm- [n-im-cn-bm-sw- N-cn-{X-k-Xy-s Ip-gn- paq-sm-sx ln-µp-xzw Cu a- nâ X-fn-cn-Sn-sÃ- v BÀ- m-wv a-\-ên-em-hm- -Xv! {_n-«o-jv `-c-w- n-sâ k-l-im-cn-ifpw Kp-W-t`m-àm- -fp-am-im-\pw Sn- p-hn-sâ ssa-kq-cn-s\-xn-cnâ {_n-«o-jv ]- -s k- lm-bn- m-\pw ]-e-t m-gpw X- m-dm-b a-dm- `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-i-sf-bpw ]-g-èn-cm-p-sb-bpw t]m-- ep-å-h-sc ho-c-iq-c kzm-x-{ y-t]m-cm-fn-i-fmbn B-tLm-jn- p-i-bpw Sn- p-hn-s\ "hà-ko-bhm-zn'bm- n ]-Ãn-dp-½n sx-dn hn-fn- p-i-bpw sn- p- C³-Uy³ "s]m-xp't_m-[w, kw-lv- ]-cn-hmà ]-²-Xn-IÄ- v F-t m-gpw A-\m-bmk-am-b hn-p-b-km-[y-x-bp-å kmw-kv-im-cn-i a-wv-u-e-am-wv \-½p-sS "tz-io-b-x'sb- m-wv hy-à-am- p- -Xv. kà-zmà si.fw ]-Wn- -cpss ti-c-f kzm-x-{ y-k-a-cw ap-xâ kn.hn cma³-]n-å-bp-ss cm-a-cm-py-_-l-zqà h-sc- Sn- phn-cp-²-x-sim-ïv A-Ô-am-Ip- p-sh- v ]-d-bp -t¼mä F-{X am-c-i-am-wv Im-cy- -fp-ss In-Ss - v F-fp- - nâ Xn-cn- -dn-bm³ ]-äpw. ]n. si _m-e-ir-jv-w³ Nq-ïn- m-wn- -Xp-t]m- -se, ""(Sn- p-hn-t\m-sp-å) tz-im-`n-am-\- n-sâ A-bn- m-n-c-ww ]-cn-lm-ky-am-wv þ-a-xpw Cw- o-jp-im-tcm-sv Sn- p-hn-sâ k-ôn-bn-ãm- i-{xp-x-sb- -än {_n-«o-jv N-cn-{X-Im-c³-amÀ H-tc-kz-c- nâ-iq-sn F-gp-Xp-I-bpw Iq-Sn-bm-Ipt¼mÄ \-½p-sS tz-im-`n-am-\- n-sâ hr- nsi-«h-cp h-iw kz-bw {]-Im-in-X-am-Ip- p. Cu ssh-cp-[y- nâ H-fn- p-in-s- p-å k-xyw, \-½p-sS tz-im-`n-am-\- n-\p Z-ln- m- H-cp ZpÀ-L-S h-kv-xp-x-bm-wv ap-kv-enw `-c-wm-[n-imcn-bm-b Sn- p kpâ- m³ F- -X-s{X.'' (Sn- p kpâ- m³, Un.kn _p-iv-kv, 2007, {]-kv-xmh-\). Sn- p-hn-s\- A-ap-kv-enw hn-tzz-jn-bm- n Nn-{Xo-I-cn- p- -hà N-cn-{X-h-kv-Xp-X-I-sf-b-à X- -fp-ss {]-N-c-W- Ä hn-p-bn- n-s -Sp- m ³ B-{i-bn- p- -Xv; a-dn- v C-kv-em-an-I cm- Pyw, C-kv-em-an-I `-c-wm-[n-im-cn Xp-S- n-b kw-ú-iä C-kv-em-tam-t^m-_n-Iv B-b H-cp k-aq-l- nâ kr-jv-sn- p- A-Sn-Øm-\-cln-X-am-b ]-cn-{`m- n-i-sf-bm-wv. C-kv-em-an-I cm-jv-{s- nâ A-ap-kv-enw-I-tfm-Sv A-\o-Xn-bpw {Iq-c-X-bpw \-S-am-Sp-sa- sx-än-²m-c-w-sb k-aq-l-a-\-ênâ k- n-th-in- n- m³ t\-cs X-s I-gn-ªn-«p-Å- ln-µp-xz- n-\pw km-{am-py-xz- n-\pw Sn- p-hn-sâ t]-cn-ep-å "kpâ-xzm³' X-s -bm-wv A-t±-l-s hw-iob-hm-zn-bm- n ap-{z-ip- m-\p-å ]-²-Xn-bp-sS G-ä-hpw h-en-b aq-e-[-\-am-b-xv. ]qà-w-am-b H-cp ap-kv-enw A-[n-Im-c-L-S-\-bpw i-co-a- ne-[n-jvtn-x-am-b \n-b-a-hy-h-ø-bp-ap-å F-{Xtbm `-c-w-{i-a- -fnâ A-ap-kv-enw-IÄ am-xr- Im-]-c-am-bn kw-c- n- -s -«-Xn-sâ D-Zm-l-c- W- Ä N-cn-{X- n-se-¼m-sp-ap-ïv. b-ymà- - nâ Sn- p-hn-tâ-xv Cu X-c- n-ep-å H-cp "C-kv-em-an-I' km-{am-pyw X-s -bm-bn-cp- n-ã F- -Xm-Wv k-xyw. ssa-kq-cn-se thm-u-bmà ln-µp cm-pm- ³-am-cn \n- v A-h-cp-sS ln- µp km-{am-py- n-sâ \n-b-{ -Ww Sn- p-hn-sâ ]n-xm-hm-b ssl-zà A-en Jm-sâ I- n-se- p-i-bm-wv sn-bv-x-xv. ssa-kq-cn-se ssk- \n-i-ap-t -ä- -fp-ss \-s«-ãpw X-e-t m-dp-am-bn hà- n- {]-KÂ-`-\m-b ]-S-\m-b-I-\m-bn-cp- ssl-zà, ZpÀ-_-e-\m-b `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-sb a-dn-i-s- v cm-py- n-sâ ]-c-am-[n-im-c Øm-\- s - p- -Xn hn-p-bn- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p. A- [n-]-xn-bm-bn ssl-zà h- -Xv t -{X-]-cn-]m- -e-\w ap-jy-kmw-kv-im-cn-i A-P-³-U-I-fn-sem- m-bn-cp-, ln-µp B-[n-]-Xy-ap-Å D-tZym-K- \n-c \n-b-{ n- n-cp- ssa-kqà cm-py- n-sâ a-x-]-c-am-b kz-`m-h- nâ k-aq-e-am-b am-ä- -sfm- p-ap-ïm- n-s m-ï-ã F- Im-cyw kv-]-jv-s-am-wv. ssa-kq-cn-se sim-«m-cw t]m- -epw thm-u-bmà Ip-Spw-_- n-sâ I- nâ X-s -bm-bn-cp- p. Sn- p-hn-sâ Im-e- pw ln- µp D-tZym-K-Ø-cpw ln-µp {]-P-I-fpw ln-µp t -{X- -fp-ss A-`n-hr-²n-bp-sam-s X-s - bm-bn-cp- p cm-py- n-sâ {]-[m-\ `m-h- Ä. ssa-kq-cn-se-hn-ss-bpw ssl-zà A-en- Jm-\pw, Sn- p kpâ-xzm-\p-am-ip- apkvenw-iä cm- Py- n-sâ ]-c-tam- -X Øm-\-s - n-b-xpsim-ïv ln-µp Po-hn-X- n-\v km-aq-ln-i-tam kmw-kv-im-cn-i-tam B-b G-sX- n-epw B- Lm-X-ta-ä-Xn-t\m X-P-\y-am-b F-s - n-epw 20

19 ln-µp A-kz-Ø-X-tbm {]-Xn-tj-[-tam D-ïmb-Xn-t\m bm-sxm-cp tc-j-bp-an-ã. Sn- p-hn-sâ ap-jy-d-]-tz-i-i-\pw {]-[m-\-a-{ n-bpw {_mlv-a-w-\m-b ]qà-w- -bm-bn-cp- p-sh- pw ]q- À-W- -sb cm-py- n-sâ Ip- n-i Øm-\- t - v ssi-]n-sn- p h-fà- n-b-xv ssl-zà B-bn-cp- p--sh- p-ap-å h-kv-xp-iä {]-kn-²am-wv. {io-\n-hm-k-dm-hp-hpw Ir-jv-W-dm-hp-hpw H-s -bm-bn-cp- p-h-tãm Sn- p-hn-sâ "C-kv-eman-I' _yq-tdm-{i-kn-bp-ss t\-xr-x-e- -fnep-ïm-bn-cp- -hà! Sn- p-hn-s\ "ln-µp-l-xy' B-ZÀ-i-am- n-b C-kv-em-an-I/ap-kv-enw `-c-wm- [n-im-cn-bm- n A-h-X-cn- n- p- "cm-py-kv-t\- ln-iä', C-kv-em-an-I cm-jv-{s-]-cn-iâ-]-\-bp-ss ZÀ-i-\-s - p-dn- pw Sn- p ]-c-am-[n-im-cn-bm-b ssa-kq-cn-sâ kz-`m-h-s - p-dn- pw im-iz-xo- I-cn- p- -Xv k-xy-hp-am-bn hn-zq-c-_-ôw t]mep-an-ãm- [m-c-w-i-fm-sw- v hy-àw. Sn- p-hn-s\-xn-cm-b Ip-{]-N-c-W- Ä- v D-t]mÂ-_-e-I-am-bn "N-cn-{Xw' F- \n-e-bnâ F-s - n-epw D-²-cn- -s -Sp- p-sï- nâ A- h-sb-ãmw a-e-_m-dp-am-bn _-Ô-s -«-h-bm-wv; ssa-kqà a-e-_mà Io-g-S- n-bpw `-cn- -Xpw kw-_-ôn- B-Jym-\- Ä. C-hn-sS a-d- p-sh- -s -Sp- G-ä-hpw {]-[m-\-s -«h-kv-xp-x, a-e-_m-dn-s\-t -Sn ssa-kqà h- -Xv ssl-zà A-en Jm³ cm-pm-hm-b-xn-\p-ti-j-a-ã F- -Xm- Wv. "ln-µp ssa-kqà' B-Wv a-e-_m-dn-se \m-«pcm-pm- ³-am-sc B-Zy-am-bn B-{I-an- -Xv. ssl- ZÀ A-en A-Xn-sâ ]-«m-f-ta-[m-hn-i-fn-sem-cmä B-bn-cp- p-sh-t -bp-åq. {]-kv-xp-x B-{I-a- W-s - p-sà- v thm-u-bmà cm-pm-hpw a-e- _m-dp-im-cpw X-½n-ep-ïm-b k-ôn-bn-se I- - [m-c-w-iä ew-ln- -s -«-Xn-s\ Xp-SÀ- m-wv ssl-zà a-e-_mà h- p Io-g-S- p- -Xv. ln-µp a-e-_m-dn-te- v C-kv-em-an-I {]-tnm-zn-x-am-bn ap-kv-enw ssa-kqà \-S- n-b A-[n-\n-th-i-ambn ssl-z-dn-sâ ]-S-tbm-«-s hm-bn- p- -Xn- \v ]nâ-im-e-s ln-µp-xz-`m-h-\-i-f-ãm-sx N-cn-{X-h-kv-Xp-X-I-sfm- pw B-[m-c-am-bn C-Ã. \m-sv P-bn- -S- m-s\- p- ]-«m-f- mà k- mc-]-y- -fn-se-ãmw \n-jv-ir-jv-s-am-b aq-ey-t_m- [w ]p-eà- m-\n-s-bn-sã- km-am-\y-am-b A-dn-hp-sh- v Nn- n- mâ ssl-z-dn-sâ ]-S-tbm- «- n-sâ `m-k-am-bpw A- n- m-bn A-Xn-{I-a- Ä D-ïm-bn-cp n-cn- m-\p-å km-[y-x-sb \n-tj-[n- m-\m-hn-ã. A-h-sb ln-µp-hn-tcm-[- nâ \n- p-ïm-b B-kq-{Xn-X a-x-i-s- m- {I-a-W- -fm-bn hym-jym-\n- p-i-bpw sx-fn-hp -I-fp-sS-sbm- pw ]n³-_-e-an-ãm-sx s]m-en- n- p-i-bpw sn- p-t¼m-gm-wv {]-iv-\w. ssl-z- A-[n-]-Xn-bm-bn ssl-zà h- -Xv t -{X- ]-cn-]m--e-\w ap-jy- kmw-kv-im-cn-i A-P- ³-U-I-fn-sem- m-bn-cp-, ln-µp B-[n- ]-Xy-ap-Å D-tZym-K-\n-c \n-b-{ n- n-cp- ssa-kqà cm-py- n-sâ a-x-]-c-am-b kz-`m-h- nâ k-aq-e-am-b am-ä- -sfm- p-ap-ïm- n-s m-ï-ã F- Im-cyw kv -]-jv -S-am-Wv. ssa-kq-cn-se sim-«m-cw t]m- -epw thm-u-bmà Ip-Spw-_- n-sâ I- nâ X-s -bm-bn-cp- p. Sn- p-hn-sâ Im-e- pw ln-µp D-tZym-K-Ø-cpw ln-µp {]-P-I-fpw ln- µp t -{X- -fp-ss A-`n-hr-²n-bp-sam-s X-s -bm-bn-cp- p cm-py- n-sâ {]-[m-\ `m-h- Ä. dn-s\-bpw Sn- p-hn-s\-bpw Ip-dn- v a-e-_m-dn-se ln-µp- -fnâ \n- v ti-«p-sh- p-]-d-ªv Nn-e N-cn-{X-Im-c³-amÀ ]-IÀ- n-bn-cn- p- \n-à-_- Ô-a-X-]-cn-hÀ- -\-þ-hn-{k-l/-t -{X-[zw-k-\- þ-iq-«-s m-e hn-h-c-w- -sfm- pw X-s km- n-sam-gn-i-f-ã, {]-Xyp-X Du-lm-t]m-l- -fpw ^mjnkw/ckv-emtamt^m_nb ti-«p-tiä-hn-i-fpw am-{x-am-wv. H-cp ap-kv-enw kpâ-xzm-sâ ]-S/`-c-Ww h-cp- p-sh- p ]-d-bpt¼mä k-hà-w ln-µp-t_m-[w kzm-`m-hn-i-ambn B-tÇ-jn- B-i- -IÄ kw-`-h- -fm-bn \m-«p-hà- -am-\- -fnâ hn-hà- -\w sn- -s - Sp-I-bm-Wp-ïm-b-Xv. \-S- Im-cy- -f-ã, a-dn- v \-S- p-sa- v Nn-e-scm-s `-b-s -«Im-cy- -fm- Wv b-ymà- kw-`-h- -sf- t]m-se hà- am-\- -fnâ \n-d-ª-sx- v A- m-e-l-«- nse D-]-e-_v-[-am-b tc-j-iä ]-cn-tim-[n- mâ a-\-ên-em-ipw. ap-kv-enw ]- m-fn- -ap-å cm-jv- {So-b \o- - -sf- p-dn- v A-Sn-Øm-\-c-ln-Xam-b ti-«p-tiä-hn-iä X-Xv-k-a-bw ]-S-cp- -Xv F- -s\-bm-sw- -Xn-sâ an-i- Zr-jv-Sm- - - fn-sem- m-bn 1921 a-e-_m-dn-sâ X-s k-ao-]- Im-e N-cn-{X- n-ep-ï-tãm! Pm-Xn-ln-µp- -fp-ss "\n-th-z-\- -sf' h- I-ªv h-kv-xp-\n-jvt-am-bn ]-cn-tim-[n- mâ Sn- p kpâ-xzm-sâ `-c-w-im-ew a-e-_m-dn-sâ kp-hà-w-bp-k- -fn-sem- m-bn-cp- p-sh- v Im- Wm-\m-Ipw. ]-c-kv-]-cw i-wvt-iq-sp-, ZoÀ-L- Im-e ]-²-Xn-I-tfm a-l- m-b e- y- -tfm C-Ãm-, A-t\-Iw sn-dp-\m-«p-cm-py- -fm-bn Nn-X-dn-t m-b a-e-_m-dn-s\ G-Io-I-cn- v i-àam-b H-cp ti-{µo-ir-x `-c-w- n-\p-io-gnâ sim-ïp-h- -Xv ssl-z-dn-sâ-bpw Sn- p-hn-sâbpw ssa-kqà B-Wv. hy-h-øm-]n-x-am-b K-Xm-K-Xw km-[y-am- n-b A-kw-Jyw ]p-xn-b tdm-up-iä \nà-an- pw hy-h-km-b kw-cw-`- Ä Xp-S- n-bpw a-e-_m-dn-s\ B-[p-\o-I-cn- 21

20 `-c-wm-[n-im-cn a-lm-\m-b Sn- p kpâ-xzm³ B-sW- v \n-êw-i-bw ]-d-bmw. P- n-zp-jv- {]-`p-xz- n-sâ-bpw Pm-Xn-b-[n-Im-c ap-jv-insâ-bpw \-s«-sãm-sn- p-i-bpw Io-gm-f-\pw IÀ-j-I-\pw A-h-Im-i- Ä Øm-]n- p-\â- Ip-I-bpw sn-bv-xp-sim-ïp-å km-aq-lyþ-km-¼- n-i ]-cn-jv-im-c- -fpw \m-bà Iq-en- -S-I-sf B-{i-bn- p-å cm-py-kp-c- -sb- ]-c-¼-cm-k-x a-e-_mà co-xn-sb am-än ssk-\y-s im-kv-{xo-b-am-bn kw-l- Sn- n- cm-py-x-{ -Ú-X-bpw h-gn Sn- p snbv-x-xv a-e-_m-dn-s\ H-cp Im-e-L-«- n-sâ PoÀ-W-X-I-fnÂ-\n- v Ip-S-sª-gp-t -äv ]p-- Xn-b H-cp N-cn-{X k-µà-`- n-te- v A-Xn-Po-hn- m³ {]m-]v-x-am- p-i-bm-wv. F- mâ s]m- Sp- -s\ -h- A-Sn-ap-Sn L-S-\m-]-c-am-b Cu D-e- nâ \-¼q-Xn-cn-am-sc-bpw \m-b³-am-sc-bpw AÂ-]-sam-s Po-hn-X-Zp-cn-X- -fn-e-i-s - Sp- n-bn«p-ïm-ipsa- Im-cyw hy-à-am-wv. Nm-XpÀ-hÀ-Wy- n-sâ "kw-c- -W' n-te- p-x-s Xn-cn- p-t]m-im³ Sn- p-hn-sâ a-e- _m-dnâ-\n- v Xn-cp-hn-Xmw-Iq-dn-te- v ]-emb-\w sn-bv-x \-¼q-Xn-cn Ip-Spw-_- -fp-ss hn-im-c-{]-i-s-\- -fm-wv Sn- p-hn-s\ ln-µp-hncp-²-\m- n-bp-å {]-N-c-W- Ä- v i-àn \Â-In-b H-cp {]-Xn-`m-kw. B-bp-[- Ä I- nep-ïm-bn-cp- \m-bà kw-l- Ä X-cw-In-«pt¼m-sgm-s I-em-]- Ä- v ap-xnà- -Xn-s\ Sn- p A-Sn- -aà- n-b-xv \m-bà k-ap-zm-b- n-sâ kv-ar-xn-]-y- nâ Sn- p {Iq-c-\m-bn {]-Xn-jvTn- -s -Sm³ C-S-bm- n-bn-«p-ïm-ipw. A-\o-Xn-I-fpw A-cm-P-I-Xz-hpw \n-d-ª H-cp km-aq-ly-hy-h-ø- v ]-cn-t Â- p-t¼mgp-ïm-ip- C- -cw A-\p-`-h- Ä-sh- v Sn- p-hn-s\ hn-ã-\m- m³ B A-\o--- Xn-I-fp-sS/A-cm-P-I-Xz- n-sâ \n-e\nâ]m-{kln- p- À- p am-{x-ta I-gn-bq. kw-_-ôw, Xm-gv- Pm-Xn kv-{xo-iä am-dp-a-d- -cp-sx- \n-b-aw Xp-S- n-b-h-sb D-Om-S-\w sn- m-\pw Sn- p A-[n-Im-c-ap-]-tbm-Kn- p {i-an- p. k-a- Xz-hpw k-zm-nm-c-cm-ln-xy-hpw \n-b-{ n- m³ D-Å Sn- p-hn-sâ {i-a- Ä- v XoÀ- -bm-bpw A-t±-l- n-sâ C-kv-em-an-I a-\x-km- n {]-tnm-z-\-am-bn-«p-ïv. km-aq-ly-]-cn-jv-i-c-w- n-\pw am-\-h-hâ-i-c-w- n-\pw C-kv-emw \n-an- -am-ip- -Xn-s\ \m-sn-sâ \- -bm-{k-ln- p- -hà `-b- p- -sx- n-\m-wv? Pm-Xn-tIc-f-s k-a-xz- n-sâ ]mt- Ä ]Tn- n- p- -Xn C-kv-emw am-en-iv-_v-\p-zo-\m-dn-sâ Im-ew ap-xâ h-ln- ]- n-sâ N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b Xp-SÀ- am-{x-am-wv Sn- p-hn-eq-ss \n-d-th-dn-b-xv. k-a-xz-hpw k-zm-nm-c-cm-ln-xy-hpw \n-b- { n- m³ D-Å Sn- p-hn-sâ {i-a- Ä- v XoÀ- -bm-bpw A-t±-l- n-sâ C-kv -em-an-i a-\x-km- n {]-tnm-z-\-am-bn-«p-ïv. km-aqly-]-cn-jv -I-c-W- n-\pw am-\-h-hâ-i-c-w- n-\pw C-kv-emw \n-an- -am-ip- -Xn-s\ \m-sn-sâ \- -bm-{k-ln- p- -hà `-b- p- - sx- n-\m-wv? Pm-Xn-tI-c-f-s k-a-xz- nsâ ]mt- Ä ]Tn- n- p- -Xn C-kv -emw am-en-iv -_v -\p-zo-\m-dn-sâ Im-ew ap-xâ h-ln- ]- n-sâ N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b Xp-SÀ- am-{xam-wv Sn- p-hn-eq-ss \n-d-th-dn-b-xv. C-kv -emw A-Sn-t Â-]n- m-\p-å {i-aw B-bn-cp- n-ã A-Xv, a-dn- v a-\p-jy-xzw \-S- n-em- p-hm-\p- -Å Im-cp-Wyw am-{x-am-bn-cp- p. C-kv-emw A-Sn-t Â-]n- m-\p-å {i-aw B-bncp- n-ã A-Xv, a-dn- v a-\p-jy-xzw \-S- n-em- phm-\p-å Im-cp-Wyw am-{x-am-bn-cp- p. 1799 Sn- p-hn-sâ D-tZym-K-þ-ssk-\n-I hr-µ- -fnâ-s]-«-h-sc hn-e-s -Sp- p-simïv N-Xn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv {_n-«o-jv ssk-\yw Sn- p-hn-s\ "txmâ-]n- -Xv'. {io-cw-k-]-«-ww tim-«zoà-l-\m-fp-iä D-]-tcm-[n- -ti-jw "A-I- p-å kp-lr- p- -fp-ss' k-lm-bt m-ss D-Ån-se- p-i-bpw Sn- p-hn-s\ kw-c- n- m³ hn-iz-kv-x-cm-b ssk-\n-ià- p-t] m-epw A-km-[y-am-Ip- X-c- nâ I-cp- Ä \o- p-i-bpw sn-bv-x sh-ã-kv-en-bp-ss Cw- ojv ]-«m-f-t m-sv Io-g-S- m-\p-å {]-tem-`-\- -sf-bpw H-fn-t m-sm-\p-å D-]m-b- -sf-bpw Xn-c-kv-I-cn- v t]m-cm-sm-\n-d- n-b Sn- p kpâ- Xzm³ C³-Uy³ kzm-x-{ y-k-a-c- n-se A-Xy-]qÀ-hpw A-Xo-h-tN-Xm-l-c-hp-am-b H-cp A-[ym-b-am-Wv. B-[p-\n-I km-t -Xn-I hn-zy-iä {^- p-im-cnâ-\n- -S- w kzm-b- -am- n sx-t - C³-Uy-bnÂ-\n- v Zp-caq- sim-tfm-wn-bâ A-[n-\n-th-i-s si-«p-si-«n- m³ Po-hn-Xw k-aà- n- B [o-c-tz-im-`n-am-\n A-h-km-\-izm-kw h-sc s] m-cp-xn A-SÀ- -f- nâ sh-sn-tb-äp-ho-wp a-cn- -t mä D-]-`q-J-Wv-U- n-\v B-ßm-`n-am-\- n-sâ tcm-am- -am-wp-ïm-ti-ïn-bn-cp- -Xv. A-Xn-\p-]-I-cw C- pw H-cp h-en-b hn-`m-k- n-\v B a-c-ww hr- n-si-«h-cp "B-izmk' n-\v \n-an- -am-ip- p-sh- -Xv \-½p-- ss s]m-xp-t_m-[w F-{X A-]-I-S-I-c-am-bm-Wv hn-\y-kn- -s -«n-cn- p- -sx- v Ir-Xy-am-bn Nq-ïn- m-wn- p- p-ïv. km-{am-py-xz- n-sâ ap-kv-enw hn-tcm-[- s A-\- -c-sa-sp- p-i-bpw km-{am-py-xz- ns\-xn-cm-b k-a-c- nâ-\n- v am-s -gp-xn-s m- Sp- v ]n- n-cn-bp-i-bpw G-I-in-em-ß-I ln-µp C³-Uy F- kz-]v-\w km- m-xv-i-cn- m³ ap-kv-enw hw-i-l-xy-sb e- y-am-bn kzo-i-cn- p-i-bpw ln-µp-þ-ap-kv-enw k-l-hà- n-xzw D-bÀ- n-sn- -Xn-\v Km-Ôn-sb sh-sn-sh- p sim- Ãp-I-bpw sn-bv-x ln-µp-xz- n-\v, ln-µp- -fpw ap-kv-enw-i-fp-s-a- p- C³-Uy³ {]-P-I-sf kw-c- n- p-i-bpw sim-tfm-wn-bâ B-{I-a- W-Im-cn-I-tfm-Sv hn-«p-ho-gv-n-bn-ãm-sx s]m-cp- Xp-I-bpw sn-bv-x ssa-kqà kpâ-xzm³ A-\- `n-a-x-\m-ip- -Xp X-s -bm-wv N-cn-{X- n-sâ Im-hy-\o-Xn. khà- -sd B-ZÀ-i-]p-cp-j-\mbn kzo-i-cn- p- -hà- v Sn- p G-\-t -Sp-ïm- p- -Xn A-Ûp-X-s -Sm-s\- n-cn- p- p! Sn- p-hn-s\-t m-ep-å-h-cp-ss tnm-c-ho-w Cu a- n-sâ A-S-cp-I-fn a-xm- -c km-tlm-z-cy- n-sâ t_m-[y- -sfm-cp-]m-sv A-en-ªp-In-S- p- p-ïv. A-h-sb I-sï- n D-t -Pn- n- v ln-µp-xz- n-sâ hn-j-th-cp-iä ]-S-cp- -Xv X-S-bp-I-bm-Wv km-aq-ly-{]-xn-_-²-x-bp-å N-cn-{X-Im-c³-amÀ ]p-xn-b Im-e- v sn-t -ï- Xv. A-Xn-\v ]-t C-kv-em-an-I ]m-c-¼-cy-s i-cn-bm-bn a-\-ên-em- m-\p-å A-dn-hpw hn-th- I-hpw A-hÀ BÀ-Pn-s -Sp-t -ïn h-cpw. a-[y- Im-e ap-kv-enw IÀ-a-im-kv-{X- n-sâ ]-Zm-hen-sb A-Xn-sâ X-s B-`y- -c-bp-àn-bnâ a-\-ên-em- m³ {i-an- p- -Xn-\p-]-I-cw B-[p- \n-i-am-b cm-jv-{so-b k- Â-]- Ä-h- v A-Xns\ hn-i-i-e-\w sn- p- -Xv ]-e-t m-gpw XoÀ- pw k-xy-hn-cp-²-am-b A-\p-am-\- -fn-te- v \-bn- pw. Pn-lm-Zv F- p tiä- p-t¼m-tg- v "A-ap-kv-enw hn-tzz-jw' F- p a-\-ên-em- p- -h-cp-ss a-[y-im-e C³-Uy-sb kw-_-ôn- B-Jym-\- Ä ln-µp-xz Ip-{]-N-c-W- -sf "A- m-z-an-i-am-bn' Du-«p-I am-{x-ta sn- q. ap-kv-enw IÀ-a-im-kv-{X-Im-c³-am-cp-sS ssi-enbpw k-t -X- -fp-am-bp-å A-]-cn-Nn-X-Xzw N-cn-{X-Im-c³-am-sc h-gn-sx-än- p- -Xv Ku-ch-X-c-am-bn hn-i-i-e-\w sn- -s -ts-ï H-cp {]-Xn-k-Ôn-bm-Wv. ssi-jv k-bv-\p-±o³ a-jv-zqw c-ïm-a-tâ-xm- 22

21 bn A-dn-b-s -Sp- Xp-lv-^- pâ ap-pm-ln- Zo³ Cu cw-k- v H-cp-]m-Sv DÄ-Im-gv-N-IÄ ]-I-cm³ I-gn-bp- H-cp Ir-Xn-bm-Wv. A-hnizm-kn-IÄ-s -Xn-cm-b Pn-lm-Zn-\v ap-kv-enw- I-sf {]-tnm-zn- n- p-i-bpw Pn-lm-Zn-s\ C- kv-em-an-sâ hym-]-\w F- e- y-hp-am-bn _-Ôn- n- p-i-bpw bp-²mà-pn-x-kz- n-sâ IÀ-a-im-kv-{Xw hn-i-z-am- p-i-bp-sa-ãmw sn- p- {K-Ù-am-Wv Xp-lv-^-Xp ap- Pm-ln-Zo³. F- mâ km-aq-xn-cn-i-sf-bpw ti-c-f- n-se a-äp ln-µp `-c-wm-[n-im-cn- I-sf-bpw ti-c-fo-b ln-µp s]m-xp-k-aq-ls -bpw {]-IoÀ- n- p-i-bpw A-hÀ- v A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ k-hn-ti-jm-\p-{k-l- -fp- Å-Xm-bn \n-co- n- p-i-bpw a-e-_m-dn-se ln-µp-þ-ap-kv-enw {]-P-I-sf-bpw ln-µp `-c-wm- [n-im-cn-i-sf-bpw X-IÀ- m-\p-å t]mà- p- Ko-kv {i-a- Ä-s -Xn-cn a-e-_m-dn-\p ]p- -d- p-å ap-kv-enw kpâ-xzm³-amà ]-S-\-bn- -W-sa- v \nà-tz-in- p-i-bpw sn- m-\m-wv ]p-kv-x-iw ]n- o-sv ap-xn-cp- -Xv. C-kv-em-ansâ hy-h-lm-c-`m-j-bnâ "A-hn-izm-kn- pw' "-Pn-lm-Zn'-\p-sa-Ãmw k-µà-`m-\p-k-c-ww ssi-h-cp- hy-xy-kv-x AÀ- - -sf hni-z-am- m-\m-bmâ "a-[y-im-e C-kv-em-an-I km-ln-xy- -fnâ A-ap-kv-enw hn-tzz-jw' F- kw-lv-]-cn-hmà-þ-km-{am-py-xz \p-w F-fp- - nâ s]m--fn-bp-sa- v HmÀ-an- m³ Xp-lv-^-Xp ap-pm-ln-zo-sâ B-Zym-h-km-\- ap-å ]m-cm-b-ww D-]-I-cn- pw. ti-c-f- nâ \n-e-\n- n-cp- D-Öze-am-b ln-µp-þ-ap-kv-enw ssa-{xn-bp-ss ]m-- c-¼-cy- n-sâ N-cn-{X-km- y-am-wv Xp-lv- ^-Xp ap-pm-ln-zo³. C-kv-em-an-s\-bpw ap-kv-enw-i-sf-bpw B-cw-`-Im-e- p-x-s kzo-i-cn- p-i-bpw B-Z-cn- p-i-bpw kv-t\- ln- p-i-bpw sn-bv-x D-Öz-e-am-b ss]-xr- I-ap-Å {]-tz-i-am-wv ti-c-fw. ti-c-f-hpw A-d-_n-I-fpw X-½n I-SÂ-h-gn \n-e-\n- ncp- I- -h-s-k-¼à- - n-\v C.E \m-emw \q-äm-ïp-h-sc-sb- n-epw ]-g- -ap-ïv. apl-½-zv \-_n(k)bp-ss Im-e- p-x-s A-d-_v I- -h-s- m-cpw a-x-{]-t_m-[-i-cpw h-gn C-kv-emw ti-c-f- n-se- n-t À- psh- v N-cn-{X-]-Wv-Un-X³-amÀ A-\p-am- \n- p- p. H³-]-Xmw \q-äm-tïm-sp-iq-sn C-kv-emw ti-c-f- n-sem-cp {]-_-e-km- n- [y-am-bn am-dn F- v X-Xv-kw-_-Ô-am-b N-cn-{X-tc-J-IÄ sf-i-i-wv-tty-\ km- y-s -Sp- p- p-ïv. ti-c-fw `-cn- n-cp- A-h-km-\-s tn-c-am³ s]-cp-amä a-[y-im-e ap-kv-enw IÀ-a-im-kv-{X- n-sâ ]-Zm-h-en-sb A-Xn-sâ X-s B-`y- -cbp-àn-bnâ a-\-ên-em- m³ {i-an- p- - Xn-\p-]-I-cw B-[p-\n-I-am-b cm-jv-{so-b k- Â-]- Ä-h- v A-Xn-s\ hn-i-i-e-\w sn- p- -Xv ]-e-t m-gpw XoÀ- pw k-xy-hncp-²-am-b A-\p-am-\- -fn-te- v \-bn- pw. Pn-lm-Zv F- p tiä- p-t¼m-tg- v "A-apkv-enw hn-tzz-jw' F- p a-\-ên-em- p- - h-cp-ss a-[y-im-e C³-Uy-sb kw-_-ôn- B-Jym-\- Ä ln-µp-xz Ip-{]-N-c-W- -sf "A- m-z-an-i-am-bn' Du-«p-I am-{x-ta sn- q. ap-kv -enw IÀ-a-im-kv -{X-Im-c³-am-cp-sS ssien-bpw k-t -X- -fp-am-bp-å A-]-cn-Nn-X- Xzw N-cn-{X-Im-c³-am-sc h-gn-sx-än- p- -Xv Ku-c-h-X-c-am-bn hn-i-i-e-\w sn- -s -ts-ï H-cp {]-Xn-k-Ôn-bm-Wv. a- -bnâ-t]m-bn C-kv-emw kzo-i-cn- psh- pw C-Xv ti-c-f- nâ C-kv-em-an-sâ hym-]-\w Xz-cn-X-s -Sp- n-sb- pw H-cp ]m-- ^mjnkw/ckv-emtamt^m_nb c-¼-cy-ap-ïv. s]-cp-am-fn-sâ bm-{x D-ïm-b- Xv G-gmw \q-äm-ïn-em-sw- pw H-¼-Xmw \q-äm-ïn-em-sw- pw ]-{ -ïmw \q-äm-ïn-emsw- pw D-Å ]-c-kv-]-c-hn-cp-²-am-b A-`n-{]m-- b- -fpw \n-e-\nâ- p- p-ïv. s]-cp-amä I-Y-bn h-kv-xp-x-bp-ïm-bm-epw C-sÃ- n-epw A-Xn-s\ H-cp N-cn-{X-h-kv-Xp-X-bmbm-Wv ti-c-fo-b ln-µp-s]m-xp-k-aq-lw \q-äm-ïp-i-tfm-fw I-cp-Xn-t m- -Xv F- -Xv {i-t²-b-am-ip- p. s]-cp-am-fn-sâ a-xw-am-äw sh-dp-t m-ss-b-ã, {]-Xyp-X B-Z-c-thm-sS-bm-Wv C-hn-Sp-s ln-µp- Ä A-\p-kv-a-cn- p-t]m - -Xv. tim-gn-t m-s«km-aq-xn-cn cm-pm-hns\ cm-py-`-c-w-taâ-]n- v a- -bnâ t]m-b s]-cp-am-fm-sw- pw ap-kv-en-am-b A-t±-lw Xn-cn- p-h-cp- -Xp-h-sc am-{x-am-wv ln-µp-hm-b km-aq-xn-cn `-c-ww \nà-h-ln-t -ï-xv F- pw ]Tn- n- p- H-cp sf-xn-lyw t]m-epw A-hÀ- n-s-bnâ \n-e-hn-ep-ïm-bn-cp- p. ti-c-f- n-se {]-_-e-\m-b H-cp `-c-wm-[n- Im-cn a- -bnâ-t]m-bn ap-l-½-zv \-_n(k)bnâ hn-iz-kn- p-sh- hmà- -sb B-th-i-]qÀ-hw s\- n-te-äm³ ti-c-f- n-se ln-µp- Ä- v I-gn-ªp-sh- h-kv-xp-x, \-_n(k) pw C-kvem-an-\pw A-hÀ \Â-In-bn-cp- B-Z-c-hn-\m-Wv i-àn-bm-bn- A-Sn-h-c-bn-Sp- -Xv. {_n-«o-jp-imc-\m-b hn-eyw tem-k³ X-sâ {]-i-kv-x-am-b a-e-_m-à am-\z-enâ ]nâ-im-e- v Nq-ïn- m- Wn- -Xp-t]m-se; "tn-c-am³ s]-cp-am-fn-sâ a- - 23

22 bn-te- p-å ]p-d- m-sv-t]m-sem-cp kw-`-h-s B-bn-c-tam A-Xn-te-sd-tbm hà-j-am-bn kv-t\- l-]qà-hw HmÀ- p-sim-ïn-cn- p- H-cp P-\- X-bpw X- Ä h-ln- p- hm-fpw sn-t m-epw a- -bn-te- p t]m-b A-½m-h³ (s]-cp-amä) Xn-cn- p-h-cp- -Xp-h-sc am-{xw XmÂ- m-en-i-ambn ssi-h-iw sh- p- -Xm-sW- v C- p-t]m- -epw I-cp-Xp- A-h-cp-sS `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-ifpw' D- -X-am-b Ckvemw [m-c-w-i-fm-wv ]p-- eà- n-t m- n-cp- -Xv F- v {]-txy-iw ]-d-tb-ï-xn-ã-tãm. C³-Uy-bn-se a-säm-cp {]-tz-i- n-\pw A-h-Im-i-s -Sm³ I-gn-bm- hn-[w Xn-I- pw k-hn-ti-j-am-b co-xn-bnâ Ckvem-ans\-bpw A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf-bpw DÄs m-f-fm-\pw kv-t\-ln- m-\pw A-Xp-h-gn ssa-{xn-bp-ss s]m³-\q-enâ k-ap-zm-b- -sf timà- n-w- m-\pw ti-c-f- n-\v \q-äm-ïp- IÄ- p-ap-t¼ I-gn-ªp-sh- -Xm-Wv s]- cp-amä I-Y-bn-se A-`n-am-\mÀ-l-am-b ]m- Tw. C -c-samcp tic-f- nâ Sn phpw 1921 se ae-_mà am n-f-bp-saãmw ZpÀhym- Jym-\n- - -Sp kmwkvim-cni ]cn-kcw krjvsn- Xv lnµp-xzhpw km{am-py-xz-hp-am-wv. ti-c-fo-b \-thm- m-\- n-sâ-bpw {]-_p-²-xbp-ss-bpw t\-c-h-im-in-i-fnâ Nn-e-sc-t m-epw A-Xv a-kv-xn-jv-i-{]-jm-f-\w sn-bv-xn-«p-ïv. Ip-am-c-\m-im-sâ Zp-c-h-Ø-bnÂ(1922) "{Iq-c-ap- J-ap-Å ap-l-½-z-'sc-bpw, "ln-µp-c-à- mâ I-Spw-Np-h- m-bn- oà- ' ti-c-f a- n-s\-bpw, "Zp-jv-S-ap-l-½-Z cm- -k³'am-sc-bpw, "I-dp- X-Sn-'bp-Å-h-cpw "N- p-ho-twm-sc -N-hn-«p- 'h-cpw "ip-²n-bn-ãm- a-e-bm-f-`m-j-bnâ {Ip-²n- -k-`y- Ä snm-ãp- -'h-cpw "A-Imbn I-S- v si-«n-s- n-\-i- p-å A-_-e-amsc ti-dn- n-sn- p- 'h-cpw "a-zw-s]-sp-am-\-t]m-  I-en-bmÀ- 'h-cpw "I-q-«n I-S-t m-aâ {]m- -hn³ ]n-s-i-sf Im-«p-t]m- ³-amÀ t]m-se' ]n- - n- o- p- -X-cw {Iq-c- m-cp-am-b am- n-f-am-scbpw \-ap- v I-ïp-ap-t«-ïn-h-cp- -Xv A-Xp-sImïm-Wv. Zp-c-h-Ø-bp-sS B-ap-J- nâ X-s Ip-am-c-\m-im³ ]-d-bp- -Xv "e-l-f-bp-ss hmbnâ \n- v A-Xn-sâ \m-hn-sâ ]-cp-]-cp- pw hoc- -Ãn-sâ aqà- -bpw \-Ã-h- -a-dn-ªv C-t mä i-i-en-x-am-bn sh-fn-bnâ h-an- -s -«n-cn- p- ln-µp- k-ap-zm-b's - p-dn-- m-w-tãm. 1957 ]p-d- p-h- D-dq-_n-sâ kp-µ-cn-ifpw kp-µ-c³-am-cpw F- t\m-h-en-sâ C-Xn-hr- w Np-cp-f-gn-bp- -Xv X-s 1921 se ae-_mà kac-im-e- v \nà-_-ô-a-x-]-cn-hà- -\- n-\v hn-t[-b-\m-bn kp-sse-am-\m-ti-ïn- h- p F- v km-{am-py-xz- n-sâ ap-kv -enw hn-tcm-[-s A-\- -c-sa-sp- p-i-bpw km-{am-py-xz- n-s\- Xn-cm-b k-a-c- nâ-\n- v am-s -gp-xn-s m- Sp- v ]n- n-cn-bp-i-bpw G-I-in-em-ß-I ln-µp C³-Uy F- kz-]v -\w km- m-xv -Icn- m³ ap-kv -enw hw-i-l-xy-sb e- y-ambn kzo-i-cn- p-i-bpw ln-µp-þ-ap-kv -enw k-lhà- n-xzw D-bÀ- n-sn- -Xn-\v Km-Ôn-sb sh-sn-sh- p sim-ãp-i-bpw sn-bv -X ln-µp-xz- n-\v, ln-µp- -fpw ap-kv -enw-i-fp-s-a- p- C³-Uy³ {]-P-I-sf kw-c- n- p-i-bpw sim-tfm-wn-bâ B-{I-a-W-Im-cn-I-tfm-Sv hn- «p-ho-gv -N-bn-Ãm-sX s]m-cp-xp-i-bpw sn-bv -X ssa-kqà kpâ-xzm³ A-\-`n-a-X-\m-Ip- -Xp X-s -bm-wv N-cn-{X- n-sâ Im-hy-\o-Xn. t\m-h-en-ìv ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp- p- tkm-hn-µ³ \m-b-cn-eq-ss-bm-wv. \m-b-cp-ss am- n-f-hn-tcm-[w kv-^p-cn- p- ka-c-ime -k-v-a-c-w-iä I-Ym- Imc-sâ X-s A-t_m-[-am-tWm A-tà F- - Xv XoÀ- -bm-bpw th-sd A-t\z-jn-t -ï-xm-wv. F- mâ A-Xv \-s Np-cp- n-b-xv \n-e-\n- n-cp- km-aq-lym- -co- - n-sâ {]-Xn- ^-e-\-sa- n-ep-am-im-sx X-c-an-Ã. t\m-h-enâ \n- p-å Xm-sg-s m-sp- n-cn- p- `m-kw, I-em-]-s kw-_-ôn- ln-µp hà-ko-b-hm- Zn-I-fp-sS Zp-jv-{]-N-c-W- -sf kw-_-ôn- tc-j- Iq-Sn-bm-Ip- p-ïv; t\m-h-en-ìn-sâ ]- w hy-à-am- p- n-sã- n-epw: "H-cp-\mÄ D- - v A-hÄ sx- n-\n- -dbnâ Nn- m-iq-\y-bm-bn-cn- p-i-bm-w-v. s]-s«- v Im-c-W-hÀ In-X- p-sim-ïv N-hn-«n- -b-dn-h- p hn-fn- p: "Ip- n- p-«o!' "Dw?' "A-h-c-Xm h-c-wp!' "B-cv?' "Jn-em-^- p-im-cv!' "B-cv?' "e-l-f- m-tc-bv. C-Ã-s ]- m-b- p-c-bn-te- p h- p-xp-s- n-sb-t m h- psh-t m H-s ti-«p.' e-l-f-sb kw-_-ôn- v F-¼m-Spw I-Y-IÄ \m-«p-¼p-d- -fnâ {]-N-cn- n-cp- p. Ip-f- -S-hp-I-fn-epw A-¼-e-ap-ä- pw ap- p-s]-cp-h-gn-i-fn-epw A-Xv NÀ- m-hn-jb-am-bn-«p-ïv. sim-e-bp-ss-bpw sim-å-bpss-bpw txm-ep-cn-b-en-sâ-bpw I-Y-I-fm-Wv {]-N-cn- n-cp- -Xv. ap- q-än- n-ezm-\w ln-µpkv-{xo-i-fnâ-\n- m-bn A-dp-\q-dn ]-cw ap-e-iä sn- n-sb-sp- -Xm-bn H-cp I-Y {]-N-cn- p. A-h h-gn-]m-sp-nn-c-«iq-«n-bn-«- Xp-t]m-se Iq-«n-bn-«n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. ]n-s F- q-än- n-ezm-\w aq- -cn-ª I-Y-bm-Wv {]-N-cn- -Xv. aq- p-iä \-jv-s-s -«-Xv ]p-cpj³-amà- m-wv. "Ip-tïm-«n A- m-so-ev a-\p-jy-t mep-sim-ïm-w-t{x sn-cp- p-ïm- p- -Xv!' Ip-f- -S-hn sh- v H-cmÄ ]-d-bp- -Xv ti-«p. "t\-tcm?' th-sdm-cmä A-Ûp-X-s -«p. "]n-s ]q-t m-«q-scm-s A-h-cv ]n-- Sn- -S- n-b-t{x. A-¼-e-sam-s \n-kv-im-c- -Ån-bm- n am-än!' "F-sâ Cu-iz-c³-am-sc!' "i-c-i-cm- v B-fp-I-sf ]n-sn- v amà-kw Iq-«p- p-ï-s{x.' "kà- m-cv C-Xp t\m- n-\nâ- mtwm?' "bp-²w \-S- p- p-ï-s{x. C- -se A- - ³ \m-bà N- -bnâ \n- p h- - t m F-s m-s I-Y-bm ]-d-ª-xv!' "I-en- h- p.' "I-en- ap-gp- p!' "tn-e- -em-]w t]m-se- -s 'þ- H- cmä X-sâ N-cn-{X-t_m-[w sh-fn-s -Sp- n. "F- n-\m C-h-cv ]p-d-s -Sp- -Xv?' "cm-pyw-]n-sn- m-\pw sim-å-b-sn- m-- \pw.' "amà-kw Iq-«p- -txm?' "A-h-scm-s am- n-f-am-c-tã?' (kp-µ-cn-i-fpw kp-µ-c³-am-cpw þ D-dq-_v) F- mâ Zp-c-h-Ø-bpw kp-µ-cn-i-fpw 24

23 - - kp-µ-c³-am-cpw _m- n-sh- p- kq-n-\- I-Ä- p t\-sc I- -S- m-xn-cn- p-t¼mä X-s, 1921\v tijw Ip-d-ª-Im-e-t - v \n-e-\n- kv-]à-[-bp-ss A- -co- - nâ \n pw "Sn p-thmà½-i-fnâ'\n pw Gsd-sbm pw hn-f-sh-sp- m³ ln-µp-xz-à- v ti-c-f- nâ I-gn-ªncp nã F- -Xv B-izm-k-t m-sp-iq-sn HmÀ-t -]-äq. A-Ô-am-b CkvemwhntZz-j- n-\v X-e-sh- p-sim-sp- m-xn-cn- p-hm-\p--å ]-Iz-X Im-Wn- ti-c-fo-bà, s]-cp-amä I-Y B-tLm-jn- \-½p-sS ]m-- c-¼-cy- n-\v a-ip-sw NmÀ- p-i-bm-wv sn-bv-x-xv. I-e- p-sh-å- nâ ao³ ]n-- Sn- m-\n-d- n-b hà-ko-b-hm-zn-i-fp-ss B-tcm-]-W- Ä- v kz- w Po-hn-X- n-eqss a-dp-]-sn \Â-Im³ ZoÀ-L-ho- -W-ap-Å t\-xr-xz- n-\v Io-gn ti-c-f-ap-kv-enw-iä- v I-gn-ª-Xm-Wv C- -c-sam-cp ]-cn-wn-xn F-fp- -am- n-b-xv. A-sX- m-bn-cp- m-epw, Ckvemwhn-tZz-j- n-\pw X-Zzm-cm ap-kv-enw hn-tcm-[- n-\pw h-f- q-dp-å a- -à ti-cf- n-tâ-sx- v XoÀ- pw- I-ep-jn-X-am-b kµà`- fnâ t]m-epw \-ap- v sx-fn-bn- m-\m-b-xv Nn-Ã-d t\-«-a-ã. (km-aq-xn-cn-bp-ss-bpw) ti-c-fw, ]-s I-gn-ª ImÂ\qäm-ïn\n-S-bn I-ïme-dn-bm- hn-[w am-dn-t m-bn-«p-sï- h-kv-xp-x-sb BÀ-s - n-epw \n-tj-[n- m³ I-gn-bp-tam? N-cn-{X- n-ep-s-\o-fw Im- p-kq- n- p-sh- v ti-c-fo-bà A-`nam-\n- p- a-tx-x-c {]-Xn-_-²-X-bp-sS en-äv-a-kv sä-ìv B-bn-cp- p hm-kv-x-h- nâ \-½p-sS NÀ- -I-sf I-hÀ-s -Sp- "eu Pn-lm-Zv' hn-hm-zw. hn-hm-l-]qà-h-{]-wb-sa- txm- n-hm-k-s -bpw Pn-lm-Zv F- A-Xn-hn-ip-²-am-b B-i-b-s -bpw hn-nn-{x-am-b co-xn-bnâ tnà- p-si-«n hà-ko-b-hm-zn-iä \nà-an- hn-e- -W-Zz-b- n-sâ ap-¼nâ {]-_p-² -a-e-bm-fn Hm-Om- \n- p-\n- -Xv \-½p-sS ]m-c-¼-cyw \-ap- v ssi-tam-iw h- -Xn-sâ G-ä-hpw i-à-am-b kq-n-i-am-bn-cp- n-tã? s]-cp-am-fn-sâ a-xwam-äw B-tLm-jn- -h-cp-ss ]n³-x-e-ap-d- mà- v a-x-]-cn-hà- -\ hmà- -IÄ ]p-- fn- p-xn-i-«-ep-ïm- n! a-e-_mà kacw t]m-ep-å I -ap- nâ \-S- kw-`-hs D-]-Po-hn- Du-lm-t]m-l- -sf sn-dp- p-\n- -hà- v XoÀ- pw km- Â-]n-- I-am-b Im-¼-kv Pn-lm-Zv hn-iz-k-\o-b-am-bn txm- n! Im-a-{`m- -\m-b \-_n(-k)-sbhn-hm-l-]qà-h-{]-w-b-sa- txm- n-hm-ks -bpw Pn-lm-Zv F- A-Xn-hn-ip-²-am-b B-i-b-s -bpw hn-nn-{x-am-b co-xn-bnâ tnà- p-si-«n hà-ko-b-hm-zn-iä \n À-an- hn-e- -W-Zz-b- n-sâ ap-¼nâ {]-_p-² -a-e-bm-fn Hm-Om-\n- p-\n- -Xv \-½p-sS ]m-c-¼-cyw \-ap- v ssi-tam-iw h- -Xn-sâ G-ä-hpw i-à-am-b kq-n-iam-bn-cp- n-tã? s]-cp-am-fn-sâ a-xw-am-äw B-tLm-jn- -h-cp-ss ]n³-x-e-ap-d- mà- v a-x-]-cn-hà- -\ hmà- -IÄ ]pfn- p-xn-i-«-ep-ïm- n! a-e-_mà kacw t]m-ep-å I -ap- nâ \-S- kw-`h-s D-]-Po-hn- Du-lm-t]m-l- -sf sn-dp- p-\n- -hà- v XoÀ- pw km- Â-]n- I-am-b Im-¼-kv Pn-lm-Zv hn-iz-k-\o-bam-bn txm- n! bpw \-_n(-k)-bnâ \n- v {]-tnm-z-\-apäsim-ïv `m-c-xmw-_-sb am-\-`w-k-s -Sp- n-b _m-_-dn-s\-bpw C-cp-h-sc-bpw am-xr-i-bm- n a-e-_m-dn-se ln-µp-kv-{xo-i-sf I-S- p-]n- -Sn- am- n-f-sb-bpw kw-_-ôn- v H- -sh- hnj-hm-tdm-e-i-sf AÀ-ln- p- A-h-Ú-tbmsS N-h-äp-Ip-«-bn-te-s -dn-ª km- -c-kp-µc-a-e-bm-fn- v, th-«- m-c-\m-b ap-kv-enw ]p-cp-js\-bpw C-c-bm-b ln-µp-kv-{xo-sb-bpw kw-_- Ôn- ]p-xn-b -sh-fn-]m-sp-iä ]-Yy-am-bn- oà- p! lmzn-bsb F³.-sF.F shdpsx hn«mepw ae-bmfn s]mxp-t_m[w shdpsx hnspsa v txm p- n-ã. F-hn-sS-\n- m-wv \-_n (-k)-tbm-spw ap-k-v-enw-i-tfm-sp-ap-å sh-dp- v ^mjnkw/ckv-emtamt^m_nb km-aq-xn-cn-bp-ss \m-«n-te- v Ip-Sn-tb-dn-b-Xv? F- -s\-bm-wv A-Xv h-fà- -Xv, ]-SÀ- -Xv, C- -s Zp-c-h-Ø-bn-se- n-t À- -Xv? ]-Xn-\- mw \q-äm-ïn-sâ A-h-km-\ ]m- -Z- nâ t]mà- p-ko-kv A-[n-\n-th-iw \-S- p- -Xp-h-sc-bp-Å km-aq-xn-cn-`-c-w- n-\p Iogn-em-Wv ti-c-f-ap-kv-enw-iä A-h-cp-sS N-cn- {X- n-se kp-hà-w-im-e-l-«w B-kz-Zn- -Xv F- v ]-d-bmw. "a-e-_m-dn-â A-t m-f-an-t mfw [m-cm-f-ap-å C-hÀ (ap-kv-enw-iä) \m-sn-sâ a- nâ D-d- - th-cp-i-fp-å-h-cm-wv. C-hn-Sp-s cm-py- -fn-epw {]-tz-i- -fn-ep-am-bn ]-c- p-in- S- p- A-hÀ P-\-kw-Jy-bn A- n-sem- p-ïm-hp-sa- v F-\n- v txm- p- p. A-hÀ k-¼- -cm-wv, \-à -\n-e-bnâ I-gn-bp- -h-cm- Wv. F-Ãm I-S I- -h-s-hpw I-S bm-{x-bpw A-h-cp-tS-Xm-Wv. C-Xn-\m-se-Ãmw t]mà- p-kokp-imà C- y- I-sï- n-bn-cp- n-sã- nâ a-e-_mà aq-dp-i-fp-ss(-ap-kv-enw-i-fp-ss) I- n-em- Ip-am-bn-cp- p' F- v ]-Xn-\m-dmw \q-äm-ïnâ ti-c-f- n-se- n-b t]mà- p-ko-kv D-tZym-K- س Zp-hm-À-s _mà-t_m-k(duverte Barbosa) F-gp-Xn-b-Xn \n- pw A- v apkv-enw-i-fp-ss km-aq-ln-i \n-e F- p-am-{xw A-kq-bmÀ-l-am-bn-cp- p-sh- v Du-ln- m-hp- - tx-bp-åq. hn-tz-i-hym-]m-cw t]m-se- -s, km-aq-xn-cn-bp-ss \m-hn-i-tk-\-bp-ss \n-b-{ - W-hpw ap-kv-enw-i-fp-ss I- n-em-bn-cp- p. ap-kvenw-i-fpw km-aq-xn-cn-bpw X-½n- \n-e-\n- ncp- an-i- ku-lr-zw Im-c-Ww, km-aq-xn-cn H-cp ap-kv-enw cm-pm-hm-sw- [m-c-w-t]m epw A- v bq-tdm-]y³ cm-py- -fnâ hym-]n-- n-cp- p. A- m-e- v ti-c-f- n-se k-am- c-k-ap-zm-b- -fnâ "F- w si-ïpw h-en- w sim-ïpw {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fm-bn-cp- p ap- nâ F- n-epw G-ä-hpw kzm-[o-\-i-àn-bp-å-hà ap-k-v-enw-i-fm-bn-cp- p' F- kà-zmà si.-fw. ]-Wn- -dp-ss {]-kv-xm-h-\ Cu h-kv-xp-x-i-sfsb-ãmw ]-cn-k-wn- p-sim-ïp-å-xm-wv. C- -c-sam-cp ap-kv-enw ]-dp-zo-k-bn-te- m- Wv 1498 hm-kv-tim U Km-a A-[n--\n-th-i- nsâ I- -e-sp- n- -Xv. t]m-à- p-ko-kp-im-c-\pwtdm-a³ I-t m-en- -\p-am-b Km-a Im- m-sv h- n-d- n-b-xv ti-h-e-am-b I- -h-s- p- -I/ cm-jv-{so-bm-[n-im-cw e- yw -sh- p-sim-ïm-bncp- n-ã amà- v ]-Xn-s\m- mw Xn- -Xn \nt m-fm-kv A- m-a³ F- Hu-tZym-Kn-I \m-a- nâ amà-]m- -bm-bn Øm-\-ta-ä IÀ-Zn-\mÄ txm-a-kv ]-sc- p-t -Ãn XpÀ- n-i-fp-ss ap-t - ä- n-sâ ]-Ým- -e- nâ 1454 \-S- n-b F-«mw Ip-cn-ip-bp-²m-lzm-\- n-\v {]-Xyp- -c- 25

24 am-bn-s m-ïp-iq-sn-bm-wv t]m-à- p-ko-kp-imà ]-Xn-\- mw \q-äm-ïn-â hn-hn-[ ap-kv-enw \m-sp- I-fn-te- v A-[n-\n-th-i- Ä kw-l-sn- n- -Xv. C³-Uy-h-sc-bp-Å cm-py- Ä ]n-sn- -S- m-\p- Å hn-ti-jm-[n-im-c-hpw t]m- v t]m-à- p-ko-kv cm-pm-hn-\v \Â-In-bn-cp- p. ti-c-f- n-se ap-kv-enw ap-t m- m-h-ø-sb e- yw sh- p-sim-ïp-å Ip-cn-ip-]-S-bm-fn-I-fm-bn-cp- p Km-a-bpw Iq-«-cp-sa- v km-cw. ti-c-f- n-te- v I-S- p-h-cp- -Xn-\v sxm-«p-ap-¼m-wv, 1492Â, t]m- À- p-ko-kp-imà ap-kv-enw kv-s]-bv-\n-sâ A-h-km- \-s ti-jn- m-bn-cp- {Km-\-U B-{I-an- p Io-gv-s]-Sp- n-b-xv. {Km-\-U-bn-se _-\q A-lvaÀ `-c-w-iq-s-s A-Xn-sâ A-h-km-\-s {]-Xn-\n-[n-bm-bn-cp- A-_q-A-_v-Zn-Ã-sb ]pdw-x-ån \n-ew-]-cn-im- n kv-s]-bv-\n-â F- «p-\q-äm-ïp-im-ew \o-ïp-\n- ap-kv-enw `-c- W-s I-Ym-h-ti-j-am- n-b t]mà- p-ko-kv ssk-\y- n-sâ kv-s]-bv³ bp-²m-\- -c \-S- ]-Sn-IÄ ]-d- n-a-\-ên-se Ip-cn-in-sâ h-ep- w Ir-Xy-am-bn a-\-ên-em- n- -cp- -Xm-Wv. A-d- _n `m-j ]Tn- p- -Xpw kw-km-cn- p- -Xpw Ip-ä-I-c-am-bn {]-Jym-]n- -s -«p. {In-kv-Xp-a-Xw kzo-i-cn- m³ P-\- -sf \nà-_-ôn- p. hnk-½-xn- B-bn-c- -W- n-\v ap-kv-enw-i-sf sim-s m-sp- n. ]-e-sc-bpw Po-h-t\m-sS Np-s«- cn- p. e- - -W- n-\p ap-kv-enw-i-sf \m-«nâ \n- v ]p-d- m- n. aq- p-e- -t m-fw t]à- v kz-bw \m-sp-hn-«p-t]m-ti-ïn-h- p. A-h-ti-jn- -hà- v a-c-ww `-b- v {In-kv-Xp-a-Xw kzo-i-cnt -ï K-Xn-bp-ïm-bn. kv-s]-bv-\n-se ap-kv-enw th-«-bp-ss lmw-kv Hm-hÀ Xo-cp- -Xn-\p-ap-¼v ti-c-f- n-se- n-b Km-a-bp-sS-bpw k-l-{]-hà- -I-cp-sS-bpw ap- Jym-P-ï-I-fn-sem- v kzm-`m-hn-i-am-bpw apkv-enw ]o-u-\-am-bn-cp- p. A-Im-c-W-am-bn ap-kv-enw-i-sf aà-zn- p-i, ]-cn-l-kn- p-i, sn-fn-bpw sh-å-hpw I-S- p-t]m-ti-ï Ø-e- -fnâ ap-kv-enw-i-sf hm-l-\-am-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- p-i, ap-j- pw i-co-c- n-epw Xp- p-i, I- h-s-bm-{x-bpw l-öv bm-{x-bpw \n-tcm-[n- p-i, km-[-\- Ä sim-å-b-sn- p-i, hm-l-\- Ä ]n-sn- p-]-dn- p-i, ap-kzv-l-^p-i-fpw hn-ip-² {K-Ù- -fpw N-hn-«n-t - p-i-bpw A-án- nc-bm- p-i-bpw sn- p-i, B-cm-[-\m-e-b- Ä A-ip-²-am- p-i, a-x-hn-cp-²-am-b {]-kv-xm-h-\ -I-Ä- v \nà-_-ôn- p-i, {In-kv-Xy³ kv-{xo- I-sf A-Wn-bn-s m-cp- n ]-«-W- n-eq-ss \-S- n ap-kv-enw kv-{xo-i-sf {In-kv-Xp-a-X- n-te- v B-IÀ-jn- m³ {i-an- p-i, l-öv XoÀ-Ym-S-I-sc h-[n- p-i, ap-kv-enw-i-sf \-_n-hn-tzz-j-hp-am-bn Du-cp-Np-än-b t]mà- p-ko-kv I-t m-en- m an-j-\-dn-amà, tic-f- n-se {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fn i-à-am-b kzm-[o-\-am-wv sn-ep- n-b-xv se D-Zbw-t]-cqÀ kp-\-l-tzm-kn-s\-bpw Xp-S-À- p \-S- Iq-\³ Ip-cn-ip-k-Xy-s -bpw Xp- SÀ- v kp-dn-bm-\n(-amà-t m-am) k-`- m-cmbn-cp- ti-c-f- n-se {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-sf HmÀ- -tum-iv-kp-im-cpw (bm-tim-_m-b) tdm-a³-i-t m-en- -cp-am-bn s\-sp-si- n-fà- m-\pw _-lp-`q-cn-]- w C-S-h-I-I-sf-bpw X- -fp-ss a-x-ho- -W-aw-Ko-I-cn- p- tdma³-i-t m-en- -cp-ss Iq-sS \nà- m-\pw t]mà- p-ko-kp-imà- v I-gn-ªp. N- -e-bnâ _-Ôn- n- v a-xn-h-cp-thm-fw aà-zn- p-i-bpw h-en- n-g- v hnâ-]-\- m-bn A- m-sn-iä-txm-dpw sim-ïp-\-s- p-i-bpw sn- p-i, {In-kv-Xym-\n-bm-Im³ \nà-_-ôn- p-i Xp-S- n-b-h \n-xy-kw-`-h- -fm-bn amdn-sb- m-wv Xp-lv-^-Xp ap-pm-ln-zo³ C-Xpkw-_-Ô-am-bn tc-j-s -Sp- n-bn-cn- p- -Xv. {_n-«o-jp-im-c-\m-b hn-ãyw tem-k-\pw t]m- À- p-ko-kp-im-cp-ss a-x-aà-z-\-s H-cp N-cn-{Xh-kv-Xp-X-bm-bn X-sâ hn-jym-x-am-b a-e-_mà am-\z-en-â A-Ko-I-cn- p- p-ïv. Km-a-bp-sS ]n- ³-Km-an-bm-bn 1500 ti-c-f- n-se- n-b t]m- À- p-ko-kv Iym-]v-ä³ I-{_m-fn-t\m-Sv t]m- À- p-ko-kv cm-pm-hv \nà-tz-in- -Xv km-aq-xncn-tbm-sv ap-kv-enw-i-sf cm-py- p-\n- v ]p-- d- m- m-\m-h-iy-s -Sm-\m-bn-cp- p. 1502 Km-a-bp-sS c-ïmw h-c-hn-t\m-s-\p-_-ôn- v t]m- À- p-ko-kp-imà ap-kv-enw-i-tfm-s-cn-iw XoÀ- -Xv I- q-cn-\-sp- am-sm-bn-bnâ l-öv I-gn-ªv a-s- n-h-cn-i-bm-bn-cp- XoÀ-Ym-S-I- - -en-\v Xo-sh- p-sim-ïm-wv. kv-{xo-i-fpw Ip-«n-I-fp-a-S- w 240 t]-tcm-f-ap-ïm-bn-cp- bm-{xn-i-sc N- -e-bnâ _-Ôn-- -ti-j-am-wv Cu {Iq-c-hn-t\m-Zw A-c-t -dn-b-xv. ti-c-f- n-se ap-kv-enw kv-{xo-i-sf _-emâ-kw-kw sn-bv-xv A-h-cn \n- p-ïm-ip- B -Ip-«n- I-sf {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fm- n h-fà- n ap-kv-enw hn-cp-² t]m-cm-«- Ä- p-]-tbm-kn- p-i-sb- ss]-im-nn-i-x-bpw t]mà- p-ko-kp-im-cnâ \n- p-ïm-bn. F- n-t\-sd ]-d-bp- p, sim- n-bn-epw Nm-en-b- pw t]mà- p-ko-kp-imà tim-«si-«n-b-xv A-hn-S- -fn-se ap-kv-enw ]-Ån-IÄ X-IÀ- p-sim-ïv k-am-l-cn- I- Ãpw a-c-hpw D-]-tbm-Kn- m-bn-cp- p! tkm-h Io-g-S- n-b ti-jw t]mà- p-ko-kv ssk-\y-\mb-i-\m-bn-cp- AÂ-_p- À- v F-gp-Xn-b-Xn- {]-Im-c-am-Wv: "a-cn- ap-kv-enw-i-fp-ss F- w B-dm-bn-c- nâ I-hn-bpw. A- -\-sbm-cp a- lm-ir-xyw `w-kn-bm-bn sn-bv-xp-xoà- p.' t]m- -À- p-ko-kv cm-pm-hn-\v, "a- \-in- n- p-hm³ Rm- \m-{k-ln- p- p' F- m-wv _p- À- v I-s gp-xn-b-xv. a-em- B-{I-a-W-t m-s-\p-_-ôn- v A-t±-lw ]-«m-f- m-tcm-sv ]-d-ªp: "Cu cm- Py- p-\n- pw ap-kv-enw-i-sf ]p-d- m- p- - Xpw H-cn- -epw D-W-cm- -hn-[w ap-l-½-zn-sâ hw-i-p-cn-se B-th-im-án si-sp- p- -Xpw \n- Ä ssz-h-t m-sp-sn- p- G-ä-hpw h-enb tk-h-\-am-bn-cn- pw.' _p- À- n-sâ-bpw I-{_m-fn-sâ-bpw Km-abp-sS-bp-sa-Ãmw ap-kv-enw-hn-cp-² \-S-]-Sn-IÄ, Ipcn-ip-bp-² am-\-kn-im-h-ø-bp-ss kzm-`m-hn-iam-b _-lnà-kv-^p-c-w- -fm-bn-cp- p. ap-kv-enw -I-sf _-ew {]-tbm-kn- v am-tam-zo-k ap- p- I t]mà- p-ko-kv A-[n-\n-th-i- n-sâ {] m-y-an-im-p-ï-i-fn-sem- m-bn am-dn-b-xv A-XpsIm-ïm-Wv. I-{_mÄ km-aq-xn-cn- p ap-¼nâ sh- B-h-iy- -fn-sem- v X-t m-ssm- w F- n-b A- v {^m³-kn-kv- ³ k-\ymkn-am-à- p-th-ï a-x-{]-nm-c-w ku-i-cy- -fm-bn-cp- p-sh- -Xv G-sd {i-t²-b-am-wv. a-x-{]-n-c-w- n-\p-å amà-kw \-_n-\n-µ-bmsw- v, Ip-cn-ip-bp-² a-\x-im-kv-{xw ]- n-sp- F-Ãm bq-tdm-]y³-am-sc-bpw t]m-se, t]m- À- p-ko-kp-im-cpw hn-iz-kn- n-cp- p. ap-l-½-zv \-_n-sb A-h-tl-fn- p-i, t]mà- p-ko-kp-imcp-ss Zn-\-N-cy-I-fn s]-«n-cp- p-sh- m-wv ssk-\p-±o³ a-jv-zqw c-ïm-a³ km- y-s -Sp- p- -Xv. ti-c-f- n-se Ckvemw shdn-bp-ss B-cw-`w, H-cp ]-s, C-hn-sS \n- m-wv. C-t m Ä D- -Øm-bn-em-bn-cn- p- Ckvemw hntcm[ - n-\v X-e-sh- p-sim-sp- p- -hà b-ymà-y- nâ am-tdm-s-w- p- -Xv Km-a-bp-sS ss]-xr- I-s -bm-wv, km-{am-py-xz- n-sâ-bpw A-[n- \n-th-i- n-sâ-bpw ss]-xr-iw! \-_n-hn-tzz-j-hp-am-bn Du-cp-Np-än-b t]m- À- p-ko-kv I-t m-en- m an-j-\-dn-amà, ti-c-f- n-se {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fn i-à-am-b kzm-[o- 26

25 \-am-wv sn-ep- n-b-xv se D-Z-bw-t]- cqà kp-\-l-tzm-kn-s\-bpw Xp-S-À- p \-S- Iq-\³ Ip-cn-ip-k-Xy-s -bpw Xp-SÀ- v kpdn-bm-\n(-amà-t m-am) k-`- m-cm-bn-cp- ti-c-f- n-se {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-sf HmÀ- tum-iv-kp-im-cpw (bm-tim-_m-b) tdm-a³-it m-en- -cp-am-bn s\-sp-si- n-fà- m-\pw _-lp-`q-cn-]- w C-S-h-I-I-sf-bpw X- -fpss a-x-ho- -W-aw-Ko-I-cn- p- tdm-a³-it m-en- -cp-ss Iq-sS \nà- m-\pw t]m À- p-ko-kp-imà- v I-gn-ªp. Ckvemw-hntcm-[w ti-c-f- n-se ss{i-kv-x-h-k-aql- n-te- v DuÀ- n-d- n-b-xnâ Cu kw-`-h-hn-im-k- Ä Im-cy-am-b ]- p-hln- n-«p-ïm-i-ww. t]mà- p-ko-kp-imà- p ti-jw U- p-im-cpw A-Xn-s\-- p-sà- v {_n- «o-jp-im-cpw ti-c-f- n-te- v h- p. {_n-«ojp-imà I-t m-en- m-hn-tcm-[n-i-fm-b s{]m-- «-Ìâp-Im-cm-bn-cp- p. ]-s, Ckvemw --hn-tzz-j- nâ A-hÀ I-t m-en- -tc- mä H-«pw ]n- n-em-bn-cp- n-ã. ]-Xns\-«mw \q-äm-ïn-sâ A- y- n-epw ]-s m³-]-xmw \q-äm-ïn-sâ B-Zy-- n-epam-wv {_n-«o-jv `-c-w- n-sâ X-W-ep-]- tbm-kn- p-sim-ïp-å s{]m«-ìâv an-j-\-dn {]-hà- -\w ti-c-f- nâ k-po-h-am-ip- - Xv. ti-c-f- n-ep-s-\o-fw \-_n-`-õ-\-{]-`mj-w- Ä \n-à-h-ln- p-i-bpw ^m-ï-dpts-x-s- -ap-å \-_n-hn-aà-i-\-{k-ù- Ä hn-x-c-ww sn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xv ss{ikv-x-h k-aq-l- nâ \-_n-hn-tzz-j-hpw ap-kv-enw-k-ap-zm-b- nâ B-ß-\n-µm-]-cam-b A-]-IÀ-j-X-bpw h-fà- m³ A-hÀ {i-an- p. N-cn-{X-]-Þn-X-\m-b tum. Fw.- Kw-Km-[-c-sâ hm- p-iä I-S-sa-Sp- m-â, ""A- m-e- v a-e-_m-dn-se {Km-a- -fn-epw sn-dp-]-«-w- -fn-epw B-fp-IÄ Iq-Sp- n-s- v {In-kv-Xp-a-X-{]-Nm-c-IÀ a-x-{]-`m-j-ww \-S- n-bn-cp- p. {In-kv-Xp-a-X-s - p-dn- p-å e-lp-te-j-i-fpw A-hÀ hn-x-c-ww sn-bv-xp-t]m- p. {]-kw-k- n-epw F-gp- n-epw A-hÀ C-kv-emw a-x-s h-f-sc hn-ir-x-am-bn Nn-{Xo-I-cn- p-i-bpw {In-kv- Xp-a-Xw kzo-i-cn- m³ ]m-h-s -«-h-sc t{]-cn- n- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xn-cp- p.'' (aàn X -fpss k¼qàw IrXn-IÄs -gp-xnb Ah-Xm-cn-I) ti-c-fo-b km-aq-lym- -co- - nâ A-t -h-sc ]-cn-e-kn- p-\n- n-cp- km-ap-zmbn-i ku-lmà-z- n-sâ ]q-\n-em-hn-s\ t]m À- p-ko-kv \-_n-\n-µ-bp-ss I-cn-ta-L- Ä a-d- m-\m-cw-`n- \nà-wm-b-i k-µ-à-`- nâ, a-e-bm-fn ap-kv-enw-i-fp-ss G-ä-hpw h-en-b {]-Xn-k-Ôn ssh-úm-\n-i-am-b ZpÀ-_-em-h-Ø-bm-bn-cp- p. \-_n-hn-a-à-iti-c-fo-b km-aq-lym- -co- - nâ A-t -h-sc ]-cn-e-kn- p-\n- n-cp- km-ap-zm-bn-i ku-lmà-z- n-sâ ]q- \n-em-hn-s\ t]mà- p-ko-kv \-_n-\n- µ-bp-ss I-cn-ta-L- Ä a-d- m-\mcw-`n- \nà-wm-b-i k-µ-à-`- nâ, a-e-bm-fn ap-kv -enw-i-fp-ss G-ä-hpw h-en-b {]-Xn-k-Ôn ssh-úm-\n- I-am-b ZpÀ-_-em-h-Ø-bm-bn-cp- p. \-_n-hn-a-à-i-\- n-sâ A-[n-\n-th-i bp-àn-sb Xp-d- p-im-wn- m³ {]m -]v -Xn-bp-Å ]-Þn-X- m-tcm A- -cw ]-Þn-X- m-sc hmà-s -Sp- m-\p-å hy-h-øm-]n-x-am-b a-x-]-t-\ im-e- I-tfm A- v ap-kv -enw-ti-c-f- n-epïm-bn-cp- n-ã. ^mjnkw/ckv-emtamt^m_nb \- n-sâ A-[n-\n-th-i bp-àn-sb Xp-d- p- Im-Wn- m³ {]m-]v-xn-bp-å ]-Þn-X- m-tcm A- -cw ]-Þn-X- m-sc hmà-s -Sp- m-\p-å hy-h-øm-]n-x-am-b a-x-]-t-\ im-e-i-tfm A- v ap-kv-enw-ti-c-f- n-ep-ïm-bn-cp- n-ã. ]-Xn-\m-dmw i-x-i- nâ ssi-jv ssk- \p-±o³ a-jv-zqw H- m-a-³ (1467-þ1522) s]m- - m-\n-bnâ a-x-þ-`u-xn-i hn-j-b- -fp-ss A- [ym-]-\w k-a-\z-bn-- n- p-sim-ïv Øm-]n- Pp-ap-A- v ]-Ån-bpw ]-Ån ZÀ-kpw {]-iv-\-]- cn-lm-c- n--\p-å hn-¹-h-i-c-am-b H-cp ImÂ-shbv- m-bn-cp- p-sh- n-epw A-Xn-\v Im-cy-am-b ]n- ³-Xp-SÀ- -I-fp-ïm-bn-Ã. A-[n-\n-th-iw k-ap-zm-b- n-sâ km-¼- n-i-þ-km-aq-ln- I-þ-kmw-kv-Im-cn-I `-{Z-X-I-sf I-hÀ-s -Sp- -txm-ss, {]-Xn-tcm-[- n-sâ Du-  ssh-úm-\n-i \-thm- m-\- nâ \n- v A- \n-hm-cy-am-b ssk-\n-i sn-dp- p-\nâ-]n-te- p-am-dn. a-jv-zqw H- m-a-sâ ]u-{x³ ssi-jv ssk-\p-±o³ a-jv-zqw c-ïm-a³ (-P-\-\w 1531), km-aq-xn-cn-bp-ss-bpw C³-Uy- p ]p-d- p-å ap-kv-enw cm-pm- - m-cp-ss-bpw t\-xr-xz- n- \p Io-gn _-lp-a-x-s]m-xp-k-aq-l-- n-sâ `m-k-am-bn \n- p-sim-ïv \n-b-x-am-b ssk- \n-i-ap-t -äw \-S- n t]m-à- p-ko-kp-im-sc Xp-c- m³ Xp-lv-^-Xp ap-pm-ln-zo³ F- {K-Ù- n-eq-ss ap-kv-enw-i-tfm-sm-lzm-\w sn-bv-xxnsâ kml-ncyw CXm-bn-cp- p. a-jv-zqw H- m-a³ A-t±-l- n-sâ Po-hn-X-Im-e- L-«- nâ X-s ssk-²m- n-i _o-pm-hm-]w 27

26 - Ip-ªm-en-a-c- mà-am-cp-ss t\-xr-xz- nâ \q-äm-ïp-im-ew t]mà- p-kokp-im-tcm-sv [o-tcm-zm- -am-bn s] m-cp-xn-\n-s - n-epw ti-c-f-s km-aq- Xn-cn- `-c-w- n-sâ kp-hà-w-im-e-l- «- n-te- v Xn-cn- p-sim-ïp-t]m-im³ ap-kv-enw-ssk-\n-ià- v I-gn-ªnÃ. sim-tfm-wn-bâ i-àn-i-fp-ss ]p Xn-b ti-c-f- nâ ap-kv -enw-k-ap-zm-bw]n- t m- - m-cm-b IÀ-j-I- p-sn-bm³am-cm-bn P- n-am-cp-ss-bpw K-h -saânsâ-bpw ZpjvS l-kv -X- -fnâ In-S- v DuÀ-²-izm-kw h-en- p. n-sâ Zp-c- w A-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn ]qà-w-amhp-i-bm-bn-cp- p. {_n-«o-jv `-c-w- n-sâ k-i-e H- m-i-i-fp-ap-]-tbm-kn- p-å s{]m-«- Ìâv \-_n-\n-µ A-c- p-x-ià- -sh ap-kv-enw \Â-In-bn-cp- sim-tfm-wn-bâ hn-cp-² cm-jv- {So-b \n-e-]m-sp-i-sf hn-]p-eo-i-cn- m-wv a-jv- Zqw c-ïm-a³ C- -c-sam-cp k-a-c-]-²-xn apt m-«p-sh- -Xv. Ip-ªm-en-a-c- mà-am-cp-ss t\-xr-xz- nâ \q-äm-ïp-im-ew t]mà- p-ko-kp-imtcm-sv [o-tcm-zm- -am-bn s]m-cp-xn-\n-s - nepw ti-c-f-s km-aq-xn-cn- `-c-w- n-sâ kp-hà-w-im-e-l-«- n-te- v Xn-cn- p-simïp-t]m-im³ ap-kv-enw-ssk-\n-ià- v I-gn- ªnÃ. sim-tfm-wn-bâ i-àn-i-fp-ss ]p Xn-b ti-c-f- nâ ap-kv-enw-k-ap-zm-bw ]n-- t m- - m-cm-b IÀ-j-I- p-sn-bm³-am-cm-bn P- n-am-cp-ss-bpw K-h -saân-sâ-bpw ZpjvS l-kv-x- -fnâ In-S- v DuÀ-²-izm-kw h-en- p. a-jv-zqw Ip-Spw-_w ]-Xn-\m-dmw \q-äm-ïnâ ap-t m-«p-sh- {]-Xn-tcm-[- n-sâ ssh- Úm-\n-I-hpw ssk-\n-i-hp-am-b X-e- -fpss B-ßm-hv {_n-«o-jv Im-e-L-«-am-b-t mtg- pw ]qà-w-am-bpw tnmà- p-t]m-bn. s]m-- m-\n-bn-se ssh-úm-\n-i hn-¹-h- n-sâ ]m-c-¼-cy-a-h-im-i-s -Sm-\p-ïm-bn-cp- tic-f- n-se {_n-«o-jv-im-e ]-Ån-Z-À-kp-IÄ k-ap-zm-b-s ssh-úm-\n-i-am-bn ]n-- t m-«-sn- n- p-i-sb- ssh-cp-[y-]qà-w-hpw {]-Xn-tem-a-I-c-hpw ZuÀ-`m-Ky-I-c-hp-am-b hn- Nn-{X-Zu-Xy-am-Wv G-sä-Sp- -Xv. C-kv-emw hn-cp-²-am-b kzq-^o/io-b A-Ô-hn-izm-k- Ä {]-N-cn- n- v Nn- m-ap-c-sn- n-sâ-bpw ]n-- n-cn- ³ bm-ym-kv-yn-xn-i-xz- n-sâ-bpw I-cn-¼p-X- p-iä- -I- v k-ap-zm-b-s D-d- n- n-s- n-b-xn-\p ]p-d-sa, a-e-bm-fw-þ- Cw- o-jv `m-j-iä ]Tn- p- -Xn \n- pw k-ap-zm-bmw-k- -sf X-S-bm-\pw ]-Ån-ZÀ-kp- I-fn \n- p ]p-d- n-d- n-b "]-Þn-X-³amÀ' [r-jv-s-cm-bn. X-Zv-^-e-am-bn, Ckvemw hnaài-ià- v a-dp-]-sn ]-d-bm-\p-å ss[-j- Wn-I aq-e-[-\-t m-ssm- w Ah-cp-sS `m-j -a-\-ên-em- m-\p-å A-Sn-Øm-\ ti-jnbpw ap-kv-enw-iä- -\y-am-bn. anj-\-dn-amà ]-d-ªp-sim-ïn-cn- p- -sx- m-sw- v {Kln- p-hm³ I-gn-bm- H-cp k-ap-zm-b- n-\v AhÀ v ^-e-{]-z-am-b a-dp-]-sn \Â-Im³ I-gn-bp- -sx- -s\? a-dp-h-i- v, hy-h- Øm-]n-X `-c-w-iq-s- Ä- p-io-gn-â B-kq- {Xn-X-am-bn \-S- -W-sa- v a-jv-zq-ap-amà \n-àtz-in- A-[n-\n-th-i-hn-cp-² km-bp-[ t]m- -cm-«w, hy-àn-i-fp-ss-bpw sn-dp-kw-l- -fp-ss-bpw B-ß-l-Xym-]-c-am-b F-Sp- p-nm-«- -fm-bn h-gn-sx-än. A-[n-\nth-iw I-i- n-sb-dn-ª H-cp k-ap-zm-bk-ap-zm-bw Cw- o-jv \n-jn-²-am-bn {]-Jym-]n-- v Xn-I-ª cm-jv-{so-b hn-uv-vn- - -fm-bncp- I-em-]- -fn-te- v {]-Xn-I-c-W-s Np-cp- n- -f-ª-xv F- p-am-{xw B-ß-l- Xym-]-c-am-bn-cp- n-ã! ZuÀ-`m-Ky-I-c-am-b Cu km-l-n-cy- n-sâ G-ä-hpw h-en-b km-aq-ln-i {]-Xym-Lm-Xw, Cu te-j-i³ a-\-ên-em- pt -S-t m-fw, ap-kv-enw hn-i-zo-i-c-w- -fp-ss A-`m-h- nâ ti-c-fo-b s]mxp-k-aq-l nsâ A-t_m-[w A-[n-\n-th-iw hn-x-c-ww sn-bv-x Ckvemw hn-tzz-j- n-\v sn-dn-btxm-xn-se- n-epw A-Sn-s -«p-sh- -Xm-Wv. tic-fo-b s]m-xp-a-\-ên-s\ a-x-ssa-{xn-bp-ss `q-x-im-e- p-\n- v C-kv-emw hn-tzz-j- n-sâ Im-ep-jy- n-te- v ]-dn- p-\-sm-\p-å km-{am- P-y-Xz-]-cn-{i-a- -fp-ss `m-kn-i-am-b hn-p-bw Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp- p b-ymà-y- nâ C-Xv. F mâ Hcp Imcyw ad- p-iq-sm. C-{]-Im -cw \m-ep-\q-äm-tïm-fw Im-ew t]mà- p-ko-kvþ-{_n-«o-jv \-_n-\n-µ-ià A-c- p-x-ià- ti-c-f- n-sâ a- n-em-wv 1921 a-e-_mà kac-ap-ïm-ip- -Xv. F- n-«pw AXn \n- v hn-f-sh-sp- m³ ln-µp-xzà- v I-gn-ªn-à F- p-]-d-ªmâ A-Xn-sâ-bÀ-Yw, ^m-jn-ìp-i Ä- p-th-ïn Ckvemw-hn-cp-²-X-bp-sS \ne-sam-cp- p-i F- sim-tfm-wn-bâ Zu- Xyw ti-c-f- nâ, hn-in-jym C-hn-Sp-s ln-µp k-aq-l- nâ ]qàw-amb hnpbw IïnsÃ- p-x--s b-mwv. F- mâ {_n-«-\pw t]mà- p-k-epw ]-cm-p-b-s -«n-s- v, A-tacn- 1947\p ti-jw hn-p-bn- p-sh- -Xm-Wv 28

27 -- \-½p-sS Zp-c- w. tim-f-\n-hm-gv-n- m-e- v sh-å- m-c³ sxm-«-sp- p\n- v Ip- n-sh- m-s\m-cp- n-b Ckvemw hn-tzz-j- nâ \n- v Ip-X-dn-tbm-Sm³ I-gn-ª a-e-bm-fnsb, kzm-x-{ ym-\- -cw `q-j-þ- -Ä- - p-d- n-cp- p-sim-ïv Ckvemw hn-cp-²-xbn-te- v amà-kw Iq-«m³ A-ta-cn- - m-c-\v I-gn-ª-Xn-sâ A-\- -c-^-e-am-wv C-t mä ti-c-f- nâ ap-sn-b-gn- p Xp-Åp- C-kvemw `o-xn. a-e-bm-fn-i-sf-t m-se am-[y-a-]q --P-I-cm-b H-cp aq- mw tem-i k-aq-l-s th-sd I-ïp-In-«m³ {]-bm-k-am-wv. ]m-- Ým-Xy³ ]-cn-jv-ir-x-\pw apkvenw {]m-- Ir-X-\p-am-bn a-e-bm-fo s]m-xp-a-\-ênâ Ip-Sn-bn-cp- -s -«p I-gn-ªp. \-_n-n-cy ]n-- p-s-cp- "h-lm-_n'iä- p-t\-sc \-½p-sS kmw-kv-im-cn-i k-z-êp-i-fnâ-\n- v sime-hn-fn-i-fp-bà- p-sim-ïn-cn- p- p. C-Xv km-aq-xn-cn-bp-ss ti-c-f-a-ã, Km-a-bp-sS ti-cf-am-wv. Km-a- v hn-p-bw t\-sn-s m-sp- -Xv A-ta-cn- -bm-sw- p am-{xw. ti-c-f-s A-ta-cn- -tbm-sp-å am-\-kn-im-sn-a- - nâ-\n- v hn-tam-nn- n- m³ BÀ- p-ign-bpw F- -Xm-Wv \-½p-sS {]-iv-\w. AXv kw`-hn- m- n-s-t mfw Imew ^mjnìv C³Uy-bn ticfw am{xw hyxy-kvxambn XpS-cm³ km[y-x-i-sfm- p-an-ã. km-{am-py-xz ZpÀ-t_m-[-\- -sf sn-dp- m-\pw a-e-bm-fn ap-kv-en-an-sâ a-x-kzm-x- { yw I-h-cm-\p-ap-Å \n-kq-v ]-²-Xn-I-sf txmâ-]n-- m-\p-å hn-th-i-am-wv ti-c-fo-b s]m--xp-k-aq-l- nâ \n- v ap-kv-enw k-ap- Zm-bw {]-Xo- n- p- -Xv. C-kv-emw \n-µ- I-fp-sS {]-tnm-z-\-hpw D-Å-S- -hpw e- yhpw a-\-ên-em- n-bn-«p-å a-tx-x-c hniz-kn-i-sfm- pw A-h ti-c-f- n-sâ a- nâ A-c-t -dp- -Xn-s\-Xn-sc am-\-hn-i {]-Xn-tcm-[w D-bÀ- p-h-tc-ï-xp-sï- Im-cy- nâ kw-i-bw {]-I-Sn- n- p-sa- p txm- p- n-ã. \n-xm- -am-b Pm-{K-X-bm-Wv _p-²n-po-hn-iä- v Cu hn-j-b- nâ D-ïmtI-ïn-bn-cp- -Xv. sxm-f-fm-bn-c- n-sb - ]-Xp-I-fp-sS Xp-S- - nâ X-s, Cu Pm-{K-X A-]-I-S-I-c-amw-hn-[w t\à- p- - Xn-sâ-bpw km-{am-py-xz- n-sâ si-wn -bnâ a-e-bm-fn _p-²n-po-hn-iä A-I-s - Sp- -Xn-sâ-bpw sn-dp-kq-n-\-iä Zr-iy-ambn-cp- p. C-kv-emw \- -bm-sw- pw ap-kvenw-iä \-_n-am-xr-i kzo-i-cn- m- - Xp-sIm-ïm-Wv A-hÀ sx-än-²-cn- -s - Sp- -sx- pw D-Å ]-c-¼-cm-k-x \n-e-]m- Sp-I-fn \n- p-am-dn {In-kv-Xp-hn \n- pw _p-²-\nâ-\n- pw hy-xy-kv-x-\m-bn ap-l- ½-Zv \-_n (k) A-[mÀ-an-I-\pw {Iq-c-\pwbp-àn-lo-\-\pw B-sW- pw, kz-x-th \-Ãh-cpw kzq-^o kzm-[o-\-ap-å-h-cp-am-b ti-cfo-b ap-kv-enw-iä \-_n-n-cy-tbm-sv k-ao-]- Im-e- v {]-Xn-]- n Im-Wn- m³ Xp-S- n-b- Xm-Wv "{]-iv-\w' F- pw ap-l-½-zv \-_n(k) bp-ss Po-hn-X-N-cy Xn-c-kv-I-cn- mâ ap-kv-enw- IÄ "\- m-ipw' F- p-ap-å km-{am-py-xz Zp-cp-]-tZ-i- Ä sn-dn-b txm-xnâ a-e-bm-f am-[y-a- -fnâ {]-Xy- -s -Sm³ Xp-S- n-b- Xv B Im-e- m-wv. 1984 ]p-d- n-d- n-b B-\-µn-sâ A-`-bmÀ- n-iä F- t\m-hâ, ti-{µ I-Ym-]m--{X- -fm-b a-tl-jpw Ku-Xapw X-½n \-S- p- kw-`m-j-w- -fp-ss ]-Ým- -e-ap-]-tbm-kn- v \-_n(k)s -Xncn Hm-dn-bâ-en-Ìp-I-fpw an-j-\-dn-þ-ap-xem-fn- Iq-«p-sI-«p-I-fpw D-]-tbm-Kn- p- Zp-cm-tcm-]-W- Ä H-s m-gn-bm-sx a-e-bmf- n-te- v ]-IÀ- n-sh- p. {]-KÂ-`-\m-b H-cp _p-²n-po-hn Hm-dn-bâ-en-Ìp-I-fp-sS A- m-z-an-i-taâ-hn-em-k- nâ {`-an- v I-fap-l-½-Zv\-_n(k)sb-bpw \-_n-n-cy]n- p-s-cp- ap-kv -enw-i-sf-bpw kw-_- Ôn- `o-i-c-am-b sx-äp[m-c-w-iä C-t mä ti-c-f- n-sâ A- -co- hm-bp-hnâ t]m-ep-ap-ïv. \Pva _m_p-hnsâ J_vsd-hnsS F v tic-f- n\v tnmznt ïnh-cp- Xv kwlv]cn-hm-dn-t\m-s-ã, adn v CS-Xp-]- -t m-sm-wv. skiyp-edn-k- nsâ lrzbw lnµp-xz-am- Ip hn]-cybw km{am-py-xzhpw- ^mjn-khpw X½n-epÅ _môhs Xs -bmwv ]e-co-xn-bnâ shfn-hm p- -Xv. ^mjnkw/ckv-emtamt^m_nb hp-i-fp-ss am-bn-i-tem-i- v Ip-cp- n-t m-b- Xn-sâ Z-b-\o-b-am-b Zr-jv-Sm- -am-bn-cp- p A-`-bmÀ- n-iä. a-e-bm-fn hm-b-\- m- Ip-sS a-\-ênâ hn-ir-x-am-b \-_n-nn-{xw sim- n-sh- p-i F- km-{am-py-xz Zu- Xy- n-\v B-\-µn-s\-t m-ep-å H-sc-gp- p-im-c³ D-]-I-c-W-am-bn- o-cp- -Xn I-hn-ª H-cp-]-am-\w \-½p-sS kmw-kv-imcn-i-cw-k- n-\v C-\n h- p-`-hn- m-\p-tïm? 2000 nâ {]-kn-²o-i-cn- B-\-µn-sâ th- «- m-c-\pw hn-cp- p-im-c-\pw- F- ]T-\w, "a-x-au-en-i-hm-z-s - p-dn- v `m-c-x- n-sâ ]-Ým- -e- nâ H-c-t\z-j-Ww' F- ap- J-hp-c-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv hn-]-wn-bn-se- nb-xv. {]-Xo- n- -s -«-Xp-t]m-se C-kv-emw A-]-{K-Y-\- -fnâ X-sâ Hm-dn-bâ-en-Ìv-þkm-{am-Py-Xz Zm-kyw B-\-µv ]p-xn-b ]p--- kv-x-i- n-eq-ss-bpw sx-fn-bn- p. ap-kvenw `o-i-c-x-bp-ss-bpw a-x-au-en-i-hm-z- n-sâ-bpw th-cp-iä A-t±-lw ap-l- ½-Zv \-_n(k)bnâ X-s I-sï- n. \-_n-n-cym \n-jv-ià-j-bp-ss t]-cnâ "h-lm-_n-k's ]-gn-nm-cp-i-bpw kzq-^nk- n-sâ "D-Zm-c-X'bn \- I-sï- p- I-bpw sn-bv-xp. B-\-µn-sâ Cu c-ïp ]p- --kv-x-i- Ä, ap-x-em-fn- s{]m-]-k-ï ti-c-fo-b ss[-j-wn-i tem-i- n-te- v I-S- p-i-b-dm-\p-]-tbm-kn- Pm-e-I- -fm-bncp- p-sh- p th-w-sa- nâ ]-d-bmw. ap-l-½-zv \-_n(k)sb-bpw \-_n-n-cy ]n- p-s-cp- ap-kv-enw-i-sf-bpw kw-_- Ôn- `o-i-c-am-b sx-äp[m-c-w-iä C-t mä ti-c-f- n-sâ A- -co- hmbp-hnâ t]m-ep-ap-ïv. \Pva _m_phnsâ J_vsd-hnsS F v tic-f- n\v tnmznt ïnh-cp- Xv kwlv]cn-hm-dnt\m-s-ã, adn v CS-Xp-]- -t m-sm-wv. skiyp-e-dn-k- nsâ lrzbw lnµp- Xz-am-Ip hn]-cybw km{am-py-xzhpw- ^mjn-khpw X½n-epÅ _mô-hs Xs -bmwv ]e-co-xn-bnâ shfn-hm p- -Xv. ZpÀ_-ehpw D]-cn-¹-h-hp-amb ]ptcm-k-a\ ap{zm-hm-iy-i- -f-ã, adn v Ckv em-tam-t^m-_n-bsb \nin-x-ambn Xpd- p-im-wn- p IqSp-X ss[j-wni aqà -bpå Hcp \h ^mjnìv hncp² kmwkvim-cni ] -amwv \ap- n\n Bhiyw. ½ 29

28 A_vZp-Ãmlv sue³jn Rm³ Ckvemw kzoi-cn IY Rm ³ A-_v-Zp-à su-e³-jn. Im-\-U-bn-se H-cp B-ip-]-{Xn-bn tpm-en sn- p- p. Im-\-Ubn s{]m-«-ìâv Ip-Spw-_- nâ P-\n- Rm-\n- v H-cp apkv-en-am-wv, AÂ-lw-Zp-en-Ãm-lv. \n-c-h-[n NÀ- p-i-fn-epw sk-an-\m-cn-i-fn-epw Iu-am-cw sn-e-h-gn- Rm³ `-àn-bp-å H-cp {InkvXp-aX hn-izm-knbm-bn-cp- p. hn-hn-[ NÀ- p-i-fnâ hy-xy-kv-x hn-j-b- - fnâ {]-`m-j-ww \-S- p-hm-\pw A-h-k-cw e-`n- n-«p-ïm-bncp- p. A-Xp-Im-c-Ww h-f-sc sn-dn-b {]m-b- nâ X-s H-cp k-`m ip-{iq-j-i-\m-bn tk-h-\w sn- m-\pw F-\n- v km-[n- p. Po-hn-X-s ap-gp-h³ IÀ- m-hnâ k-aà- n- H-cp ]p-- tcm-ln-x-\m-bn Po-hn- m³ ]-cn-{i-an- p- k-a-b- m-wv th-zm- im-kv-{xw ]Tn- m³ k-`-bnâ \n- v F-\n- v kvtim-fà-jn- v e-`n- -Xv. Cu A-h-k-c-hpw, ]p-tcm-ln-x-\m-h- W-sa- p-å A-Z-ay-am-b B-{K-l-hpw ss{i-kv-x-h-x-sb-]-än \n-c-h-[n NÀ- p-i-fn-epw sk-an-\m-cn-i-fn-epw Iuam-cw sn-e-h-gn- Rm³ `-àn-bp-å H-cp hnizm-kn-bm-bn-cp- p. hn-hn-[ NÀ- p-i-fnâ hy-xykv-x hn-j-b- -fnâ {]-`m-j-ww \-S- p-hm-\pw A-h-k-cw e-`n- n-«p-ïm-bn-cp- p. A-Xp-Im-c-Ww h-fsc sn-dn-b {]m-b- nâ X-s H-cp k-`m ip-{iq-j-i- \m-bn tk-h-\w sn- m-\pw F-\n- v km-[n- p. hn-aà-i-\m-ß-i-am-bn ]Tn- m³ F-s t{]-cn- n- p. {In-kv-Xpa-X hn-izm-k-s kw-_-ôn- v F-sâ a-\-kn-ep-å-xpw s]m- 30

29 -Xp-hm-bn D- -bn- -s -Sm-dp-Å-Xp-am-b Nn-e {]-[m-\ tnm-zy- Ä- v D- -cw A-t\z-jn- v F-sâ A-dn-h-t\z-j-W- n-\v Rm³ Xn-cn-sIm-fp- n. {Xn-Xzw, ssz-h-]p- -{X³ F- n-h X-s -bm-bn-cp- p {]-[m-\ hn-j-b- Ä. ssz-h- n-s\- n-\m-wv ]p-{x³ F- F-sâ a-\-ên-s\ A-e-«n-s m-ïncp- kw-i-b- n-sâ \n-hm-c-w- n-\p th-ïn ss_-_nä A-S- w ]-e {Inkv-Xp-a-X {K-Ù- -fpw Rm³ hm-bn- p. "A-sX-Ãmw tnm-zyw sn- m-sx A-Ô-ambn hn-iz-kn- -W-sa- m-bn-cp- p' B {K-Ù- -sf-ãmw F-t m-sv ]-d-ª-xv. B-g- nâ A-dn-hp-Å ]p-tcm-ln-x-\mhm³ a-x-s ]Tn- m³ {i-an- F-\n- v ss{i-kv-x-h-k- Â-]w sx-äm-sw- v txm- n- p-s- n. ssz-hw X- a-kv-xnjv-i-s H-«pw D-]-tbm-Kn- m-sx a-xw (ss{i-kv-x-h-x) D- - -am- n-b I- pw X-e-t m-dp-ap-]-tbm-kn- v A-Ô-am-bn X-f-fn \o- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p Po-hn-X-sa- v A-t m-gm-wv Rm³ Xn-cn- -dn-ª-xv. C- -c-sam-cp hn-izm-k-hpw a-x-hp-ambn s]m-cp- -s -«p-t]m-hm³ {]-bm-k-amsw- v a-\-kn-em- n-b-t mä NÀ- n-se Øm-\-am-\- -sf-ãmw D-t]- n- v H-cp k-xym-t\z-j-i-\m-bn Rm³ am-dn.h-cp-]m-- Sv hn-aà-i-\- Ä C-Xp-aq-ew tiä-t - ïn-h- p. ]-e-bm-fp-i-fpw F- nâ \n- p am-dn. `m-cy t]m-epw F-s D-t]- n- p. F- mâ A-sXm- pw Im-cy-am- m-sx A-hn-Sw ap-xâ Rm-s\-sâ B-ßo-bmt\z-j-W bm-{x B-cw-`n- p.b k-a-b- v Rm-s\m-cp a-x hn-izm-kn-bm-bn-cp- n-ã, ]-t ssz-h- nâ hn-izm-k-ap-ïm-bn-cp- p. Hm-tcm a-x-hpw ZÀ-i-\-hpw C-g-Io-dn ]-cn-tim-[n- v ap-t m-«v t]m-b B bm-{x C-kv-em-an-sâ im-zz-e Xo-c- -W-bpw h-sc Xp-SÀ- p. C-kv-em-an-te- v C-kv-emw-! F- m-w-xv? Im-\-Ubn A-Xp h-sc Po-hn- F-\n- v H-cp ap-kv-en-an-s\-t m-epw Im-Wm³ I-gn-ªn- «p-ïm-bn-cp- n-ã. am-{x-a-ã, "C-kv-emw `o-i-c-x-'bp-ss `o-xn-z-am-b kw-`-h- Ä am-[y-a- -fnâ \n- v Im-Wp-I-bpw sn-bv- Xn-cp- p. C-sX-Ãmw Im-c-Ww `o-i-c-hpw {]m-ir-x-hp-am-bn F-sâ a-\-knâ ]-Xn- C-kv-emw-! F- m-w-xv? Im-\-U-bn A-Xp h-sc Po-hn- F-\n- v H-cp apkv -en-an-s\-t m-epw Im-Wm³ I-gn-ªn- «p-ïm-bn-cp- n-ã. am-{x-a-ã, "C-kv-emw `o-i-c-x'-bp-ss `o-xn-z-am-b kw-`-h- Ä am-[y-a- -fnâ \n- v Im-Wp-I-bpw snbv -Xn-cp- p. C-sX-Ãmw Im-c-Ww `o-i-chpw {]m-ir-x-hp-am-bn F-sâ a-\-knâ ]-Xn-ª C-kv-em-an-s\ H-cp a-x-am-bnt m-epw Aw-Ko-I-cn- m³ X- m-dmhm- -Xn-\mÂ, F-sâ "a-x hm-b-\' en-ìnâ t]m-epw C-kv-emw I-S- p h- n-ã. ª C-kv-em-an-s\ H-cp a-x-am-bn-t m-epw Aw- Ko-I-cn- m³ X- m-dm-hm- -Xn-\mÂ, F-sâ a-x hm-b-\ifpss en-ìnâ t]m-epw C-kv-emw I-S- p h- n-ã. F- mâ H-cn-  bm-zr-on-i-am-bn Izp- À-B³ hm-bn- m³ F-\n- -h-k-cw e-`n- p. IzpÀ-B-\n-eq-sS-bp-Å B bm-{x B-cw-`n- - Xp ap-xâ H-cp {]-txy-i A-\p-`q-Xn Rm³ A-\p-`-hn- m³ Xp-S- n. A-Xn-sâ B-g- -fnte- n-d- n-s -Ãp-t m-dpw B A-\p-`q-Xn Xo- v-w-am-bn. A-Xph-sc F-sâ a-\-ên-ep-ïmbn-cp- k- Â-]- nâ \n- pw F-{X-tbm D- -X-am-Wv b-ymà- C-kv-em-sa- v Rm³ a-\-kn-em- n- p-s- m³ IzpÀ-B³ Im-c- W-am-bn. A-Xn-\p-]p-d-sa, F-sâ a-\-ên-se D- -cw In-«m-sX In-S- n-cp- tnm-zy- Ä- v a-dp-]-sn-bm-bn, kw-i-b- Ä- v Zq-co-I-c-W-ambn, A-I-Xm-cn ]p-i-ª A-k-am-[m-\- nsâ-bpw A-im- n-bp-ss-bpw A-Kv-\n-sb-s - A\p-`hw Sp- m-\p-å Ip-fnÀ-a-g-bm-bn Cu {K-Ùw F-\n- -\p-`-h-s -«p. B A-\p-`-hw, Cu {K-Ù-w Ah-X-cn- n- Xv kà-h-tem-i ]-cn-]m-e-i-\m-sw- pw, A-XpsIm-ïp X-s A-h-sâ \n-b-a- Ä A-\p-k-cn- -em-wv Cu tem-i Po-hn-X-s kp-µc-am- p- -sx- pw, A-Xn-ep-]-cn a-c-w ti-j-am-cw-`n- p- A-\-iz-c-Po-hn-X- nsâ c- -bv- p-ap-å amà-k-sa- pw Fs t_m-[y-s Sp- n. A- -s\ C-kv-em-an-s\ a-\-êpsim-ïv ]pâ-in Zn-h-k- Ä I-gn-ªp t]m-bn. A- n-s\-bn-cn-s H-cp Zn-h-kw F-sâ Xm-a-k-Ø-e- p \n- v \q-dp aoäà A-I-se-bp-Å H-cp ]-Ån-bn-te- v Rm³ bm-{x-xn-cn- p. Rm³ H-cp A-d-_ntbm, Hu-tZym-Kn-I-am-bn H-cp ap-kv-en-tam A-Ãm- -Xn-\m- ]-f-fn-bnâ {]-th-in- m³ A-\p-hm-Zw e-`n- p-tam-sb- v Rm³ kw-i-bn- n-cp- p. F- mâ B kw-i-b-s A-Øm-\- m- n ]-Ånbn-se C-amw F-s kzo-i-cn- p-i-bpw am-\y-am-bn B-Yn-tX-b-Xzw \Â-Ip-Ibpw sn-bv-xp. C-kv-em-am-Wv ]-cn-lm-csa- v Xn-cn- -dn-ª F-\n- v A-t±-lw H-cp-]m-Sv ]p-kv-x-i- Ä \Â-In. B ]p-- kv-x-i- Ä Cu a-x-hp-am-bn _-Ô-s -«F-sâ kw-i-b- -sf-ãmw Xocm³ Im-c-Wam-bn. A- n-s\ 2006 amà- v 24\v H-cp sh- Ån-bm-gv-N i-lm-z- v snm-ãn Rm³ H-cp Xn-I-ª ap-kv-en-am-bn am-dn. A- m-bn-cp- p Rm³ F-sâ Po-hn-X- nâ G-ä-hpw Iq-Sp-X k-t m-jn- -Xv. B B-\-µw C- pw Rm-\-\p-`-hn- p- p-ïv. A- p-ap-xâ C-Xn \n- pw ]n- n-cn- n- m³ ]-e-cpw kv-t\-l-t m -ss, Kp-W-Imw- -tbm-ss, tz-jy-t mss, H-cp-th-f `o-j-wn-tbm-ss-bpw {i-an- p- p-ap-ïv. ]-t A-Xn-sem- pw ]-X-dm-sX ap-t m-«v t]m-hm³ i-àn \Â-Ip- -Xv H-scm-ä Im-cyw am- {X-am-Wv. A-Xm-b-Xv F-\n- v Po-h³ \Â-In-b c- n-xm-hn-t\m-sv F-sâ a-c- W-ti-jw a-dp-]-sn ]-d-tb-ï-xv Rm³ H-ä- m-wv, Iq-«n-\pw k-lm-b- n-\pw- B-cp-ap-ïm-hn-à F- H-ä t_m-[yw am- {Xw. A-Ãm-lp A-\p-{K-ln- -s«, B-ao³! ½ Ahew_w: My Journey to Islam -aboutislam.net samgn-amäw: \mknw ]q m-s-t cn 31

30 B-Zn A-Xzo-^v hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³: km-ln-xy]c-amb A-Zzn-Xo-b-X hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ A-Ûp-X- -fp-ss I-e-h-d-bm-Wv. A-Xn-sâ Hm-tcm hm- p-i-fpw hm-n-i- -fpw a-\pjy-\v F- n- n-sn- p-hm³ I-gn-ª-Xpw A-Ãm- -Xp-am-b A-Ûp-X- -sf- p-dn- v kw-km-cn- p- p-ïv. Cu A-Ûp-X- -sf-ãmw a-\p-jy-s\ sim-sï- n- p- -Xv Po-hn-X-sa- a-lm-hn-kv-a-b- n-te- m-wv. A-hn-sS F- -s\-bm-wv Po-hn- p hn-p-bn-t -ï--sx- ]mt- -fm-wv ]-cn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ B-Zyw ap-xâ A-h-km-\w h-sc hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- -Xv. IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ hn-i-zo-i-c-w- Ä ]-t, G-Xp \n-ehm-c- n-ep-å-hà- pw a-\-ên-em-ti-ï-xp-ïv. A-Xn-\v D-]- bp-à-am-b cq-]- n-em-bn-cn- -Ww A-Xn-sâ L-S-\-bpw `m-j-bpw ssi-en-bpw {]-tbm-k- -fp-sa-ãmw. ]-e-t m-gpw a-\p-- jyà- n-s-bnâ B-i-b-kw-th-Z-\- n-\v `m-j H-cp h-en-b hn-e- p-x-sn-bm-im-dp-ïv. \q-dp hà-j- Ä- p-ap-¼v c-nn- -s -«hy-xy-kv-x `m-j-i-fn-ep-å Ir-Xn-IÄ \n-e-hn-ep-å A-tX `m-j-tbm-sp-x-s {]-tbm-k- -fnâ hy-xym-kw Im- Wn- p-t¼mä A- -cw I-S-¼-IÄ a-dn-i-s- p-sim-ïp-å hn-i-zo-i-c-w- -fm-bn-cn- -Ww hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ \-S-t ï-xv. Im-c-Ww ]-cn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ tem-i- n-se A-h-km- \-s a-\p-jy³ h-sc-bp-å-h-cn-te- p-å amà-k-zà-i-i hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ A-Ûp-X- -fp-ss I-e-h-d-bm-Wv. A-Xn-sâ Hm-tcm hm- p-i-fpw hm-n-i- -fpw a-\pjy-\v F- n- n-sn- p-hm³ I-gn-ª-Xpw A-Ãm- -Xpam-b A-Ûp-X- -sf- p-dn- v kw-km-cn- p- p-ïv. Cu A-Ûp-X- -sf-ãmw a-\p-jy-s\ sim-sï- n- p- -Xv Po-hn-X-sa- a-lm-hn-kv -a-b- n-te- m-wv. {K-Ù-am-Wv. A-Xp-sIm-ïv X-s IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ `m-jm-]-c-am-b C-S-s]-S-ep-IÄ Ir-Xy-am-bpw km-ln-xy-k-¼- -am-bpw an-i-hv ]p-- eà- p- -Xp-am-bn-cn- -Ww. F- m-wv km-ln-xyw km-ln-xy- n-sâ \nà-h-n-\-s - p-dn- NÀ- -IÄ hy-xykv-x `m-j-i-fnâ H-t«-sd \-S- n-«p-ïv. A-tXm-sSm- w X-s 32

31 km-ln-xyw A-\nÀ-h-N-\o-b-am-sW- pw A-Xn- \v {]-txy-i-am-b \n-à-h-n-\w \Â-Ip-hm³ I-gn-bn-sÃ- pw hm-zn- -hà N-cn-{X- nâ I-gn- ªp-t]m-bn-«p-ïv. F- mâ "kp-µ-c-am-b c-n- \' F- À- -ap-å s_-ã-kv se-tä-gv-kv F- {^- v ssi-en-bnâ \n- m-wv en-ä-td- À (km-ln-xyw) F- Cw- o-jv ]-Z-ap-ïm-b-sX- m-wv (1) s]m-xp-sh ]-d-bm-dp-å-xv. F- mâ F- m-wv km-ln-xy-sa- -Xn-s\ tzym-xn-- n- p- H-cp G-I-tZ-i \n-à-h-n-\w {i-²n- p-i. "B-Ëm-Zw ]-I-cp- hm- p-i-fp-ss Iq-«-am-Wv km-ln-xyw. kp-µ-c-am-b hn-nm-c- -sf cq-]- nâ {]-Im-in- n- mâ km-ln- Xy-am-bn. h-kv-xp- -fnâ B-IÀ-j-W- n-\v Im-c-W-am-b ku-µ-cyw a-\p-jy-a-\-ênâ cq-v-amhp-i-bpw ]n- o-sv hn-nm-c-am-bn cq-]m-- -c-s - «v `m-jm-cq-]- nâ {]-Im-in- n- -s -Sp-I-bpw sn- p-t¼mä km-ln-xyw D-ïm-Ip- p. shdpw ]m-d- -Ãn-\pw ]m-d- -Ãn sim- n-bpïm- n-b {]-Xn-a-bpw X-½n-ep-f-f hy-xym-kw km-[m-c-w `m-j- pw km-ln-xy- n-\pw X-½n-ep-ïv. (2) ti-h-ew ]-Z- Ä sim-ïp-å A-`ymk- Ä- - p-dw t{im-xm-hn-sâ a-\-ên-te- v h-f-sc a-t\m-l-c-am-bn B-i-b- -sf ssi-amäw sn- -em-wv km-ln-xyw sim-ïv hn-h- n- p- -Xv. A-Xn-sâ ]-Z- -fpw {]-tbm-k- -fpw ssi-en-bp-sa-ãmw t{im-xm-hnâ B-IÀ-j-Ww D-ïm- p- -txm-ssm- w A-h-bp-sS timà-h-bneq-ss D-ïm-Ip- B-i-b- Ä t{im-xm-hn-s\ kzm-[o-\n- p-t¼m-gm-wv km-ln-xyw AÀ- -]q- À-W-am-Ip- -Xv. A-Xp-sIm-ïv X-s ]u-cm- Wn-I Im-ew ap-xâ-t Hm-tcm-cp- -cpw kmln-xy- n-sâ hy-xy-kv-x im-j-i-sf A-[n-Ihpw D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cp- -Xv A-h-cp-sS ho- -W- nâ a-\p-jyà A-\p-`-hn- p-sim-ïn-cn- p- hy-xy-kv-x {]-iv-\- Ä- v ]-cn-lm-cw \nà-tzin- p-hm-\m-bn-cp- p. A-d-_n km-ln-xyw IzpÀ-B³ A-h-X-c-W Im-e-L-«- nâ D- -X km-ln-xy-\n-e-hm-cw ]p-eà- p- - h-cm-bn-cp- p IzpÀ-B³ A-h-X-c-W Im-e-L- «- n-se A-d-_n-IÄ F- v N-cn-{Xw \-ap- v hn-i-zo-i-cn- p-x-cp- p-ïv. `m-jm {]-N-c-W- n- \m-bn A- v A-hÀ Iq-Sp-X-em-bpw D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cp- -Xv I-hn-X-I-fpw {]-`m-j-w- -fp-am-bncp- p. A- v A-Xn-\p-Å th-zn-i-fm-bn A-hÀ D-]-tbm-Kn- -Xm-h-s«N- -I-fpw. A-d-_n-IÄ X- -fp-ss {]-[m-\-s -«Zn-\- -fn-se-ãmw A-h-cp-sS A- m-sn-i-fnâ H-cp- "kp-µ-c-am-b c-n-\ F- À- -ap-å s_-ã-kv se-tä-gv-kv F- {^- v ssi-en-bnâ \n- m-wv en-ä-td- À (kmln-xyw) F- Cw- o-jv ]-Z-ap-ïm-bsX- m-wv s]m-xp-sh ]-d-bm-dp-å-xv. F- mâ F- m-wv km-ln-xy-sa- - Xn-s\ tzym-xn- n- p- H-cp G-I-tZ-i \nà-h-n-\w {i-²n- p-i. "B-Ëm-Zw ]-I-cp- hm- p-i-fp-ss Iq-«-am-Wv km-ln-xyw. kp-µ-c-am-b hn-nm-c- -sf cq-]- nâ {]-Im-in- n- mâ km-ln- Xy-am-bn. h-kv -Xp- -fnâ B-IÀ-j-W- n-\v Im-c-W-am-b ku-µ-cyw a-\pjy-a-\-ênâ cq-v-am-hp-i-bpw ]n- o-sv hn-nm-c-am-bn cq-]m- -c-s -«v `m-jm-cq-]- nâ {]-Im-in- n- -s -Sp-I-bpw sn- p-t¼mä km-ln-xyw D-ïm-Ip- p. A-h-cp-sS kw-km-c- -fnâ A-Xv DÄ-s -Sp- p- I-bpw sn-bv-xp. A-Xv A-hÀ- v a-t\m-l-c-ambn {]-kw-kn- p-hm-\pw I-hn-X-IÄ c-nn- phm-\pw A-h-k-c- -sfm-cp- n. hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ A-h-X-cn- p- -Xv A-Xn-\p-ap-¼v I-gn-ªp-t]m-b ap-gp-h³ kmln-xy- -sf-bpw A-Ûp-X-s -Sp- n-s mïm-wv. H-tc-k-a-bw A-Xn-sâ ]-Z-]-c-am-b a-t\m-lm-cn-x \n-e-\nà- p- -txm-ssm- w A-tX-k-a-bw X-s B-i-b-]-c-am-b e- yw \n-d-th-äp-i-bpw sn- p- p F- -Xm-Wv IzpÀ-B- \n-i h-n-\- -fp-ss k-hn-ti-j-x. A- -s\ h-cp-t¼m-gm-wv km-ln-xyw A-\zÀ- -am-ip- -Xpw. "km-ln-xy- n-\v c-ïp {]-[m-\-s -«`m-k- -fp-ïv'. kà-km-ß-i-hpw hn-úm-\-]-chpw. kà-k-km-ln-xyw IÂ-]-\m-kr-jv-Sn-I-fm- Wv. hn-im-c- n-\p ap³-xq- w sim-sp- p- sn-dp-i-y, I-hn-X, \m-s-iw, t\m-hâ F- n-h Cu hn-`m-k- nâ-s]-sp- p. C-Xv i-àn-bp-ss km-ln-xyw (literature of power) F- v A-dnb-s -Sp- p. hn-úm-\-km-ln-xy- nâ Pohn-Xm-h-Ø-bp-sS bm-ymà- y- Ä Im-Wmw. hn-nm-c-{]-[m-\- -fm-b D-]-\ym-kw, Po-h-N-cn- {Xw, bm-{xm-hn-h-c-ww, B-ß-I-Y, F-gp- p- IÄ, U-b-dn- p-dn- p-iä, A-dn-hp \Â-Ip- Ir-Xn-IÄ, im-kv-{x-c-n-\-iä F- n-h Cu hn-`m-k- nâ-s]-sp- p. d-^-d³-kv {K-Ù- Ä, hn-úm-\-tim-i- Ä, \n-l-ïp-iä Xp-S- nb-h-bpw ssh-úm-\n-i km-ln-xy- n-sâ L-S-I- -fm-wv. Cu hn-`m-kw A-dn-hn-sâ kmln-xyw (literature of knowledge) F- v A-dnb-s -Sp- p. (3) kà-km-ß-i km-ln-xy-hpw hn-úm-\ km-ln-xy-hpw timà- n- -Wn-s m-ïp-å h-n-\- -fm-wv hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B-\n-ep-Å-Xv. H-cmÄ X-sâ Po-hn-X- nâ A-\p-hÀ- n-t - ï-xm-b ap-gp-h³ Im-cy- -fn-te- pw hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ kq-n-\ \Â-Ip- p-ïv. hy-àn Pohn-Xw, k-aq-l Po-hn-Xw, Ip-Spw-_ Po-hn-Xw, km-¼- n-i Po-hn-Xw, cm-jv-{so-b Po-hn-Xw Xp- S- n hy-xy-kv-x ta-j-e-i-sf- p-dn- v hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ kw-km-cn- p-t¼m-gpw A-Xn-sâ km-ln-xy-`w-kn tnmà- p-t]m-ip- n-ã F- -Xv {]-txy-iw {i-t²-b-am-wv. a-c-w-s - p-dn- pw a-c-wm-\- -c Po-hn-X-s - p-dn- p-ap-å k-aà- -\- -fm-wv IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ aq- n-sem-cp `m- Kw X-s. A-Xn a-c-w-s - p-dn- p ]-d-bp- p-ïv. A- y-\m-fn-sâ `o-i-c-sx-b- p-dn- p kw-km-cn- p- p-ïv. _À-k-Jo Po-hn-Xw ]-cmaà-in- p- p-ïv. hn-nm-c-w-bp-ïv. \-c-i-po-hn- n-sâ ITn-\-I-tTm-c-am-b in- -IÄ hn-h-cnan- p Iq-Sp- -Xv ]-Xn-hm- n-bn-cp- p. A-hÀ- v B-h-iy-ap-Å-Xv hm- p-hm-\pw hnâ- p-hm- \p-sa-ãmw Cu Zn-h-k- -fm-bn-cp- p A-hÀ D-]-tbm-K-s -Sp- n-bn-cp- -Xv. A-tXm-sSm- w X-s A-h-cn-se I-hn-IÄ A-h-cp-sS I-hn-X- IÄ A-hn-sS {]-ZÀ-in- n- p-i-bpw A-h-cn-se {]-`m-j-ià A-hn-sS {]-`m-j-ww \nà-h-ln- p-i- -bpw sn- p-am-bn-cp- p. Cu H-cp-an- p Iq-S A-hÀ- n-s-bnâ km-ln-xy-]-c-am-b ap-t -ä- Ä- v h-en-b Im-c-W-am-bn. I-hn-X-IÄ- v I-hn-X-I-fm-bpw {]-`m-j-w- Ä- v a-dp-]-sn {]-`m-j-w- -fm-bpw A-hÀ A- m-sn-i-sf k-po-h-am- n-b-t mä A-hÀ- A-d-_n km-ln- Xy- -d-hm-«n-se A-Xn-Im-b-³-am-cm-bn. A- c- nâ km-ln-xy-sam-s am-äw sn- m³ th- Zn-bm-bn D-]-tbm-Kn- n-cp- N- -I-fnÂ-s]-«H- m-bn-cp- p D- m-zz. c-ïm-a-xm-bn hn-úm-\- n-\m-bp-å A-h-cp-sS H-cp-an- p Iq-S-em-bn-cp- p. A-Xv hy- Xy-kv-X tkm-{x- -fp-am-bn kw-h-zn- p-hm-\pw hy-xy-kv-x {]-tz-i- -fn-ep-å-h-cp-am-bn kw-kan- p-hm-\pw A-h-k-c-ap-ïm- n. A-Xn-eq-sS A-hÀ hy-xy-kv-x ]-Z- Ä ]Tn- p-i-bpw IzpÀ-B³ 33

32 - p- p-ïv. kzà-k- n-se A-\nÀ-h-N-\o-b-am-b A-\p-`q-Xn-I-sf- p-dn- p k-t m-j-hmà- A-dn-bn- p- p-ïv. kw-`-hn- m-\n-cn- p- C- -cw Im-cy- -sf- p-dn- v h-kv-xp-\n-jvt-abn kw-km-cn- p-t¼m-gpw A-Xv t{im-xm-hn-\v kw-i-b-te-i-a-t\y a-\-ên-em- p-hm³ I-gnbp- -txm-ssm- w X-s A-Xn-eq-sS IzpÀ- B-\n-sâ km-ln-xy-aq-ey- -fp-ss Hu-P-eyw hà-[n- p-i-bm-wv sn- p- -Xv. A-hn-sS-sbhn-sS-sb- n-epw A-\m-h-iy {]-tbm-k- -tfm A-an-X hn-im-c-{]-i-s-\- -tfm \-ap- v Im-Wphm³ km-[n- p-i-bn-ã. C- v e-`y-am-b km-ln-xy-ir-xn-i-fnâ \mw ]-cn-tim-[n- mâ A-Xn-se km-ln-xy-`w-kn hnj-b- Ä- -\p-k-cn- v hy-xym-k-s -Sp- -Xm-bn \-ap- v Im-Wm³ km-[n- pw. H-tc hy-àn-bpss X-s hy-xy-kv-x c-n-\-i-fm-sw- nâ t]m-- epw F-Ãm hn-j-b- -fn-epw A-Xn-sâ c-n- \m-ku-µ-cyw H-tc-t]m-se \n-e-\nà- p-hm³ km-[n- m-dn-ã. hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B-\m-Im-s«{]-]- - n-\-i- pw ]p-d- p-ap-å H-t«-sd hn-j-b- Ä ssi-im-cyw sn- p-t¼m-gpw A-Xnsâ c-n-\-bp-ss ku-ip-am-cy-x A-tX-]-Sn \n-e-\nà- p- -Xn ]-cn-]qà-w-am-bn hn-p-bw ssi-h-cn- n-«p-ïv. a-zy-hpw a-äp e-l-cn-h-kv-xp- -fp-ss D-]- tbm-k-hp-sa-ãmw km-ln-xy-im-c³-am-cp-ss aq-ey- -f-f- p-hm-\p-å am-]n-\n-bm-bn- oà- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. A-Xp-sIm-ïp-X-s a-zy- n-sâ-bpw a-b- p-a-cp- n-sâ-bpw hà- -am- \- Ä C- v km-ln-xy-ir-xn-i-fnâ C-Sw-]n-- Sn- p-i-gn-ªp. A- -cw km-l-n-cy- -f-nâ t]m-epw A-[mÀ-an-I {]-h-w-x-i-sf ap-gp-h-\pw F-XnÀ- p-sim-ïp-x-s hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ A-Xn-sâ km-ln-xy-`w-kn \n-e-\nà- p- p-sh- -Xv Çm-L-\o-b-am-Wv. hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ a-t\m-l-c-am-b B h-n-\w {i-²n- p-i. ""]n-- im-nv D-t±-in- p- -Xv a-zy- n-eq-ss-bpw, Nq-Xm- «- n-eq-ss-bpw \n- Ä- n-s-bnâ i-{xp-x-bpw hn-tzz-j-hpw D-f-hm- p-hm-\pw, A-Ãm-lp-sh HmÀ-an- p- -Xn \n- pw \-a-kv-im-c- nâ \n- pw \n- -sf X-S-bp-hm-\pw am-{x-am-ip- p. A-Xn-\m \n- Ä (A-h-bn \n- v) hn-c-an- p-hm-s\m-cp- -ap-tïm?'' (4) Cu h-n-\- Ä ti-h-ew km-ln-xy `w-kn- - p-dw A-Xv F- -s\-bm-wv kzm-[o-\n- -s -«-sx- v A-h-X-c-W k-a-b- p-å hn-izmkn-i-sf ]-cn-tim-[n- mâ a-\-ên-em- m-hp- - Xm-Wv. "A-Xn-\m \n- Ä (A-h-bnÂ-\n- v) hn-c-an- p-hm-s\m-cp- -ap-tïm' F- tnm-zyw a-zy-hpw a-äp e-l-cn-h-kv-xp- -fp-ss D-]-tbm-K-hp-sa-Ãmw km-ln-xy-im-c³am-cp-ss aq-ey- -f-f- p-hm-\p-å am-]n- \n-bm-bn- oà- n-cn- p-i-bm-wv. A-XpsIm-ïp-X-s a-zy- n-sâ-bpw a-b- p-a-cp- n-sâ-bpw hà- -am-\- Ä C- v km-ln-xy-ir-xn-i-fnâ C-Sw-]n- Sn- p-i-gn-ªp. A- -cw km-l-n-cy- - f-inâ t]m-epw A-[mÀ-an-I {]-h-w-x- I-sf ap-gp-h-\pw F-XnÀ- p-sim-ïp- X-s hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ A-Xn-sâ km-ln-xy-`w-kn \n-e-\nà- p- p-sh- - Xv Çm-L-\o-b-am-Wv. A- -cmà- - nâ A-hÀ G-sä-Sp- p-i-bmbn-cp- p. a-zy-ap-ïm- n-s m-ïn-cp- -hà A-Xv \nà- n-sh- v ]m-{x- Ä X-Ãn-bp-S- p. a-zyw Ip-Sn- p-sim-ïn-cp- -hà a-zy- -j-i- Ä Zqtc-s -dn-ªp. a-zy-an-sã- nâ Po-hn- p-hm³ I-gn-bn-sÃ- A-h-Ø-bn \n- pw A-hÀ amdn. a-zy-t m-ssm- w Po-hn- p-hm³ I-gn-bm- A-h-Ø-bn-te-s - n. ti-h-ew ss\-an-jn-i kzm-[o-\- Ä- - p-dw ]n- o-ssm-cn- -epw a-zyap-]-tbm-kn- p-hm³ I-gn-bm- km-l-n-cy- n-te- v A-hÀ F- n-s -Sp-I-bpw sn-bv-xp. IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ km-ln-xyw a-äp km-ln-xy-ir- Xn-I-fnÂ-\n- pw F- -s\ hy-xym-k-s -«p-sh- v \-ap- v ]-cn-tim-[n- mw. 1. IzpÀ-B-\n-se h-n-\- -sf-ãmw hn-h-cn- -s -«hn-j-b- -fp-am-bn Xm-c-X-ayw sn- pt¼mä {l-kz-hpw A-an-X hn-im-c-{]-i-s-\w DÄ-s m-åm- -h-bp-am-wv. 2. IzpÀ-B³ G-Xp hn-j-b-s - p-dn- v hn-i-zo-i-cn- p-t¼m-gpw A-Xn-sâ hm-ün-x-bpw c-n-\m-ku-jv-s-]-hpw \n-e-\nà- p- p. 3. IzpÀ-B³ h-n-\- Ä D-bÀ- kmln-xy-\n-e-hm-cw ]p-eà- p- -txm-ssm- w kq- v-a-x-bpw k-xy-k-ô-x-bpw ]p-eà- p- -h-bp-am-wv. 4. IzpÀ-B³ Xp-S- w ap-xâ H-Sp- w h-sc D- -X-am-b km-ln-xy-\n-e-hm-cw ]p-eà- p- p. 5. H-tc kw-k-xn X-s H- n-e-[n-iw X-h-W hn-h-cn- p-t¼m-gpw IzpÀ-B³ D- -Xam-b km-ln-xy-\n-e-hm-cw ]p-eà- p- p. 6. km-ln-xy-ir-xn-iä- v h-g- m- hnj-b- -fm-wv IzpÀ-B-\n {]-Xn-]m-Zn- -s -Sp- -sx- n-epw {]-kv-xp-x hn-h-c-w- -fn-se-ãmw A-Xv D- -X-am-b \n-e-hm-cw ]p-eà- p-i-bpw a-t\m-lm-cn-x Im- p-kq- n- p-i-bpw sn- p- p. 7. H-cp hn-j-b- nâ \n- v a-säm- n-te- v am-dp-t¼m-gpw km-ln-xy-`w-kn tnmà- p-t]m-imsx kq- n- p-hm³ IzpÀ-B-\n-\v I-gn-bp- p. 8. G-Xm-\pw ]-Z- Ä am-{x-ap-]-tbm-kn- v a-t\m-lm-cn-x-bpw kv-^p-s-x-bpw \-jv-s-s - Sm- cq-]- nâ AÀ-Y-Kw-`o-c-am-b B-i-bw {]-I-Sn- n- p- {K-Ù-am-Wv IzpÀ-B³. 9. km-ln-xy- n-sâ G-Xp am-\- n-eq-ss t\m- n-bm-epw IzpÀ-B³ H-cp D- -X-am-b kmln-xy-ir-xn-bm-wv. 10. IzpÀ-B-\n a-äm-cp-ss-sb- n-epw ssien-tbm {]-tbm-k- -tfm co-xn-tbm B-i-b- - tfm I-S-sa-Sp- -s -«n-«n-ã.' (5) IzpÀ-B³ km-ln-xy- nâ B-Ir-jv-S-cm-b A-d-_n-IÄ hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B-\n-se h-n-\- -fp-ss a-t\m-lm-cn-x-bpw kzm-[o-\ i-àn-bp-sa-ãmw Aw-Ko-I-cn- -h-cm-bn-cp- p A-td-_y-bn-se km-[m-c-w- m-c-s- -ap-å-hà. IzpÀ-B- \n-i h-n-\- -sf- p-dn- v A-dn-bphm-t\m A-Xv tiä- p-hm-t\m A-h-k-c-ap-ïm-bm A-hÀ A-Xn B-Ir-jv-S-cm-Ipw F- -Xn-\m X-s IzpÀ-B-\n-I h-n-\- Ä tiä- p-hm-\p-å A-h-k-c- Ä h-sc B Im-e-L-«- n-se {]-am-wn-amà \n-tj-[n- p-i-bm-wv sn-bv-x-xv. ""k-xy-\n-tj-[n-iä ]-d-ªp: \n- Ä Cu IzpÀ-B³ {i-²n- p tiä- -cp-xv. A-Xv ]m- -cm-b-ww sn- p-t¼mä \n- Ä _-l-f-ap-ïm- p-i. \n- Ä- v A-Xn-s\ A-Xn-P-bn- m³ I-gn-tª- mw.'' (6) ap-l-½-zv \-_n (k) H-cn-  I-Av-_-bpsS k-ao-]w IzpÀ-B³ ]m-cm-b-ww sn- p-ibm-wv. ap-kv-enw-i-fpw A-ap-kv-enw-I-fp-sa-Ãmw B k-z-ênâ D-ïm-bn-cp- p. kq-d- p- -Pv-anse km-jv-smw-k- n-sâ h-n-\w ]m-cm-b-ww sn-bv-x-t mä A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ IÂ-]-\-{]- Im-cw \-_n (k) kp-pq-zv sn- p-i-bp-ïm-bn. B k-a-b- v A-hn-sS Iq-Sn-bn-cp- -h-cnâ D-a- - p-_v-\p J-e-^v H-gn-sI _m- n-bp-å- 34

33 h-sc-ãmw (ap-kv-enw-i-fpw A-ap-kv-enw-I-fpw) km-jv-smw-kw sn-bv-xp-t]m-bn. ]-cn-ip-² IzpÀ-B-\n H-cp IÂ-]-\ h- -t mä A-Xv {i-hn- IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ ITn-\ hn-tcm-[n-iä t]m-epw B h-n-\w A-\p-k-cn- p-t]m-bn F- -Xv A-Xn-sâ kzm-[o-\ i-àn-bm-wv A-dn-bn- p- -Xv. A-_q-_- À kn-²o-jv (d) X-sâ ho-«p-ap-ä- n-cp- p-sim-ïv ]-Xn-hm-bn Izp- À-B³ ]m-cm-b-ww sn-bv-xn-cp- p. A-t±l- n-sâ kp-µ-c-am-b ]m-cm-b-w- nâ B-Ir-jv-S-cm-bn kv-{xo-i-fpw Ip-«n-I-fp-sa- Ãmw A-hn-sS H-cp-an- p Iq-Sp-am-bn-cp- p. B H-cp-an- p Iq-S-en-s\ `-b-s -«A-h-cn-se {]-[m-\n-iä ho-«p-ap--ä- n-cp- p-sim-ïv D-d-s IzpÀ-B³ ]m-cm-b-ww sn- p- - Xn \n- pw A-_q-_- À kn-²o-jn(d)s\ hn-e- p-i-bm-wv sn-bv-x-xv. A-_q-_- -dn-sâ (d) A-_v-ko-\n-b-bnte- p-å ]-em-b-\w N-cn-{X- nâ {]-kn-²am-wv. h-gn-a-t[y _À-Ip Kn-am-ZnÂ-sh- v C-_v-\p Zp-K- -sb I-ïp-ap-«p-I-bpw A-t±lw A-_q-_- -dn-sâ (d) \-à kz-`m-h- - sf HmÀ-an- n- p-sim-ïv B ln-pv-d-bnâ \n- v hn-e- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. A-_q-_- -dn-s\ (d) kz-tz-i-t - p Xn-cn- -b- C-_v-\p Zp-K- A-t±-l- n-sâ Iq-sS t]m- -hp-i-bpw Jp-ssd-in {]-[m-\n-i-tfm-sv Im-cy- Ä kw-km-cn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. A-hÀ- v ]-d-bm-\p-å G-I \nà-tz-iw A-t±-lw H-cn- -epw D- - nâ IzpÀ-B³ ]m-cm-b- Ww sn- -cp-sx- m-bn-cp- p. Im-c-Ww A-Xv A-h-cn-se kv-{xo-i-sf-bpw Ip-«n-I-sf-bpw h-ãm-sx kzm-[o-\n- p- p F- -Xp-X-s. (7) D-a-dp_v\p J- m-_n-sâ (d) C-kvemw B-tÇ-jw hy-xy-kv-x dn-t mà-«p-ifm-bn N-cn-{X- nâ C-Sw t\-sn-bn-«p-ïv. A-Xn {]-[m-\-s -«-Xv X-sâ k-tlm-z-cn ^m-xz-an-bp-am-bn _-Ô-s -«-Xm-Wv. A-hÀ ap-kv-en-b-amb hn-h-cw A-dn-ª-t mä A-XnÂ-\n- pw ]n- n-cn- n- p- -Xn-\m-bn sn- -Xm-bn-cp- p D-aÀ (d). F- mâ B k-a-b- m-wv A-h-cp-sS ho-«nâ-\n- pw J-ºm-_v (d) kq-d- p Xzm-l ]m-cm-b-ww sn- p- -Xm-bn ti-«-xv. A-Xv ti-«-am-{xbnâ X-s A-t±-lw ]-d-ª-xv F-{X a-t\m-l-c-hpw am-\y-hp-am-b h-n-\-am-wn-sx- m-wv. F- n-«v A-t±-lw \-_n(k)bp-ss A-Sp-t - v t]m-hp-i-bpw ap-kv-en-am-sw- v {]-Jym-]n- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. (8) C-kv-em-an-sâ ITn-\-i-{Xp-hm-bn-cp- - A-_q-_- À kn-²o-jv (d) X-sâ ho- «p-ap-ä- n-cp- p-sim-ïv ]-Xn-hm-bn IzpÀ-B³ ]m-cm-b-ww sn-bv-xn-cp- p. A-t±-l- n-sâ kp-µ-c-am-b ] m-cm-b-w- nâ B-Ir-jv -S-cm-bn kv -{Xo- I-fpw Ip-«n-I-fp-sa-Ãmw A-hn-sS H-cpan- p Iq-Sp-am-bn-cp- p. B H-cp-an- p Iq-S-en-s\ `-b-s -«A-h-cn-se {]-[m-\n- IÄ ho-«p-ap- -ä- n-cp- p-sim-ïv D-d-s IzpÀ-B³ ]m-cm-b-ww sn- p- -Xn \n- pw A-_q-_- À kn-²o-jn(d)s\ hn-e- p-i-bm-wv sn-bv -X-Xv. tãm h-eo-zv _n³ ap-ko-d. A-t±-lw H-cn-  IzpÀ-B-\n \n- pw AÂ-]w tiä- p- I-bpw A-Xp-Im-c-W- mâ A-t±-l- n-\v A-Xn-te- v Nm-bv-hv D-ïm-hp-I-bpw sn-bv-xp. C-Xv ti-«-t mä Jp-ssd-in-IÄ ]-d-ªp, A-Ãm-lp-hm-sW k-xyw, h-eo-zv a-xw am-dnbn-cn- p- p. C-\n Jp-ssd-in-IÄ ap-gp-h-\pw a-xw am-dp-i X-s sn- pw. A-Xn-\m \n- Ä A-_q P-lv-en-s\ k-ao-]n- p-i. A-t±lw ]-Z-hn-bp-sS-bpw ]-W- n-sâ-bpw {]-Xm- ]- n-sâ-bpw Ip-Spw-_- n-sâ-bpw a-ln-a ]-d-ªp-sim-ïv h-eo-zn-s\ A-XnÂ-\n- pw IzpÀ-B³ ]n- n-cn- n-t - mw. A-tXm-sSm- w X-s A-t±-l- n-\v IzpÀ-B-\n-t\m-Sv sh-dp- m-wv F- v P-\- Ä hn-e-bn-cp- p- cq-]- nâ h-ã-xpw ]-d-bn- p-i-bpw sn- mw. h-eo-zv _n³ ap-ko-d ]-d-ªp: Rm-s\- m-wv ]-d-tb-ï-xv? A-Ãm-lp-hm-sW, Rm³ \n- -sf- mä ]-Zy- -fpw I-hn-X-I-fpw Pn- p-i-fp-ss Im-hy- -fpw A-dn-bp- -h-\m-wv. A-Ãm-lp-hm-sW, ap-l-½-zv ]-d-bp- -Xn C-Xn H- n-t\m-spw km-ay-x ]p-eà- p- -h-bn-ã. A-Ãm-lp-hm-sW, A-t±l- n-sâ hm- p-iä- v H-cp am-[p-cy-ap-ïv. A-Xn-\v {]-txy-i-am-sbm-cp `w-kn-bp-ïv. A-Xv A-Xn-sâ Xm-gv-`m-K- p-å-xn-s\-sb-ãmw C-Ãm- Xm- p- p. a-säm- n-\pw h-f-cm³ I-gn-bm- hn-[w A-Xv h-fà- p ]- -en- p- p. A-_q P-lv ]-d-ªp: A-Ãm-lp-hm-sW, Xm- Ä C-Xn-s\-Xn-sc kw-km-cn- p- -Xp-h-sc Xm- -fpss P-\-X Xm- -sf C-jv-S-s -Sp-I-bn-Ã. h-eo-zv ]-d-ªp. F-s hn-t«- q. Rm-s\m- v B-tem- Nn- -s«. A- -s\ B-tem-Nn- -ti-jw A-t±lw ]-d-ªp: Cu IzpÀ-B³ (B-cnÂ-\n-t m) D-²-cn- -s -Sp- am-c-w-a-ãm-sx a-säm- p-a-ã. \n- Ä Im-Wp- n-tã C-Xv Ip-Spw-_- Ä- n-sbnâ On-{Z-X-bp-ïm- p- -Xv? (9) Cu kw-`-h-s -bm-wv hn-ip-² Izp- À-B³ C- -s\ hn-i-zo-i-cn- -Xv. ""XoÀ- -bmbpw A-h-s\m- p Nn- n- p, A-h-s\m- p I-W- m- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. A-Xn-\m A-h³ \-in- -s«. F- -s\-bm-w-h³ I-W- m- n-b-xv? ho-ïpw A-h³ \-in- -s«, F- -s\-bm-w-h³ I-W- m- n-b-xv? ]n- o-sv A-h-s\m- p t\m- n. ]n-s A-h³ ap-jw Np-fn- p-i-bpw ap-jw I-dp- n- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. ]n-s A-h³ ]n-t m-«v am-dp-i-bpw A-l- mcw \-Sn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. F- n-«-h³ ]-d- ªp: C-Xv (B-cn \n-t m) D-²-cn- -s -Sp- am-c-w-a-ãm-sx a-säm- p-a-ã. C-Xv a-\p-jy-sâ 35

34 hm- -Ãm-sX a-säm- p-a-ã.' (10) H-cn-  D-Xv-_- v-_n-\p d-_o-a {]-hm- N-I-sâ (k) k- n-[n-bn-se- n. \-_n (k) A-t±-l-s kq-d- pâ ^p-kzn-e- nâ \n- pw B-Zy-`m-Kw- Hm-Xn-t Ä- n- p. ti-«-am- {X-bn X-s A-t±-lw Jp-ssd-in-I-fn-te- v a-s- p-i-bpw A-h-tcm-Sm-bn C-{]-Im-cw ]-d-bp- I-bpw sn-bv-xp. XoÀ- -bm-bpw Rm-s\m-cp h-n- \w ti-«n-«p-ïv. A-Xp-t]m-sem- v C-Xn-\p-ap-¼v Rm³ ti-«n-t«c-ã. A-Ãm-lp-hm-sW k-xyw, A-sXm-cp Im-hy-tam am-c-w-tam tpym-õy-tam A-Ã. (11) IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ sh-ãp-hn-fn A-d-_n km-ln-xy- nâ a-äm-sc-bpw I-h- p-sh- p- -h-cm-bn-cp- p A-d-_n-I-sf- v ]-d-ª-tãm. A-Xn-ep-]-cn A-sXm-cp A-`n-am-\ {]-iv-\-am-bn Iq-Sn I-W- m- n-b-h-cm-bn-cp- p A-hÀ. ]-e-t m-gpw A-h-cp-sS kr-jv-sn-iä I-Av- _m-e-b- nâ {]-ZÀ-in- n- p-i-bpw A-Xn-t\m- Sv a-õ-cn- p-hm³ I-cp- p-å--h-cm-cm-sw- v- ]-cn-tim-[n- p-hm³ Im- n-cn- p-i-bpw sn- pam-bn-cp- p. Im-c-Ww a-dp-]-sn ]-d-bm³ I-gn-hp- Å-hÀ D-S³ X-s A-h-cp-sS kr-jv-sn-bp-ambn I-Av-_m-e-b- n-te- v F- p- -Xm-Wv. A- -s\ Xm³ {]-ZÀ-in- n- I-hn-X- v a-dp-]- Sn-bm-bn IzpÀ-B-\n-I h-n-\- Ä Xq- n-bn-«-xv hm-bn- -Xm-Wv e-_o-zv-_n³ d-_o-a C-kv-em-ante- v h-cm-\p-ïm-b Im-c-Ww X-s. F- mâ IzpÀ-B-\n-I km-ln-xy-aq-ey- Ä hn-fn- p ]-d-bm³ h-eo-zv-_v-\p ap-ko-d-sb-t]m-se A-hÀ- v X-S-Ê-am-b-Xv H- v Aw-Ko-I-cn- mâ ]n-s IzpÀ-B-\n-I \n-b-a- -sf-ãmw ]n³-xp-s-tc-ïn h-cp-sa- `-b-hpw c-ïm-a-xm-bn A-h-cp-sS A-l- m-c-hp-am-bn-cp- p. IzpÀ-B-\n-s\ t_m-[n- n-«pw A-Xn-s\-Xn-cn-ep-Å hn-aà-i-\- -fp-am-bn A-hÀ cw-k- p-h- -t mä IzpÀ-B³ A-h-sc sh-ãp-hn-fn- p. C-Xv A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ h-n-\-asã- p ]-d-bp- -h-sc, C-Xv t]m-ep-å th-z- {K-Ùw sim-ïp-h-cm³. ""(\-_n-tb,) ]-d-bp- -I: Cu IzpÀ-B³ t]m-sem- v sim-ïp h-cp- -Xn-\m-bn a-\p-jy-cpw Pn- p-i-fpw H- n-- ptnà- m-epw XoÀ- -bm-bpw A-Xp-t]msem- v A-hÀ sim-ïv h-cn-i-bn-ã. A-h-cn Nn-eÀ Nn-eÀ- v ]n- p-w \Â-Ip- -Xm-bm t]m-- epw'' (12) Cu sh-ãp-hn-fn A-h-sc Iq-Sp-X amõcyapåap-å-h-cm- n. A-hÀ IzpÀ-B³ t]m-- ep-å H-cp th-z-{k-ùw D-ïm- p-hm³ {i-an- p t\m- n. X-Xv-^-e-am-bn D-ïm-b c-n-\-i-fm-wv B-\-I-sf- p-dn- pw X-h-f-I-sf- p-dn- p-sa-ãmw A-d-_n km-ln-xy- nâ a-äm-sc-bpw I-h- p-sh- p- -h-cm-bn-cp- p A-d- _n-i-sf- v ]-d-ª-tãm. A-Xn-ep-]-cn A-sXm-cp A-`n-am-\ {]-iv -\-am-bn Iq-Sn I-W- m- n-b-h-cm-bn-cp- p A-hÀ. ]-e-t m-gpw A-h-cp-sS kr-jv-sn-iä I-Av-_m-e-b- nâ {]-ZÀ-in- n- p- I-bpw A-Xn-t\m-Sv a-õ-cn- p-hm³ I-cp- p-å- -hcmcm-sw v - ]-cn-tim-[n- p-hm³ Im- n-cn- p-i-bpw sn- pam-bn-cp- p. Im-c-Ww a-dp-]-sn ]-d-bm³ I-gn-hp-Å-hÀ D-S³ X-s A-h-cp-sS kr-jv-sn-bp-am-bn I-Av-_m-e-b- n-te- v F- p- -Xm-Wv. A- -hà D-ïm- n-b K-Zy-]-Zy- Ä. ]-t A-hÀ- v X-s t_m-[y-am-bn C-Xv IzpÀ-B- \n-\v ]-I-c-am-bn sh- m³ ]-äp- H- -à F- v. F- n-epw ho-ïpw A-hÀ hn-aà-i-\-hpam-bn cw-k-s - n-b-t mä IzpÀ-B³ A-htcm-Sv ]-d-ªp. \n- Ä IzpÀ-B-\n-s\ t]m-- se H-cp th-z-{k-ùw sim-ïp-h-tc-ï-xn-ã. ]-I-cw ]- v A-[ym-b- -sf- n-epw sim-ïph-cq F- v. ""A-X-Ã, A-t±-lw A-Xv si-«n- -a- p F- m-twm A-hÀ ]-d-bp- -Xv? ]-d-bp-i: F- mâ C-Xp-t]-se-bp-Å ]- v A-²ym-b- Ä N-a- p-ïm- n-b-xv \n- Ä sim-ïv h-cq. A-Ãm-lp-hn-\v ]p-d-sa \n- Ä- v km-[n- p- - h-sc-sb-ãmw \n- Ä hn-fn- p-sim-åp-i-bpw sn- p-i. \n- Ä k-xy-hm³-am-cm-sw- nâ. A-h-cm-cpw \n- -fp-ss hn-fn- v D- -cw \Â-Inbn-sÃ- nâ, A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ A-dn-thm-Sv Iq-Sn am-{x-am-wv C-Xv A-h-X-cn- n- -s -«n-«p-å-sx- pw, A-h-\-Ãm-sX bm-sxm-cp ssz-h-hp-an-sã- pw \n- Ä a-\-ên-em- p-i. C-\n-sb- n-epw \n- Ä Io-gv-s]-Sm³ k- -²-cm-tWm?'' (13) IzpÀ-B³ ho-ïpw A-h-sc sh-ãp-hn-fn- p. H-cp th-z-{k-ù-a-ã, ]- v A-[ym-b- - f-ã, IzpÀ-B³ ssz-hn-i-a-sã- m-wv \n- Ä hm-zn- p- -sx- nâ IzpÀ-B-\n-se H-cp A-[ym-b- n-\p Xp-ey-am-b H-c-[ym-b-sa- n-epw sim-ïp-h-cm³. C- pw IzpÀ-B-\n-s\ hn-aà-in- p- -hà- m-bn B h-n-\w C-hn-sS k-aà- n- p- p. ]-Xn-\m-ep \q-äm-ïp-i-fm-bn D- -cw e-`n- m-sx B-hÀ- n- p-sim-ïn-cn- p- B h-n-\w. ""A-X-Ã, A-t±-lw (\-_n) A-Xv si- «n- -a- -Xm-Wv F- m-twm A-hÀ ]-d-bp- -Xv? (\-_n-tb,) ]-d-bp-i: F- mâ A-Xn-\v Xp-eyam-b H-cp A-[ym-bw \n- Ä sim-ïp h-cq. A-Ãm-lp-hn-\v ]p-d-sa \n- Ä- v km-[n- p- - h-sc-sb-ãmw hn-fn- p-sim-åp-i-bpw sn- p-i. \n- Ä k-xy-hm³-am-cm-sw- nâ.'' (14) \-½p-sS Zm-k-\v \mw A-h-X-cn- n- p-sim- Sp- -Xn-s\(hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B-s\)]-än \n- Ä kw-i-bm-ep- -fm-sw- nâ A-Xn-tâ-Xv t]m-- ep-å H-cp A-[ym-b-sa- n-epw \n- Ä simïp-h-cn-i. A-Ãm-lp-hn-\v ]p-d-sa \n- Ä- p-å k-lm-bn-i-tf-bpw hn-fn- p-sim-åp-i. \n- Ä k-xy-hm³-am-cm-sw- nâ (A-Xm- W-tÃm th-ï-xv). \n- Ä- -Xv sn- m³ I-gn-ªn-sÃ- nâ \n- Ä- -Xv H-cn- -epw sn- m³ I-gn-bp-I-bp-an-Ã. a-\p-jy-cpw I-Ãp-I-fpw C-Ô-\-am-bn I- n- -s -Sp- \-c-im-kv-\n-sb \n- Ä Im- p-kq- n- p-sim-åp-i. k-xy-\ntj-[n-iä- p-th-ïn H-cp- n-sh- -s -«-Xm-Ip- p A-Xv.'' (15) ½ Ip-dn- p-iä 1. _m-e-ssi-c-fn hn-úm-\-tim-iw, kw- Øm-\ _m-e-km-ln-xy C³-Ìn-äyq-«v, Xn-cp-h- \- -]p-cw, t]-pv A-tX-]p-kv-X-Iw t]-pv A-tX-]p-kv-X-Iw t]-pv IzpÀ-B³ 5:90, IzpÀ-B-\n-sâ au-en-i-x `m-kw 1, Fw.Fw A-Iv-_À, t]-pv 60þ IzpÀ-B³ 41: C-amw _p-jm-cn C-Xv hn-i-z-am-bn tc-js -Sp- n-bn-«p-ïv. 8. ko-d- p C-_v-\p ln-imw. 9. ko-d- p C-_v-\p ln-imw. 10. IzpÀ-B³ 74:18-þ X-lv-Zo-_p ko-d- n C-_v-\p ln-imw. 12. IzpÀ-B³ 17: IzpÀ-B³ 11:13, IzpÀ-B³ 10: IzpÀ-B³ 2:23,24. 36

35 D½p AZo_v, Imbw-Ipfw tzh-zm-kn-iä: Ncn-{Xhpw ZÀi-\hpw s] - n-sâ am-\- n-\v- \-½p-sS cm-py- v- C-s - p hn-e-bp-sï- -dn-bp- -Xn-\v- Zn-\w {]-Xn-bp-Å hmà- -I-fpw I -ap- nâ \-S- p- kw-`-h- -fpw X-s [m-cm-fw. kv-{xo kp-c- - m-bp-å \n-b-a- Ä- v- ]-ª-an- Ãm- n-s- m-wv- ]o-u-\- -fp-ss _m-lp-ey-hp-sa- -Xm-Wv- G-sd hn-tcm-[m-`m-kw. N-Xn- p-gn-sbm-cp- n Im- n-cn- p- th-«-\m-bv- Ä- v ]n- p ss]-x- -fpw Iu-am-c- m-cn-i-fpw ho-«-½-am-cp-sam-s X- -fp-ss hn-im-c- -Å-en-\v- A-dp-Xn h-cp- m³ D-]-tbm-Kn- m-hp- D-]-I-c-W- Ä am-{x-am-wn- v-. t]-]n-sn- sx-cp-hp \m-bv- -sf A-\p-I-cn- p- -hà ho- «n-\-i- pw D-ïm-b-tXm-sS A-I-hpw ]p-d-hpw H-cp-t]m-se t]-sn-kz-]v-\-am-wn- v- kv-{xo- v-. t\m-«p-si-«p-iä- p- ap-ifnâ ]-Sp- p-bà- p- hn-hm-l Po-hn-X-hpw kzmà- -I tam-l- Ä `-cn- p- Ip-Spw-_ Po-hn-X-hpw C-W-bp-sS lr-z-b- n-te- n-d- m- `m-cym-`à-xr _-Ô-hp-sa-Ãmw Zp-Ê-l-am- p- Po-hn-X- Ä sim- pw sim-e-hn-fn- pw N-Xn- p-gn-sbm-cp- n Im- n-cn- p- th-«-\m-bv - Ä- v ]n- p ss]-x- -fpw Iu-am-c- m-cn-i-fpw ho-«-½am-cp-sam-s X- -fp-ss hn-im-c- -Å-en-\v- A-dp-Xn h-cp- m³ D-]-tbm-Kn- m-hp- D-]-I-c-W- Ä am- {X-am-Wn- v -. t]-]n-sn- sx-cp-hp \m-bv - -sf A-\p-I-cn- p- -hà ho-«n-\-i- pw D-ïm-b-tXm-sS A-I-hpw ]pd-hpw H-cp-t]m-se t]-sn-kz-]v -\-am-wn- v - kv -{Xo- v -. am-\p-jn-i aq-ey- -fn-ep-ïm-b A-]-N-b-s Xp-d- p Im-Wn- p- p. kv-{xo- v- kz- w i-co-c- n-\- p-d-t - v- hn-e-bn-ãm- 37

36 - \m-co-th-«a-säm-cp cq-]- n-epw `m-h- n-epw BÀ-j `m-c-x N-cn-{X- nâ F-XnÀ- p-i-tf-xp-an-ãm-sx B-tLmjn- -s -«n-cp- p F- h-kv-xp-x C-c-bm- -s -ts-ï-h-fm-wv- kv-{xo-sb- v - D-d- p hn-iz-kn- n-cp-s m-cp kw-kv Im-c- n-sâ C-t A-ä- p-å-hà X-s -bm-wv - \-½-fp-sa- m-wv - kq-nn- n- p- -Xv -. ssz-h- n-\p th-ïn-sb- \m-sy- nâ ta-em-f-cp-ss \o-nm-h-iy- Ä- m-bn s]- n-s\ N-a-s m-cp- n-b `q-x-im-e-am-wv - `m-c-x- n-\p-å- Xv -. p-dn- p-å I-Y-I-fn k-aq-l- nâ G-sd {]-Nm-cw e-`n- I-Y a-säm- m-wv-. tz-hm-kp-c bp-²- nâ a-c-w-s -«A-kp-c- m--cp-ss `m-cyamà Iq-«-am-bn _-emâ-kw-kw sn- -s -«p. A-h-sc-Ãmw Iq-Sn C-{µ-s\ sn- v- I-ïv- k- - S-ap-WÀ- p-i-bpw X- -sf- p sn- -W-sa- v- B-cm-bp-I-bpw sn-bv-xp. cm-pm- ³-am- C- m-e- v- ]o-un- n- -s -Sp- kv-{xo-i-fp-ss \n-e-hn-fn-iä tiä- p-t¼mä H- -b-s- p-t]m--- Ip- A-h-k-c-hm-Z sf-iy-zmà-vy- mà A-h-K-Wn- p-hn-sp- {]-iv-\- Ä G-sd-bm-Wv-. N-cn-{X- nâ th-cp-i-fp-å, H-cp Xp-Ån sh- Å-hpw h-f-hpw In-«n-bm sh-«n-bn-«n-s- v- s] m--«n-ap-f- p- hn-j hr- -am-wv- s]- -th-«-sb- -Xv-v- A-dn-bm- -Xp-sIm-ïm-Wv- H-cp k-a-cw sim-tïm tcm-j- nâ c-ïp ap-{zm-hm-iyw hn-fn sim-tïm ]p-ãp-t]m-se em-l-h- nâ ]n-gp-sx-dn-bm-hp- -Xm-Wv- kv-{xo ]o-u-\- -fpsa- v- ]-e-cpw sx-äp-[-cn- p- -Xv-. \m-co-th-«a-säm-cp cq-]- n-epw `m-h- nepw BÀ-j `m-c-x N-cn-{X- nâ F-XnÀ- p- I-tf-Xp-an-Ãm-sX B-tLm-jn- -s -«n-cp- p F- h-kv-xp-x C-c-bm- -s -ts-ï-h-fm-wvkv-{xo-sb- v- D-d- p hn-iz-kn- n-cp-s m-cp kwkv-im-c- n-sâ C-t A-ä- p-å-hà X-s - bm-wv- \-½-fp-sa- m-wv- kq-nn- n- p- -Xv-. ssz-h- n-\p th-ïn-sb- \m-sy- nâ ta-emf-cp-ss \o-nm-h-iy- Ä- m-bn s]- n-s\ N-as m-cp- n-b `q-x-im-e-am-wv- `m-c-x- n-\p-å-xv-. A-YÀ-h th-z Im-ew ap-x-te \n-e-\n- ncp- H-cp Zp-cm-Nm-c-am-Wv- tz-h-zm-kn k-{¼- Zm-bw. iq-{z kv-{xo-i-fm-wv- tz-h³-am-cp-ss Zm-kn-I-fm-bn t -{X- -fn-te- v- AÀ-]n- -s - «n-cp- -Xv-. tz-h-zm-kn-i-fm-b-hà tz-h³-am-cp-ss `q-an-bn-se {]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-bn I-W- m- -s -«ncp- k-hà-w-cp-ss B-h-iy- -sf-ãmw F-Ãm AÀ- - n-epw \n-d-th-än-s m-sp- m³ hn-[n- -s -«-h-cm-bn-cp- p. th-iy-i-tf- mä Iq-Sn-b Øm-\-tam ]-cn-k-w-\-tbm e-`n- n-cp- -h-cmbn-cp- n-ã tz-h-zm-kn-iä. k-aq-l- nâ A-h- K-Wn- -s -«n-cp- hn-`m-k- -fnâ \n- p-å kv-{xo-i-sf `w-kn-bp-såm-cp t]-cn-\p Io-gn A-Wn-\n-c- n-s m-ïp-å th-iym-hr- n-bpss Øm-]-\-hÂ- -c-ww am-{x-am-bn-cp- p tzh-zm-kn k-{¼-zm-bw. tz-h-zm-kn-i-fp-ss DÂ-]- n-sb- p-dn- v- H- n-e-[n-iw sf-xn-ly- Ä \n-e-\nâ- p- p. {io-ir-jv-w-sâ a-c-w-ti-jw \n-cm-ew-_-cm-b ]-Xn-\m-dm-bn-cw (16000) `m-cy-amà tz-h-zm-kn-ifm-bn am-dn F- -Xm-Wv- H-cp I-Y. a-säm-cp I-Yb-\p-k-cn- -v-, km-k-]p-{xn-am-sc-sb-ãmw `-c-x³ X-sâ `m-cy-am-cm- p-hm-\m-bn Iq-«n-s m-ïp-hcn-i-bpw A-Xn H-cmÄ- v - am-{xw `m-cym-]-z-hn \Â-Ip-I-bpw _m- n-bp-å-h-sc F-«p K-W- - fm-bn Xn-cn- v- t -{X- -fnâ th-iym-hr- n- v- \n-tbm-kn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. C-h-cm-W-s{X tz-h-zm-kn-iä. F- mâ, tz-h-zm-kn-i-fp-ss DÂ-]- n-sbcp-ss A-c-a-\-I-fn-tem tz-hm-e-b- -fn-tem Xm-a-kn- v- th-iym-hr- n \-S- p-hm³ C-{µ³ A-h-sc D-]-tZ-in- p. k-½m-\- -fp-am-bn h-cp- -h-sc am-{x-ta kzo-i-cn-t -ï-xp-åq-sh- pw X- Ä- p- e-`n- p- k-½m-\- -fnâ \n- v- I- p-im-en-iä, [m-\y- Ä, kzà-ww F- n-h {_m-ò-wà- v \Â-I-W-sa- pw Iq-Sn C-{µ³ A-h-tcm-Sv- ]-d-ªp. Rm-b-dm-gv-N-tXmdpw kp-k-ô-ssx-e- Ä ]q-in Ip-fn- p-i-bpw A-Xn-\p-ti-jw hm-k-\-{z-hy- Ä D-]-tbm-Kn- v- H-cp- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xv- A-hÀ Im-a-tZ-h-s\ B-cm-[n- p-sim-ïn-cp- p. Im-a-tZ-h-sâ Hm-tcm A-h-b-h- -fpw kv-]à-in- p-sim-ïp-å Cu B-cm-[-\ ]-Xn-aq- p am-kw Xp-SÀ- p. ]-Xn-\memw am-k- nâ kp-k-ô-{z-hy- -fm-epw ]p- -jv-]- -fm-epw B-`-c-W- -fm-epw a-t\m-l-c- -fm-b ]-c-h-xm-\n-i-fm-bpw A-e- -cn- p-simïv- Im-a-tZ-h-\p-th-ïn sa- H-cp- p-i-bpw ti-jw A-hÀ C- -s\ {]m-à- n- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp: "tl hn-jv-wp, Im-a-hpw ti-i-h-\pam-bn R- -sfm-cp hy-xym-k-hpw Im-Wp- n-ã. A- v- I-a-e-s D-t]- n- m- -Xp-t]m-se R- -sf-bpw D-t]- n- -cp-tx. R- -fp-ss i-co-cw A- v- kzo-i-cn- m-epw. "hn-jv-wp `-Khm³ A-h-cn {]-km-zn- p-i-bpw Im-a- nsâ kp-hà-w cq-]w {_m-ò-wà- p \Â-Ip-Ibpw sn-bv-xp. A- p-ap-xâ Rm-b-dm-gv-N-IÄ txm-dpw {_m-ò-wà- p--th-ïn ]-«p-sa- -sbmcp- n tz-h-zm-kn-iä Im- n-cn- pw. A-hÀ tzh-zm-kn-iä- v - H-cp k-½m-\-hpw sim-sp-t - ï-xn-ã. Im-a- n-sâ kp-hà-w cq-]w Øn-Xn sn- p- {_m-ò-wà- v- tz-h-zm-kn-iä k-½m- 38

37 \- Ä \Â-I-Ww. a-lm-`m-c-x -cm-am-b-w I-Y-IÄ \-ap- v- hy-à-am- n- -cp- -X -\p-k-cn- v BÀ-j-`m-c-X k-aq-l- nâ tzh-zm-kn-iä H-cp A-hn-`m-Py L-S-Iw X-s - -bm-bn-cp- p. kw-kv-im-c- n-sâ-bpw ]m-c-¼-cy- n-sâ-bp-sa-ãmw t]-cnâ t¾-o Zp-cm- Nm-c- Ä ]p-\-cp-öo-hn- n- m-\p-å sim-ïp-]n-sn- {i-a- Ä \-S- p- p F- -Xn- \v- sx-fn-hm-wv- C- y-bn-se an- kw- Øm-\- -fn-epw C- pw tz-h-zm-kn k-{¼- Zm-bw t]m-ep-å kv-{xo hn-cp-² D-]m--k-\- IÄ hm-zy-ta-f- -fp-ss A-I-¼-Sn-tbm-sS B-tLm-jn- -s -Sp- p F- -Xv-. tz-h-zm-kn-bm-im³ hn-[n- -s -«[-\p F- s] -Ip-«n X-sâ A-\p-`hw ]- p-h-bv- p- -Xv- t\m- p-i: "¹-kv- Sp I-gn-ªv- tim-f-pnâ t]m-i-w-sa- B-{K-l-am-bn-cp- p F-\n- v-. F- mâ ]Tn- n- m³ ]-W-an-Ãm- -Xn-\m tzh-zm-kn B-bm a-xn-sb- v- A-ѳ.' \n-d-i- p-i-tfm-ss [-\p X-sâ I-Y ]-d-bpt¼mä t -{X-\-S-bn-tem A-c-a-\-bn-tem kzà-wm-`-c-w hn-`q-jn-x-bm-bn ssz-h- - sf tk-hn- p- -h-cp-ss-b-ã, ap-j- p ]q- -in-b Nm-b- Ä- v ap-i-fnâ \nà-po-h-amsbm-cp ]p- n-cn ]-SÀ- n \n-êm-c hn-e-bv- v- X- -fp-ss i-co-cw hnâ- p- -h-cp-ss I-e- n-b lr-z-b- -fm-wv- \-ap- v- HmÀ-a h-cn-i. C-sXm-cp H-ä-s -«kw-`-h-a-ã. IÀ- Wm-S-I, X-an-gv-\m-Sv-, a-lm-cm-jv-{s B-{Ô Xp-S- n-b C³-Uy-bn-se an- kw-øm-\- -fn-epw sim-«pw Ip-c-h-bp-am-bn h-en-b B-tLm-j-t m-ss-bm-wv- am-l-]uà-wan-sb h-c-thâ- p -Xv-. A- m-wv- Z-cn-{Z Ip-Spw-_- nâ s] -Ip-«n-IÄ X- -fpss i-co-cw t\à- -bm- p- -Xv  IÀ-Wm-S-I kà- mà tz-h- Zm-kn k-{¼-zm-bw \n-tcm-[n-s - n-epw C- pw IÀ-Wm-S-I-bn-se ]-e DÄ-{]-tZ-i- -fn-epw h-en-b B-tLm-j-am-bn X-s A-Xv- \-S- p- p-ïv-. ]-g-b {]-Xm-]w si-sm-sx kq- n- m³ \m-«nâ tz-h-zmkn-iä th-w-sa- v- itn- p- {]-am-wnam-cpw k-po-h-am-wv-. ssz-h- n-\v- Zm-kns -Sp-I F- -Xn-sâ a-d-hnâ \m-«n-se b-p-am-\³-amà- m-wv- ]n- o-sv- C-h-cp-sS Zm-ky-th-e F-Ãm AÀ- - n-epw. IÀ-Wm-S-I-bn-se ]-e Ø-e- pw tz-h-zm-kn-bm-im³ hn-[n- -s -«[-\p F- s] -Ip-«n X-sâ A-\p-`-hw ]- p-h-bv- p- -Xv- t\m- p-i: "¹-kv- Sp I-gn-ªv- tim-f-pnâ t]m-i-wsa- B-{K-l-am-bn-cp- p F-\n- v-. F- mâ ]Tn- n- m³ ]-W-an-Ãm- - Xn-\m tz-h-zm-kn B-bm a-xn-sb- v- A-ѳ.' \n-d-i- p-i-tfm-ss [-\p X-sâ I-Y ]-d-bp-t¼mä t -{X-\-Sbn-tem A-c-a-\-bn-tem kzà-wm-`-c-w hn-`q-jn-x-bm-bn ssz-h- -sf tkhn- p- -h-cp-ss-b-ã, ap-j- p ]q- -in-b Nm-b- Ä- v ap-i-fnâ \nà-po-ham-sbm-cp ]p- n-cn ]-SÀ- n \n-êm-c hn-e-bv - v - X- -fp-ss i-co-cw hnâ- p- -h-cp-ss I-e- n-b lr-z-b- -fm-wv- \-ap- v - HmÀ-a h-cn-i. "B-\-s m-ï'(b-\- p-fw)bnâ Ip-fn- n- m-wv- s] -Ip-«n-I-sf {io-tim-hnen-te- v- B-\-bn- p- -Xv-. tz-h-zm-knbm-  N-S- v- I-gn-ªm ]q- -fpw hn-hn-[ hà-w- -fn-ep-å s]m-sn-i-fpw sim-ïv- "lp-zm lp-zm' F- p-d-s hn-fn- p-iq-hn kv-{xo-iä t -{X- nte- v- Hm-Sn-sb- p- p. t -{X- nâ {]-Xn-jv-T-bp-sS ]p-d-in-em-wv- C-h-cp-sS B-cm-[-\. ]-g-hpw ]q- -fpw tim-]- t m-ss X-d-bn B-ª-Sn- m-wv- {] m-à- -\. ap-¼v- tz-h-zm-kn-bm- -s -«- h-cm-wv- C- -s\-sb- p- kv-{xo-ifnâ `q-cn-`m-k-hpw. N-S- v- I-gn-ªm C-hÀ- v a-s- mw. t\à- -bm- -s -Sp- s] -Ip-«n-IÄ ]q-p I-gn-bp- -txm-ss \m-«p-{]-am-wn-am-cp-ss tnm-zyw sn- -s - «p-iq-sm- A-h-Im-i-am-bn- o-cp- p! b-p-am-\-sc kw-{]o-x-cm- n-s m-ïp-å Zm-ky-hr- n-bmâ a- n-b Po-hn-X-hngp- pw t]-dn-bm-wv- Cu tz-h-zm-kn-iä in-jv-s-im-ew I-gn-t -ï-xv-. C-fw {]m-b- m-cm-b ]p-xn-b tz-h- Zm-kn-I-fp-sS B-K-a-\-t m-ss D-]-tbm- Kn- -s -«v- B-tcm-Kyw -bn- -hà ]p-- -Xn-b B-h-iy- m-sc tx-sn sx-cp-hnte- n-d- p- p. C-h-cn ]-e-cpw F- v-. sf.hn hm-l-ià Iq-Sn-bm-sW- m-wvtz-h-zm-kn-iä- n-s-bnâ {]-hà- n-h- p- F³.Pn.H-I-fp-sS I-sï- Â. ssz-h- -fp-ss Im-hÂ- mà `-cn-- p- A-¼-e- -fpw sx-cp-hnâ h-esbm-cp- n Im- n-cn- p- km-aq-ln-it{zm-ln-i-fp-sa-ãmw tz-h-zm-kn-iä- v- H-cp t]m-se- -s -bm-wv-. F-Ãm-hÀ- pw th-ï-xv- A-h-cp-sS i-co-c-am-bncn-s, {]m-b-ta-dpw txm-dpw BÀ- pw th-ïm- -h-cm-bn A-hÀ am-dp-sa- ncn-s, ]-in-b-s- m³ BÀ- pw F-t mgpw h-g-t -ïn-h-cp-sa- n-cn-s kz-]v- \w Im-Wm³ `m-hn-sbm- n-ãm- -h-cmbn, \-S-h-gn-I-fn ]p-gp-h-cn- v- Xo-cm³ am-{xw hn-[n- -s -«-h-cm-wv- tz-h-zm-kn- IÄ. ]o-un- n- -s -Sp- kv-{xo-i-fp-ss F- m-e-s -bpw {]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-Wv- C³-Uy-bn tz-h-zm-kn-iä-. A-gp-In {Z-hn- A-Sn- -d-i-fnâ \n- v- ]-Sp- p-bà- n-b kw-kv-im-c- Ä-s -Ãmw G-sX- n-epw X-c- nep-å t]m-c-bv-a-i-fpw {]-iv-\- -fptz-h-zm-kn k-{¼-zm-bw \n-e-\nâ- p- p-sï- n-epw D- pw-kn a-e-bn-se ZpÀ-Km-t -{X- nem-wv- C-Xv- hn-]p-e-am-bn sim-ïm-sp- -Xv-. am-l-]u-à-w-an-bp-ss X-te- p-ap-xâ t - {X- n-te- v- B-fp-I-fp-sS H-gp- m-bn-cn- pw. A-]-cn-Nn-XÀ- v s]-s«-s - n-s -Sm-\m-hm- Du-Sp-h-gn-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv- D- pw-kn a-e-bn-se- nt -cp-i. A-hn-sS Z-cn-{Z-cm-b am-xm-]n-xm- Ä X- -fp-ss s] -Ip-«n-I-fp-am-bn F- p- p. t -{X- n-\-i-s H-cp ap-dn-bn-em-wv- ]q--- P-IÄ \-S- p- -Xv-. ]q-pn- X-fn-I-bn E-Xp-a-Xn-I-fm-b s] -Ip-«n-I-sf \-Kv-\-cm-bn C-cp- n-bm-wv- ]q-p \nà-h-ln- p- -Xv-. am- Xm-]n-Xm- -fpw t -{X `m-c-hm-ln-i-fpw ]q--- Pm-cn-I-fpw am-{x-am-wn-hn-ss D-ïm-hp-I. A-\y- À- v- {]-th-i-\w \n-tcm-[n- n-cn- p- p. ]p --Wy-XoÀ- -am-bn hn-ti-jn- n- -s -Sp- kv{xo 39

38 sa-ãmw D-ïm-bn-cn- p-sa- -Xv-v- hy-à-am-wv-. ssew-kn-i-x-sb X-a-kv-I-cn- p- -h-cpw th-iymhr- n-sb a-x-hâ- -cn- p- -h-cp-sa-ãmw a-\pjy-\nà-an-i-x-am-b B-i-b- -sf ssz-hn-i-hâ- -I-cn- p- -hà am-{x-am-wv-. a-xw B-Wn-\p th-ïn-tbm s]- n-\p th-ïn-tbm A-sÃ- pw a-\p-jy-ip-e- n-sâ ap-gp-h³ \- -bv- p thïn-bm-sw- pw a-\-ên-em- m³ a-sn- p- -hà b-ymà- ssz-h- n-sâ IÂ-]-\-IÄ Xn-ckv-I-cn- p- n-s-t m-fw Im-ew B-Wp am-dp-sat m s]- n-sâ A-h-Ø am-dp-sa-t m hn-nmcn- m³ bm-sxm-cp \nà-hm-l-hp-an-ã. A-Xn-\m-em-Wv- ssz-hn-i a-x-am-b C-kvemw hn-`m-h-\w sn- p- [mà-an-i-x-bn-eq- n-b aq-eym-[n-jv-tn-x B-ZÀ-i- n-te- v- \-½p-sS {i-² \mw Xn-cn-t -ï-xv-. kv-{xo B-cm-Wv- F- p hn-i-zo-i-cn- p- n-s- v- \n- v- X-s hyà-am-wv- C-kv-emw kv-{xo- v- \Â-In-b Øm-\- hpw a-l-xz-hpw. "kv-{xo-sb-bpw ]p-cp-j-s\-bpw H-tc B-ßm-hn \n- v- kr-jv-sn- p' F- {]-Jym-]-\-t m-ss enw-km-sn-øm-\- n-ep-å hn-th-n-\-s hn-ip-² IzpÀ-B³ X- p-s- p- I-bm-Wv- sn- p- -Xv-v-. s]- n-\v- Po-hn- m-\p-å A-h-Im-iw ap-xâ t\-sn-s m-sp- p-sim-ïva-i-fm-bpw `m-cy-bm-bpw D-½-bm-bpw A- -s\ Po-hn-X- n-sâ F-Ãm Xp-d-I-fn-epw AÀ-l-am-b Øm-\w \Â-In C-kv-emw kv-{xo-i-sf B-Z-cn- p-i-bm-wv- sn-bv-x-xv-. s]- n-s\ ssz-h- n-sâ Zm-kn-sb- t]-cnâ B-Wn-sâ th-iy-bm- p- hr- nsi-«hy-`n-nm-c k-{¼-zm-b- -sf \n-in-x hn-aà-- i-\- n-\v- hn-t[-b-am- p- C-kv-emw a-\p-jy {]-Ir-Xn- n-w- m- I-\ym-kv-{Xo/ {_-Ò-Ncy k-{¼-zm-b- -sf-bpw \n-cm-i-cn- p- p. Po-hn-X-t m-sv- a-ã-sn- m-\m-bn s]- n-s\ A-¼-e- -fn-epw ]-Ån-I-fn-epw D-t]- n- p- bp-àn-c-ln-x, kv-{xo hn-cp-² Im-gv-N- m-sp-itfm-sv- H-cp X-c- n-epw cm-pn- p X- m-dm-hm- h-bm-wv- C-kv-em-an-se \n-b-a- Ä. am-xm-]n--xm-- -fp-ss A-f-h-ä hm-õ-ey- n-\v- AÀ-l-X-bp- Å-h-fpw k-tlm-z-c- -fp-ss ]-cn-k-w-\-bnâ C-S-ap-Å-h-fpw C-W-bp-sS kv-t\-l- n-\pw Im-cp-Wy- n-\pw A-h-Im-i-ap-Å-h-fpw a- - fp-ss ]-cn-n-c-ww \n-tj-[n- -s -«p-iq-sm- -h-fp-am-wv- C-kv-em-an kv-{xo. A-h-fpsS Po-hn-X-s F-fp- -am- m³ th-ïn, A-hÄ-s -Xn-sc-bp-Å Nq-j-W- -fp-ss ap-\-sbm-sn- m³ th-ïn A-h-sf kr-jv-sn- ssz-hw D-]-tZ-in- IÂ-]-\-IÄ Po-hn-X- nâ ]m--en- p- p A-hÄ. C-kv-em-an kv-{xo tz-h-zm-kn-b-ã; ssz-h- n-sâ b-ymà-- s]- n-s\ ssz-h- n-sâ Zm-kn-sb- t]-cnâ B-Wn-sâ th-iy-bm- p- hr- n-si-«hy-`n-nm-c k-{¼-zm-b- - sf \n-in-x hn-aà-i-\- n-\v - hn-t[-b-am- p- C-kv -emw a-\p-jy {]-Ir-Xn- n- W- m- I-\ym-kv-{Xo/ {_-Ò-N-cy k-{¼-zm-b- -sf-bpw \n-cm-i-cn- p- p. Po-hn-X-t m-sv- a-ã-sn- m-\m-bn s]- n-s\ A-¼-e- -fn-epw ]-Ån-I-fn-epw D-t]- n- p- bp-àn-c-ln-x, kv -{Xo hn-cp-² Im-gv -N- m-sp-i-tfm-sv - H-cp X-c- nepw cm-pn- p X- m-dm-hm- -h-bm-wv- C-kv -em-an-se \n-b-a- Ä. Zm-kn-sb- ]-Z-hn-bp-Å-h-fm-Wv-. \-½p-sS ti-c-f-hpw a-[y-im-e-l-«- nâ tz-h-zm-ko k-{¼-zm-b- n-sâ _o-`â-k-xbv- v h-f-sc h-en-b A-f-hn km- yw h-ln- n-«p-ïv. ti-c-f- n-te- v Ip-Sn-tb-dn-b B-cy-{_m-Ò-W-cn-eq-sS a-[y-im-e-l-«- nâ kw-kv-ir-x- n-sâ-bpw X-an-gn-sâ-bpw k- - c-am-bn hn-i-kn- p-h-cn-i-bpw ]nâ-im-e- v a-e-bm-f `m-j-bp-ss P- - n-\p \n-an- -am-bn- o-cp-i-bpw sn-bv-x a-wn-{]-hm-f km-ln-xy- n-sâ G-dn-b-Iq-dpw tz-h-zm-ko hà-w-\-iä sim-ïm-wv \n-d-ªp-\nâ- p- -Xv. {]-ap-j N-cn-{X-Im-c-\m-b F. {io-[-c-ta-t\m³ A-t±l- n-sâ "ti-c-f N-cn-{X-inÂ-]n-IÄ' (Un. kn. _p-iv-kv) F- ]p-kv-x-i- nâ "D- nbm-sn' F- A-[ym-b- nâ ti-c-f- n-sâ tz-h-zm-ko A-\p-`-h- -fn-te- v sh-fn- w hoip- p-ïv. A-t±-lw F-gp-Xn: "kn-ôp-\-zo-x-s kw-kv-im-c-t m-fw (_n.kn aq- mw k-l- {k-hà-jw) ]-g- -ap-ïv tz-h-zm-ko {]-Øm- \- n-\v. tam-l³-spm-zm-tcm-bnâ \n- pw I-ïp-In-«n-b ]p-cm-h-kv-xp- -fnâ-s]-«sh- -e- n-ep-å \À- -In-bp-sS cq-]w A-Xn-\p sxfn-hp \Â-Ip- p. Z- n-tw- y-bn-em-i-s«, {Inkv-Xm-_v-Z- n-sâ B-Zn-i-X-I- -fnâ-x-s tz-h-zm-ko-hà-kw k-ap-zm-b- nâ km-am-\ym-- [n-i-am-b kzm-[o-\w sn-ep- n-bn-cp- p. kw- L-Im-e-s X-an-gv-Ir-Xn-I-fn A-h-sc- pdn- p-å ]-cm-aà-i- -fp-ïv. ]p-d-\m-\q-dn-se H-cp Km-\w "a-t\m-l-c-am-b ]m-{x- -fnâ b-h- m-cmâ sim-ïp-h-c-s -«io-x-f-kp-c-`n-e-hpw am-[p-cy-an-b- -Xp-am-b ho-ªv, Xn-f- p- ssi-h-f-i-f-wn-ª bp-h-xn-iä \o-«p- kphà-w N-j-I- -fnâ-\n- p \n-xy-hpw ]m-\w sn-bv-xn-cp- -Xn-s\' hà-wn- p- p. C-Xv tzh-zm-ko k-{¼-zm-bw Ip-e-hr- n-bm-bn kzo-icn- bp-h-xn-i-sf Ip-dn- p-å kq-n-\-bm-sw- v A-\p-am-\n- p- -Xn sx-än-ã. kw-l-im-e- n-\p-ti-j-ap-å C-Xn-lm-k-Im-hy- -fm-b 40

39 - ti-c-f- nâ tz-h-zm-ko k-{¼-zm-bw kw-l-im-e- n-\p sxm-«n- p-dw X-s \n-e-hnâ h- n-cn- -Ww. Im-c-Ww, Nne- -Xn-Im-cw ti-c-f- n-se H-cp tn-c-cm- P-Ip-am-c³ Cu Im-e-L-«- nâ c-nn- Ir-Xn-bm-Wv. c-ïmw tn-c-km-{am-py- nsâ Øm-]-I-\m-b Ip-e-ti-J-c B-gv hmà (800þ-820 F.Un) X-sâ c-ïp ]p- {Xn-am-sc {io-cw-kw-t -{X- nâ tz-h- Zm-kn-am-cm-bn A-Sn-b-d-h- p F- m-wp tiä-hn-\. tn-c-am³ s]-cp-amä \m-b- \m-cp-ss (820þ-844) "B-Zn-bp-e' in-h-sâ t\-sc \À- -In- p-å kv -t\-l-s - p-dn- p ]-cm-aà-in- p- p. \m-â H-cp ]-Xn-Xz-hpw A- v A-Xn-\v IÂ-]n-- -s -«n-cp- n-ã F- -Xm-Wv. Z- n-tw³- Uy ap-gp-h³ hym-]n- `-àn-{]-øm-\w Cu k-{¼-zm-b- n-sâ hà-[n- p-h-cp- P-\-k- ½n-Xn- v A-\p-Iq-e-am-b H-cp A- -co- w kr-jv-sn- m³ H-cp-th-f k-lm-bn- n-cn- -Ww. hm-kv-x-h- nâ cm-p-io-b ]p-cp-j³-am-cpw {]-`p-pm-{x-cpw X- -fp-ss ]p-{xn-am-sc tz-h- Zm-kn-am-cm-bn t -{X- Ä- v A-Sn-b-d h-bv- p- -Xn-epw t -{X- -fnâ A-hÀ \-S- p- tk-h-\- Ä- p ]m-cn-txm-jn-i- Ä hm-cn-t m-cn \Â-Ip- -Xn-epw ]-c-kv-]-cw a-õ-cn- p-i-bm-bn-cp- p. tz-h-zm-kn-iä- p \n-ý-bn- n-«p-å tpm-en t -{X- nâ \r- w, kw-ko-xw F- o ]-cn-]m-sn-iä \-S- n t -{X-`-c-W- n-\m-h-iy-am-b ]-Ww kw-`-cn- p-i F- -Xm-Wv. `q-hp-s-a-i-fm-bn am-dn-b-h-cpw A-e-k-Pohn-Xw \-bn- n-cp- -h-cp-am-b {_m-ò-w-hà-k- n-\v Cu hn-`m-k- nâ-s -«kv-{xo-i-fp-ss t\-sc P-\n- I-¼w A-h-cp-sS-ta A-\-`-ej-Wo-b-am-b kzm-[o-\w sn-ep- m-\n-s-h-cp- n. "tx-h-sn- n' F- ]-Zw "th-iy' F- ]-Z- n-\p ]-cym-b-am-bn `-hn- p. tn-c-cm-pyw On- -`n- -am-b-txm-sp-iq-sn \m-«nâ ]-e-bn- S- m-bn cq-]w sim-ï sn-dn-b sn-dn-b cm-py- -fp-ss A-[n-]³-am-cm-b \m-sp-hm-gn-i- kv{xo Nn-e- -Xn-Im-c-hpw a-wn-ta-j-e-bpw Cu {]-Øm-\w F-{X-t m-fw km-[m-c-w-am-bncp- p-sh- p hy-à-am- p- p. Cu \À- - In-IÄ ]m-c-¼-cy-ap-d-b-\p-k-cn- m-bn-cp- p Ip-e-s m-gn-enâ {]-th-in- n-cp- -Xv. Nn-e- -Xn-Im-c- n-se \m-b-i-\m-b tim-h-e-s\ h-io-i-cn- Im- o-]p-c-s am-[-hn C-{µk-Z-Ên-se \À- -In-bm-b DÀ-h-in-bp-sS A-h-Xm-c-sa- m-wv hm-gv- -s -Sp- -Xv. hnhn-[ \r- -cq-]- -fn-epw kw-ko-x- n-epw kw-ko-txm-]-i-c-w- -fp-ss {]-tbm-k- nepw A-hÄ ]-cn-io-e-\w t\-sn. c-ïm-a-s Im-hy- n-se \m-bn-i-bm-b a-wn-ta-j-e am-xm-hm-b am-[-hn-bp-ss hr- n-x-s kzo-i-cn- p. Cu c-ïp X-an-gv C-Xn-lm-k- - fnâ-\n- pw tz-h-zm-kn-iä F.Un B-dpw G-gpw \q-äm-ïp-i-fnâ k-aq-l- nâ h-f-sc kzm-[o-\-i-àn-bp-å Øm-\- Ä A-e- -cn- n-cp- p-sh- p sx-fn-bp- p. ti-c-f- nâ tz-h-zm-ko k-{¼-zm-bw kw-l-im-e- n-\p sxm-«n- p-dw X-s \n-ehnâ h- n-cn- -Ww. Im-c-Ww, Nn-e- -Xn-Imcw ti-c-f- n-se H-cp tn-c-cm-p-ip-am-c³ Cu Im-e-L-«- nâ c-nn- Ir-Xn-bm-Wv. c-ïmw tn-c-km-{am-py- n-sâ Øm-]-I-\m- -b Ip-e-ti-J-c B-gv-hmÀ (800þ-820 F.Un) X-sâ c-ïp ]p-{xn-am-sc {io-cw-kw-t -{X- nâ tz-h-zm-kn-am-cm-bn A-Sn-b-d-h- p F- m-wp tiä-hn-\. tn-c-am³ s]-cp-amä \m-b-\m-cp-ss (820þ-844) "B-Zn-bp-e' in-h-sâ t\-sc \À- -In-- p-å kv-t\-l-s - pdn- p ]-cm-aà-in- p- p. cm-pm-hm-b Cu ssi-h-ap-\n-bpw X-sâ c-ïp ]p-{xn-am-sc Zm-kn-I-fm-bn tz-h-\p Im-gv-N-h- p F- p hn-iz-kn- -s -Sp- p. aq- ]p-{xn-sb Im- o-]p-cw t -{X- n-epw C-f-b-h-sf {io-cw-k- pw. tkm-z-c-hn-bp-ss (917þ-944) `-c-w-im-e-s tnm-ipà-im-k-\- nâ tz-h-zm-ko k-{¼-zm-b-s - p-dn- v hy-àam-b ]-cm-aà-i-ap-ïv. a-tlm-z-b-]p-c-s ]-e tn-c-cm-pm- ³-am-cp-sS im-k-\- -fpw t -{X- -fp-am-bn _-Ô-s -«\À- -In- IÄ- p ku-p-\y- Ä A-\p-h-Zn- -Xm-bn tc-j-s -Sp- p- p. D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn F.Un 11þmw \q-äm-ïn-se Xn-cp-h-Ãm Xm-{a-im-k-\- Ä Xn-cp-h-Ã-bn-se {io-h-ã-`-t -{X- nse "tx-h-sn- n-iä- v' {]-txy-iw th-x-\w \Â-In-b-Xn-s\ ]-cm-aà-in- p- p. C-XnÂ- \n-s -Ãmw hy-à-am-ip- H-cp Im-cyw B Im-e-L-«- nâ tz-h-zm-ko k-{¼-zm-bw am- \y-am-b H- m-bn I-W- m- -s -«n-cp- -Xnfpw C-h-tcm-Sp XmÂ-]-cyw Im-«n. D-bÀ- Pm- Xn- m-cm-b \-¼q-Xn-cn-am-cpw \m-sp-hm-gn-i-fpw ssew-kn-i-kw-xr-]v-xn- pw k-l-hm-k- n-\pw ]-I-c-am-bn Cu tz-h-zm-kn-i-fp-ss ]p-c-kv-ià- m-- -fm-bn- o-cp- -Xpw A-hÀ- v ]m-cn-txm-jn- I- Ä \Â-Ip- -Xpw A- -s \m-«p-\-s- mbn am-dn-. ]-Xn-aq- mw i-x-i- nâ C-hn-sS-sb- n-b sh-\o-jy³ k- m-cn-bm-b amà-t m t]m-tfm {i-²n h- w ti-c-f- nâ tz-h-zm-kn-i-fp-ss kzm-[o-\-i-àn {]-_-e-ambn-cp- p. 13þmw i-x-iw sxm-«v 15þmw i-x-iw h-sc-bp-å Im-e-L-«- nâ, A- m-e-s I-hn-IÄ c-nn- a-wn-{]-hm-f-ir-xn-i-fnâ kz- -am-bpw tz-h-zm-kn-i-fp-ss ]p-c-kv-ià- m- -fm-b cm-p-hw-i-p-cp-ss \nà-_--ô- m-epw Cu hà-k- nâ-s]-«ioà- n-ti-«nn-e kv- {Xo-I-sf \m-bn-i-am-cm-bn kzo-i-cn- n-«p-ïv. t]- cp-iä- p H-cp ]-cn-th-jw \Â-Ip- -Xn-\m-bn C-hÀ- v am-te-j, D- -cm-n-{µn-i, a-ão-\n-em-hv, I-em-am-en-I Xp-S- n-b a-t\m-l-c-\m-a- -fm-wv \Â-In-bn-«p-Å-Xv. ssh-in-i-x-{ w, D- n-b- o- N-cn-Xw, D- n- n-cp-tx-ho-n-cn-xw D- n-bm-sn-n-cn- Xw, N-t{µm-Õ-hw F- o km-ln-xy-ir-xn-iä tz-h-zm-kn-i-sf- p-dn-s -gp-xn-b B-Zy-Im-e a-wn-{]-hm-f-ir-xn-i-fnâ-s -Sp- p. tz-h-zm-kn-ifp-ss Zp-jn- kzm-[o-\-i-àn km-ln-xy- nâam-{x-a-ã, inâ-] I-e-bn-epw Nn-{X-I-e-bn-epw Im-Wm³ I-gn-bpw. C- m-e-l-«- n-se ti-cfo-b t -{X- n-se inâ-]- -fnâ tz-h-zmkn-i-fp-ss Im-tam-±o-]-I-hpw A-Ço-e-hp-am-b cq-]- Ä Zr-iy-am-Wv. Im-e-{I-a- nâ t -{X- -fn-se-bpw sim-«m-c- -fn-se-bpw Np-hÀ-Nn- {X- -fn-epw Cu {]-h-w-x I-S- p-iq-sn. 14þmw i-x-i- nâ hn-c-nn-x-am-b in-h-hn-em-k- nâ X-Xv-IÀ- m-hv tz-h-zm-kn-i-fp-ss \r- - nâ B-\-µ-`-cn-X-cm-bn- oà- tz-h³-amà t - {X- -fp-ss Np-a-cp-I-fn Nn-{X- -fp-ss cq-]- nâ im-iz-x-am-b Øm-\w-]n-Sn- p F- m-wv hà-wn- p- -Xv. k-a-im-en-i k-aq-l- n-se k-zm-nm-ct_m-[- n-sâ aq-ey-tim-j-ww {]-Xn-^-en- pw-hn-[w tz-h-zm-ko-k-{¼-zm-bw Zp-jn- -Xn- \p km- yw h-ln- p-i-bm-wv taâ {]-kv- Xm-hn- Ir-Xn-I-sf- n-cn- n-epw A-h-bp-sS D-Å-S- - n-te- v H- p I-t m-sn- p-i c-k-i-c-am-wv. 13-þmw i-x-i- nâ c-nn- -s -«ssh-in-i-x-{ w A-Úm-X-IÀ- r-x-am-wv. th-iym-hr- n H-cp I-e F- \n-e-bn-em- Wv A-Xn {]-Xn-]m-Zn- p- -Xv. A-Xn-se \m-bn-i A-\w-K-tk-\ (A-\w-K-e-X F- pw 41

40 Im-Wp- p) F- H-cp s] -In-Sm-hm-Wv. H-cp {]-kn-² K-Wn-I-bm-bn-cp- A-h-fp-sS am-xmhv Po-hn-X- n-sâ ]-Sn-hm-Xn-en \nâ- p- X-sâ a-iä- p-th-ïn th-iym-hr- n F- am-\y-am-b sxm-gn-enâ hn-p-bw h-cn- -Wsa- nâ A-hÄ- p-ïm-bn-cn-t -ï au-en-i Kp-W- Ä F-s m-s -bm-bn-cn- -W-sa- p hn-i-z-am-bn D-]-tZ-in- p-sim-sp- p- p. ]-c-¼-cbm-bn K-Wn-I-IÄ ]m-en- p-t]m-cp- s]-cp-am-ä kw-ln-x-sb- p-dn- p-å hn-h-c- -fpw B am- Xm-hv a-i-sf ]-d-ªp-tiä-]n- p- p. bu-h-\w bm-{x ]-d-bp- -Xn-\p-ap-¼v X-sâ h-iy-i-àn D-]-tbm-Kn- p k-¼m-zn- p- n-s-t m-fw [-\w BÀ-Pn- p-hm³ A-h-tfm-Sv {]-txy-iw \nà-tzin- p- p. -ssh-in-i-x-{ - nâ kp-l-sn-x-am-b H-cp C-Xn-hr- -an-ã. Ip-td D-]-tZ-i- -fp-ss k-am-lm-cw am-{x-am-wv B Im-hyw. F- mâ D- n-b- o-n-cn-xw, D- n- n-cp-tx-ho-n-cn-xw, D- n-bm-sn N-cn-Xw F- o Ir-Xn-I-fn-se C-Xnhr- - Ä kp-µ-cn-i-fpw B-cm-[-I-hr-µ- nsâ A-I-¼-Sn-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-h-cp-am-b K-Wn-I- I-fp-sS I-Y-I-fm-Wv. \m-bn-i-am-cp-ss h-iy-x \n-à-w-bn- m³ X- -fp-ss ]-Z-k-¼- nâ- \n- p sx-c-sª-sp- F-Ãm kp-µ-c-]-z- -fpw I-hn-IÄ {]-tbm-kn- p- p. -am-c-am-e F- A-]-cm-`n-[m-\w D-ïmbn-cp- D- n-bm-sn-sb A- -s tz-h-zm-kn hà-k- n-sâ i-cn- p-å {]-Xn-\n-[n-bm-bn \-ap- p I-W- m- mw. Zm-tam-Z-c³ F- I-hn c-nn- D- n-bm-sn-n-cn-xw, in-h-hn-em-kw F- c-ïp Ir-Xn-I-fn-se-bpw \m-bn-i-bm-wn-hä. Hm- S-\m-«n-se C-c-hn-tI-c-f-hÀ-am-sâ-bpw "a-t«m-epwsam-gn-bm-b' D- n- p-«- n-bp-ss-bpw a-i-fm-bn D- n-bm-sn s]-cp-¼-s- n-se bp-h-cm-pm-hm-b c-hn-hà-a-sb hn-hm-lw sn- p- p. Cu hn-hml- n-sâ I-Y-bm-Wv in-h-hn-em-k- n-sâ C-Xn-hr- w. F.Un 1400 hn-c-nn-x-sa- p I-cp-X-s -Sp- D- n-bm-sn-n-cn-x- nâ hn-hml- n-\p ap-¼p-å D- n-bm-sn-bp-ss hà-w-\- bm-w-[n-i-hpw. Cu Ir-Xn c-nn- -Xn-sâ ]n-- n-ep-å X-Xv-IÀ- m-hn-sâ D-t±-iyw X-s A-\- -c-x-e-ap-d-bv- v Cu tz-h-zm-ko c-xv-\- n-sâ A-{]-Xn-a-ku-µ-cyw a-\-ên-em- n-s m- Sp- p-i F- -Xm-Wv. "tx³-sam-gn-i-fm-b bp-h- Xo-a-Wn-I-fp-sS au-en-c-xv-\-am-w-hä; I- n³ tx³ Ip-g-¼v, N-{µ-s\-t m-se tim-`n- p- ap- J-hpw tx³-t]m-se a-[p-c-am-b i-_v-z-hpw bp-hssn-x-\yw ap-än-\nâ- p- Aw-K- -fpw-sim-ïv A-hÄ Cu-iz-c-\m-b in-h-sâ lr-z-bw-t]m-- epw A-]-l-cn- p-i-f-ªp.' Cu hn-[-am-wv I-hn A-h-sf hà-wn- p- -Xv. -A-Sp- p-\n- pw A-I-se-\n- pw h-cp- F-Ãm hà-j- nâ-s -«]p-cp-j³-am-cp-ssbpw B-IÀ-j-\-W-tI-{µ-am-W-h-fp-sS Kr-lw. A-hÀ Im-«p- tkm-jv-sn-i-fpw tim-am-fn- - -fp-apä-s -ss A-h-sc hn-i-z-am-bn hà-wn- p-hm³ I-hn ap-xn-cp- p. sim-ã- p-\n- pw tim-gn-t m-«p-\n- p-ap-å {_m-ò-w-]-þn- X³-amÀ, sn- -\n-bq-cnâ-\n- p-å {_m-ò- W-hn-S³-amÀ, B {]-tz-i- m-i-am-\-ap-å hn-j-b-e-¼-s-cm-b {]-`p-hà-kw F- n- -s\ hn-hn-[ hà-k- nâ-s -«-hà D- n-bm-sn-bp-ss kp-µ-c-cq-]-sam- p ZÀ-in- p-hm-\m-bn A-h-fpsS Kr-l- nâ X-Sn- p-iq-sp- p. D- n-bm-sn- v A-t\-Iw txm-gn-am-cp-ïv. Hm-tcm-cp- À- pw Hm-tcm tpm-en-bpw \n-ý-bn- n-«p-ïv. Nn-eÀ ssi-i-fnâ ]p-jv-]- -fp-am-bn A-t m-«p-ant m-«pw k- -cn- p- p. Nn-e-cp-sS ssi-ifnâ ku-µ-cy-hà-[-i km-a-{kn-i-fm-wv. Nn-eÀ kw-ko-txm-]-i-c-w- Ä sim-ïp-\-s- p- p. a-äp Nn-e-cm-I-s«A-Xn-Yn kâ- m-c hy-{kcm-wv. A-h-sc-Ãmw-X-s bu-h-\-bp-à-i-fpw h-kv-{xm-e- m-c hn-`q-jn-x-cp-am-wv. F-Ãm-h-cpw H-fn-Nn-X-dp- c-xv-\- -Ãp-I-fm A-ew-Ir-Xam-b H-cp A-d-bn H- p-tn-cp- p. A-g-In-sâ dm-wn-bm-b D- n-bm-sn A-hn-sS B-k-\-ØaWn-{]-hm-f-Ir-Xn-I-fn {]-Xy- -s - Sp- Cu {]-h-w-x A-Xn-sâ ]m- -c-ay- n-se- n-\nâ- p- -Xv F.Un 1500 c-nn- -s -«N-t{µm-Õ-h- n-em- Wv. H-cp a-t\m-l-c irw-km-c-im-hy-am-b C-Xn-se C-Xn-hr- w A- m-e-s {]-kn-² tz-h-zm-kn-bm-bn-cp- Nn-äne- -Ån \m-«n-se ta-z-\o-sh- n-em-hv \-S- p- N-t{µm-Õ-h-s - p-dn- p-å-xm-wv. A- -s {]-[m-\-s -«\m-«p-{]-am-wn-am-cpw P- n-am-cpw I-hn- I-fpw F-Ãmw ]-s -Sp- Cu Kw-`oc-a-tlm-Õ-h- n-sâ c- m-[n-im-cn a-w- p-fw cm-pm-sh- -dn-b-s -«n-cp- [-\m-vy-\m-b H-cp \m-sp-hm-gn-bm-bn-cp- p. bm-bn-cn- p- p. Iq-Sp-I-fn _-Ô-\-Ø-cm-bn In-S- p- In-fn-IÄ ]m-sp- p. a-bn-ep-iä a-xna-d- p \r- w sn- p- p. bp-h-xn-iä Xw-_pcp-ao-«n A-h-sf- p-dn- p-å kv-xp-xn-ko-x- Ä B-e-]n- p- p. \m-bn-i-bm-b D- n-bm-sn-sb hà-wn- p-t¼mä Zm-tam-Z-c³ C- -c- nâ ImÂ-]-\n-I-ku-µ-cyw Hm-fw sh-«p- H-c- -co- -am-wv kr-jv-sn- p- -Xv. -a-wn-{]-hm-f-ir-xn-i-fnâ {]-Xy- -s - Sp- Cu {]-h-w-x A-Xn-sâ ]m-c-ay- n-se- n-\nâ- p- -Xv F.Un 1500 c-nn- -s -«N-t{µm-Õ-h- n-em-wv. H-cp a-t\m-l-c irw- Km-c-Im-hy-am-b C-Xn-se C-Xn-hr- w A- me-s {]-kn-² tz-h-zm-kn-bm-bn-cp- Nn-än-e- -Ån \m-«n-se ta-z-\o-sh- n-em-hv \-S- p- N-t{µm-Õ-h-s - p-dn- p-å-xm-wv. A- -s {]-[m-\-s -«\m-«p-{]-am-wn-am-cpw P- n-am-cpw I-hn-I-fpw F-Ãmw ]-s -Sp- Cu Kw-`o-c-atlm-Õ-h- n-sâ c- m-[n-im-cn a-w- p-fw cm-pm-sh- -dn-b-s -«n-cp- [-\m-vy-\m-b H-cp \m-sp-hm-gn-bm-bn-cp- p. tz-h-zm-kn-iä t -{Xm- -W- -fnâ A-h-X-cn- n- p- -Xn-\p-th-ïn Nn-«-s -Sp- nsb-sp- \r- -cq-]- Ä-t]m-epw ]nâ- me- p hn-hn-[ X-e- -fnâ-s -«P-\- n-sâ hn-e-ip-d-ª-xpw B-`m-k-hp-am-b cp-nn- -\pk-c-w-am-bn A-Ço-e- n-sâ ko-a-bnâ F- nt -cpw-hn-[-ap-å am-ä- Ä- p hn-t[-b-am-bn. A-[x-]-Xn- km-aq-ln-i-{]-øm-\w F- \n-e-bnâ tz-h-zm-ko k-{¼-zm-bw B-[p-\n-I Im-e- v `-c-wm-[n-im-cn-i-fp-ss-bpw km-aqln-i ]-cn-jv-ià- m- -fp-ss-bpw {i-²-bm-iàjn- p. t -{X- -sf B-{i-bn- p I-gn-ªncp- tz-h-zm-kn-iä- v t -{X- n-\-i- p ]m-sp-i-bpw B-Sp-I-bpw sn-t -ïn-bn-cp- -Xp- Iq-Sm-sX Nn-e hn-sp-]-wn-i-fp-ap-ïm-bn-cp- p. cm-p-ip-spw-_- Ä t -{X ZÀ-i-\w \-S- pt¼mä A-h-sc kzo-i-cn-t -ï Np-a-X-e-bpw C-hÀ- m-bn-cp- p. Cu k-{¼-zm-b- n-\v A-Xntâ-Xm-b Zq-jy-h-i- -fp-ïm-bn-cp- -Xp-sIm-ïv B-[p-\n-I k-aq-lw C-Xn-s\ Im-e- n-\p-]- äm- H-cp Im-cy-am-bn I-W- m- n. tk-xpe- v-an `m-bn-bp-ss do-p -kn `-c-w-im-e- v (1924þ-1931) Cu k-{¼-zm-bw (Ip-Sn- m-cn k-{¼- Zm-bw) \n-e-\n- n-cp- sx- ³ Xn-cp-hn-Xmw- Iq-dn-se t -{X- -fnâ-\n- v H-cp cm-p-io-b hn-fw-_-cw aq-ew C-Xv A-{]-Xy- -am-bn.' ½ 42

41 Bin-Izv imp-lm³ ^mdqizn `mcy-am-cpss {]hm-n-i³ `m-cy-amà- v {]-hm-n-i³ H-cp A-`-b-am-bn-cp- p. k- -S-ap-ïm-Ipt¼mÄ A-h-cp-sS I- p-\oà Xp-S- p-, A-h-cp-sS hn-im-c- -sf _-lp-am-\n- p-, A-h-cp-sS i-ð- -sf Im-tXmÀ- p-, ]-cm- Xn-I-sf A-{X-ta ]-cn-k-wn- p-, hn-j-a- Ä- v ]-cn-lm-cw Im-Wp-, A-h-cp-am-bn bm-{x-iä t]m-ip-, A-h-tcm-sSm- w Hm-«-a-Õ-cw \-S- p-, Ku-c-h-ap-Å Im-cy- Ä A-h-cp-am-bn NÀ- sn- p-, A-h-tcm-Sp-Å kv-t\-lw Xp-d- v ]-d-bp-, A-hcp-sS kv-t\-l- nâ Xr-]v-Xn-tbm-sS I-gn-bp- H-cp \-à `À- m-hv B-bn-cp- p \-_n (k). {]-W-bw, hn-hm-l-_-ô-s ap-t m-«v sim-ïpt]m-ip- {]-[m-\ L-S-I-am-Wv. ssew-kn-i-_-ôw t]m-epw ]- m-fn- v `m-cap-l-½-zv \-_n(k)sb hn-aà-in- m³ F- m-e- pw [m-cm-fw B-fp- IÄ D-ïm-bn-cp- p. A-t±-lw {]-hm-n-i-\m-b A- v ap-xâ C- v h-sc-bpw B \n-e Xp-S-cp- p. {]-hm-n-i-sâ ssh-hm-ln-i Po-hn-Xw \nch[n t]à v H-cp {]-[m-\ hn-aà-i-\ hn-j-b-am-wv. A-Xn X-s \n-c-h-[n D-]-hn-j-b- -fpw D-ïv. Im-e- -fm-bn A-sXm-s D- -bn- p-sim-ïv P-\- -fp-ss a-\-ênâ B am-xr-im-tbm-ky-s\ A-Xy- w \n-µy-\m-bn Nn-{Xo-Icn- m-\p-å ]-cn-{i-aw Xp-S-cp-I-bm-Wv. {]-hm-n-i Po-hn-X- nâ _-lp-]-xv-\n-am-cp-ss km- n-[yw A-t±-l- n-sâ hn-aà-i-i-sc h-ãm-sx A-tem-k-c-s -Sp- p- p-ïv. h-f-sc t¾-ñam-b `m-j-bnâ Cu hn-j-b-s hn-aà-in- p-i-bpw C-kvem-an-s\-Xn-cm-b {]-N-c-W- n-\v A-Xv D-²-cn- p-i-bpw sn- p- p. ssewkn-ix ]m]-amsw ]ptcm-ln-x-a-x- -fpss a\p-jy-hn-cp-²-amb AÔ-hn-izmkw DÅnep-d- n- p-simïmwv henb ]ptcm-k-a-\-hm-zn-i-sf v ]d-bp- -h-c-s w CsXmcp Bt -]-hn-j-b-am- p- -Xv. \nb-am-\p-krx CW-I-fp-am-bpÅ ssewkni kpo-h-x-bnâ F v sxäm-wp-å-sx v Ah-cmcpw CXp-hsc hkvxp-\n-jvt-ambn hyà-am- n-bn-«n-ã. ssew-kn-i-x- v h-en-b {]m-[m-\y-ap-sï- n-epw ssh-hm-ln-i Po-hn- Xw F- mâ sh-dpw ssew-kn-i-x-bnâ si-«n- -Sp- -Xm-sW-t m A-Xn am{xw A-`n-c-an- -em-sw-t m AÀ- -an-ã. A-Xn-\m \-_n(k)bp-ss hn-hm-l-_-ô- Ä- v a-ä-t\-iw Im-c-W- fpw D-ïv. B Im-c-W- -sf IqSn \- m-bn a-\-ên-em- p-t¼mä BÀ- pw am-xr-i-bm-im³ I-gn-bp- D-Zm- -am-b hn-hm-l Po-hn-X-am-Wv A-t±-l- n-tâ-xv F- v \n-êw-i-bw ]-d-bm³ I-gn-bpw. H-cp \-à Ip-Spw-_w F -s\-bmwv si«n- -Spt ïsx- v temis Gähpw IrXy-ambn ]Tn n- Xv \_n(k)-bmwv. H-cp \-à `À- m-hn-\p-ïm-ti-ï F-Ãm Kp-W- -fpw B Po-hn-X- nâ D-ïv. X-sâ {]-hm-n-i-sâ ssh-hm-ln-i Po-hn-Xw \nc-h[n t] À v H-cp {]-[m-\ hn-aà-i-\ hn-j-b-am-wv. A-Xn X-s \n-c-h-[n D-]-hn-j-b- -fpw D-ïv. Im-e- -fm-bn A-sXm-s D- -bn- p-sim-ïv P-\- -fp-ss a-\-ênâ B am-xr-im-tbm-ky-s\ A-Xy- w \n-µy-\m-bn Nn-{Xo-Icn- m-\p-å ]-cn-{i-aw Xp-S-cp-I-bm-Wv. 43

42 am-im-xn-cn- -W-sa- nâ A-hn-sS {]-W-b- nsâ ]m-c-ay-x kr-ãn- -s -S-Ww. i-co-c kp-jhpw kw-xr-]v-xn-bpw D-ïm-Ip-I F- -Xn-ep-]-cn am-\-kn-i-am-b k-t m-j-hpw k-am-[m-\-hpw hn-hm-l-_-ôw sim-ïv D-ïm-I-W-sa- nâ {]-W-bw A-\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. {]-hm-n-i hn-tcm-[n- IÄ- v B Po-hn-X- nâ ti-h-ew ssew-kn-i B-kzm-Z-\w am-{xw I-sï- m³ I-gn-bpt¼mÄ {]-hm-n-i kv-t\-ln-iä- v A- -s\- b-ã. {]-W-b- n-sâ _-lp-hà-w- Ä hm-cn hn-x-dp-i-bpw A-Xn A-Xn-c-äv B-tLm-jn- p- I-bpw sn- p- a-t\m-l-c-am-b Im-gv-N-I-fm-Wv {]-hm-n-i Po-hn-X- nâ kp-a-\-êp-iä- v ZÀin- m³ km-[n- p- -Xv. bp-h-xz- n-sâ a-t\m-lm-cn-x-bnâ, I-\y-- I-bp-am-bp-Å H-cp ssh-hm-ln-i Po-hn-Xw Bcpw sim-xn- p- {]m-b- nâ \-_n(k) B-Zy-am-bn hn-hm-lw I-gn- -Xv a-[y-h-b-kv- I-bm-b J-Zo-P(d)s\-bm-bn-cp- p. Jp-ssd-iv tkm-{x- n-se {]-ap-j Ip-Spw-_- n-se kp- µ-c-\pw kâ-kz-`m-hn-bpw A-t -b-äw hn-izkv-x-\p-am-b B bp-hm-hn-\v A-td-_y-bn-se A-Xn-kp-µ-cn-sb-tbm I-\y-I-sb-tbm hn-hm-lw sn- m³ \n-jv-{]-bm-kw km-[n- p-am-bn-cp- p. F- n-«pw c-ïv X-h-W hn-hm-ln-x-bmb, k- m- \- -fp--å A-h-sc hn-hm-lw sn- m³ H-cp a-sn-bpw D-ïm-bn-cp- n-ã. J-Zo-P(d)bpsSbpw \_n(-k)-bp-ssbpw hn-hm-l Po-hn-Xw ]-cn-tim-[n- p- -hà- v \n-kzmà- -am-b kv-t\-l- n-sâ a-l-\o-b \n-an-j- Ä hm-bn-s -Sp- m³ I-gn-bp- -Xm- Wv. B-bn-i(d) H-cn-  ]-d-ªp, "F-\n- v {]-hm-n-i ]-Xv-\n-am-cn G-ä-hp-a-[n-Iw A-kq-b txm- n-bn-«p-å-xv J-Zo-P(d)tbm-Sm- Wv, A-h-sc Rm³ t\-cnâ I-ïn-«n-sÃ- n-epw t]m-epw. \-_n(k) F-t m-sgm-s B-Sn-s\ A-dp- m-epw A-Xn-sem-cp ]- v J-Zo-P(d)bpsS kp-lr- p- -fm-b kv-{xo-iä- v F- n- psim-sp- p-am-bn-cp- p. Rm³ Nn-e-t m-sgm-s A-t±-l-t m-sv ]-d-bp-am-bn-cp- p, Cu tem- I- v J-Zo-P-b-Ãm-sX a-säm-cp kv-{xo-bp-an- Ãm- t]m-se-bm-w-tãm \n- Ä A-h-sc kv-t\-ln- p- -Xv F- v. A-t mä \-_n(k) J-Zo-P(d)sb ]p-i-gv- p-i-bpw A-h-fn-em-Wv F-\n- v k- m-\- Ä D-ïm-bn-«p-Å-Xv F- pw ]-d-bp-ibpw sn pam-bn-cp- p.' (1) a-säm-cp \n-th-z-\- nâ Im-Wmw, "A-h-sf- mä \- \n-d-ª-h-cm-bn a-äm-cp-an-ã. tem-iw ap-gp-h³ F-s A-hn-iz-kn- -t mä A-hÄ F-s Aw-Ko-I-cn- p, tem-iw ap-gp-h³ F-s I-fhm- n-b-t mä A-hÄ F-s k-xy-s -Sp- n, bp-h-xz- n-sâ a-t\m-lm-cn-x-bnâ, I-\y-I-bp-am-bp-Å H-cp ssh-hm-ln-i Po-hn-Xw sim-xn- p- {]m-b- nâ \-_n(k) B-Zy-am-bn hn-hm-lw I-gn- -Xv a-[y-h-b-kv-i-bm-b J-Zo-P(d) sb-bm-bn-cp- p. Jp-ssd-iv tkm-{x- n-se {]-ap-j Ip-Spw-_- n-se kp- µ-c-\pw kâ-kz-`m-hn-bpw A-t -bäw hn-iz-kv-x-\p-am-b B bp-hm-hn-\v A-td-_y-bn-se A-Xn-kp-µ-cn-sb-tbm I-\y-I-sb-tbm hn-hm-lw sn- m³ \n-jv-{]-bm-kw km-[n- p-am-bn-cp- p. F- n-«pw c-ïv X-h-W hn-hm-ln-xbm-b k- m-\- -fp-å A-h-sc hn-hmlw sn- m³ H-cp a-sn-bpw D-ïm-bncp- n-ã. F-Ãm-h-cpw F-s D-t]- n- -t mä k-¼- v ap-gp-h³ \Â-In A-\p-I-¼-bpw hn-iz-kv-x-xbpw Im-Wn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp' (2). `À- m-hn-sâ B-h-iy- -sf-ãmw \n-dth-än-s m-sp- p-i-bpw C-ã- Ä- v H- w \n-â- p-i-bpw sn-bv-x a-l-xn-bm-wv J-Zo-P (d). X-sâ {]n-b-x-a-\v ln-dm Kp-l-bn-se G-Im- -X C-jv-S-am-Wv F- -dn-ª a-l-xn A-Xn-s\ F-XnÀ- m-sx t{]m-õm-ln- n- p- I-bm-Wv sn-bv-x-xv. G-Im- -am-bn {]mà- - \-bnâ ap-gp-in-bn-cn- p- {]n-b-x-a-\v th-ïn `r-xy-\m-b H-cp Ip-«n-bp-sS I- nâ `- -Ww sim-sp- -b- p-am-bn-cp- psh pw Nn-et mä A-hÀ X-s t\-cn-«v `- -Ww sim-ïv h- v a-e-bp-ss Xm-gv-`m-K- p-\n- v ap-i-fn-te- v F-dn-ªp-sIm-Sp- p-am-bn-cp- psh pw Nne Ncn-{X-{K-Ù- -fnâ ImWmw. Zn-hy-k-tµ-iw e-`n- B-Zy-\m-fp-I-fn km- z-\- n-sâ hm- p-i-fp-am-bn H- w \n- -Xv A-hÀ am-{x-ambn-cp- p. B-Zy-am-bn A-t±-l-s hn-iz-kn- p-i-bpw A-t±-l- n-\pw A-en(d) p-sam- w B-Zy-am-bn I-Av-_m-e-b- n-\-cn-inâ {]m- À- n- p-i-bpw sn-bvx-xv A-h-cm-bn-cp- p. (3) Jp-ssd-iv tkm-{xw _-\q lm-inw hw-i-hp-ambn F-Ãm-hn-[ _-Ô-hpw hn-tñ-zn- -t mä kà-h k-lm-b- -fp-am-bn A-hÀ-s m- w \n Â- p-i-bpw k-¼- v ap-gp-h³ hn-\n-tbm-kn- p-i-bp-w sn-bv-xp. (4) C-cp-]- n-b- v hà-jw \o-ïp-\n- B k- p-ã Zm-¼-Xy _-Ô- nâ B-dv k- m-\- Ä D-ïm-bn. _-lp-`m-cy-xzw \n-e-\n- n-cp- k-aq-lw B-bn-«p-t]m-epw J-Zo-P _o-hn-bp-ss a-c-ww h-sc \-_n (k) a-säm-cp hn-hm-l-s - -än Nn- n- n-«v Iq-Sn D-ïm-bn-cp- n-ã. J-Zo-P _o-hn-bpw B-{i-b-am-bn-cp- ]n-xr-hy-\pw a-c-w-s -«hà-jw \-_n (k) A-Xo-h Zpx-Jn- X-\m-bn-cp- p. A-Xn-\m {]-hm-n-i-xz- nsâ ]- mw hà-jw "Zpx-J hà-jw' F- m-wv N-cn-{X- nâ A-dn-b-s -Sp- -Xv. \-_n(k) bp-ss \m-hn-eq-ss ap-kvenwiä B a-l-xn-sb a-\-ên-em- p-i-bpw X- -fp-ss am-xm-hm-bn DÄ-s m-åp-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. {]-hm-n-i kvt\-l- n-sâ A-Xp-ey-am-b am-xr-i-iä A-hew-_n- m³ hn-izm-kn-iä- v H-cp {]-tnm- Z-\-am-bn A-hÀ C- pw \n-e-sim-åp- p. C-hn-sS J-Zo-P _o-hn- v \-_n(k)bnâ \n- v \n-kzmà- -am-b kv-t\-lw e-`n- p F- -Xm-Wv bm-ymà-yyw. B-Ci(d)bp-am-bp-Å Po-hn-Xw [m-cm-fw A-kp-e-` \n-an-j- -fmâ [-\y-am-wv. A-h-cpsS N-cn-{Xw ]-d-bp- l-zo-kp-iä \n-c-h-[n-bm- Wv. {]-hm-n-i-sâ hn-tbm-km-\- -cw 44 hà-jw A-hÀ Po-hn- p. Cu Im-e-b-f-hn A-hÀ 44

43 `m-cy-am-cp-ss F-Ãm C-ã- Ä- pw X-ami-IÄ- pw Iq-«v \nâ- p- B-fm-bncp- p \-_n (k). hn-hm-l ti-j-hpw B-bn-i(d)sb A-h-cp-sS ]m-h-iä I- nâ sh- m³ A-\p-hm-Zw \Â-Ip- I-bpw Nn-d-Ip-Å Ip-Xn-c-bp-sS H-cp ]-h-bpw sim-ïv Iq-«p-ImÀ-s m- w I-fn- p- -Xv k-t m-j-t m-ss t\m- n-bn-cn- p-i-bpw sn- p-am-bn-cp- p. `m-cy-amà-s m- w Hm-«-a-Õ-cw \-S- nbn-cp- p A-t±-lw. B-Zyw B-bn-i (d) P-bn- p-i-bpw ]n- o-ssm-cn-  A-hÀ- v i-co-c h- w Iq-Sn-b-Xn-\m \-_n (k) P-bn- p-i-bpw sn-bv -Xp. em- p-i-bpw `- -W-hpw h-kv-{x-hpw F-Ãmw {]-txy-i-am-bn \Â-Ip-I-bpw sn- p-am-bn-cp- p. F- mâ {]hm-n-i³ X-sâ ]-Xv-\n-am-sc BÀ- -h-k-ab pw kv-t\-ln- p-i-bpw Npw-_n- p-i-bpw A-hÀ-s m- w `- -Ww I-gn- p-ibpw X-sâ ap-sn-bpw Xm-Sn-bpw No-In H-Xp- m³ A-\p-h-Zn- p-i-bpw sn-bvxp. (12) \-_n(k) ]-Ån-bn C-Av-Xn-Im-^v C-cp- -t mä k-^n- (d) A-t±-l-s k-µà-in- p-i-bpw cm-{xn C-cp-«p- -Xv h-sc kw-km-cn- n-cn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-x-xm-bn l-zo-kv D-ïv. (13). B-cm-[-\m k-µà-`- -fnâ t]m-epw X-sâ `m-cy-am-cp-ss B-h-iy- Ä \n-d-th-än-s m-sp- m³ A-t±-lw {i-²n- n-cp- p. ho-«n-se tpm-en-i-fnâ `m-cy-am-sc k-lmbn- m³ A-t±-l- n-\v H-cp a-sn-bpw D-ïm-bncp- n-ã. H-cn-  B-Ci(d)tbm-Sv A-t±-l- n-sâ ho-«n-se hn-ti-j- Ä tnm-zn- -t mä A-hÀ ]-d-ª-xv A-t±-lw \-sãm-cp k-lm-bn B-sW- pw _m- v tiä- p-t¼mä ]-Ånbnte- v t]m-ip-sa- p-am-wv. (14) A-t±-lw Xp-Wn I-gp-Ip-I-bpw, Xp- p-i-bpw, B-Sn-s\ I-d- p-ibpw, hn-d-iv ti-j-cn- v A-Xv Io-dn sim-sp- p-ibpw, km-[m-c-w B-Wp- Ä ho-«nâ sn- p- F-Ãm tpm-en-ifnepw GÀs -Sp-Ibpw sn-bvxncp- p. (15) X-sâ Po-hn-X- nâ `m-cy-am-sc-tbm {]hm-n-i³ tem-i-s {]-hm-n-i Po-hn-Xw ]Tn- n- p-ibm-bn-cp- p. A-Xn-\m-em-Wv G-ä-hpw A-[n-Iw l-zo-kv A-h-cn-eq-sS \n-th-z-\w sn- -s -«-Xv. \-_n(k) B-Ci(d)sb A-Xn-c-äv kv-t\- ln- n-cp- p F- v N-cn-{X {K-Ù- Ä \-s½ t_m-[y-s -Sp- p- p. H-cn-  \-_n(k)tbm- Sv B-sc-bm-Wv X-\n- v G-ä-hpw C-jv-Sw F- v tnm-zn- -t mä A-t±-lw ]-d-ª-xv B-Cisb B-sW- m-wv. ]p-cp-j- m-cnâ B-sc-bm- Wv F- v tnm-zn- -t mä A-Xv B-Ci-bp-sS D- -sb-bm-wv A_q-_IvÀ F- pw \-_n(k) ]-d-ªp. (5) B-Ci(d)sb \-_n(k) kv-t\-lt mss hn-fn- m-dp-ïm-bn-cp- -Xv "lp-ssad' (Nph- ap-j-ap-å sh-fp- s] -Ip-«n) F- mbn-cp- p. (6) a-säm-cp l-zo-knâ \-_n (k) ]-d-bp- -Xm-bn Im-Wmw, "B-bn-im, \n-t m-sv Pn-_v-coÂ(A) k-emw ]-d-ªn-cn- p- p. A-t mä B-Ci(d) ]-d-ªp, Rm³ A-t±l-t m-spw k-emw ]-d-ªn-cn- p- p F- v A-dn-bn- p-i. (7) `m-cy-am-cp-ss C-ã- Ä- pw X-amiIÄ- pw Iq-«v \nâ- p- B-fm-bn-cp- p \-_n(k). hn-hm-l ti-j-hpw B-Ci(d)sb A-h-cpsS ] m-h-iä I- nâ sh- m³ A-\p-hm-Zw \Â-Ip- I-bpw Nn-d-Ip-Å Ip-Xn-c-bp-sS H-cp ]mh-bpw sim-ïv Iq-«p-ImÀ-s m- w I-fn- p- -Xv k-t m-j-t m-ss t\m- n-bn-cn- p-i-bpw sn- p-am-bn-cp- p. (8) `m-cy-amà-s m- w Hm-«-a-Õ-cw \-S- n-bn-cp- p A-t±-lw. B-Zyw B-Ci (d) P-bn- p-i-bpw ]n- o-ssm-cn-  A-hÀ- v i-co-c h- w Iq-Sn-b-Xn-\m \-_n(k) P-bn- p-i-bpw sn-bv-xp. A-t mä A-t±-lw X-ami-bm-bn ]-d-ª-xv C-t mä \-½Ä c-ïm-fpw H- - n-s\m- -am-bn F- m-wv. (9) \-_n(k) X-sâ ]-Xv-\n-am-cp-sS hn-im-c- -sf a-\-ên-em- p-i-bpw A-sXm-s c-k- I-c-am-b co-xn-bnâ A-h-X-cn- n- p-i-bpw snbv-xn-cp- p. B-Ci(d)tbm-Sv H-cn-  \-_n (k) ]-d-ªp, "\o F-t m-sv k-t m-j-am-bn- «n-cn- p- -Xpw Zpx-Jn- n-cn- p- -Xpw F-\n- - dn-bmw'. B-Ci (d) tnm-zn- p, "A-sX- -s\ A-dn-bmw?' A-t mä A-t±-lw ]-d-ªp, "\o F-t m-sv Xr-]v-Xn-bn-em-sW- nâ "ap-l-½-znsâ ssz-h-s sim-ïv' F- v ]-d-bp-i-bpw tz-jy- n-em-sw- nâ "C-_v-d-lo-an-sâ sszh-s sim-ïv' F- v ]-d-bp-i-bpw sn- pw. (11) Pm-ln-en- Im-e- v H-cp kv-{xo BÀ- -h-imcn-bm-bn-cn- p-t¼mä A-h-sf t¾- -bm-bn I-W- m- p-i-bpw A-Xv I-gn-bp- -Xv h-sc A-h-sf ho-«nâ \n- pw ]p-d- m- n a-säm-cp ap-dn-bntk-h-i-sc-tbm H-cn- Â-t]m-epw \-_n(k) A-Sn- n-«n-ã. X- -fp-ss `À- m-hn-sâ A-\n-ã- -sf t]m-epw a-t\m-l-c-am-bn a-säm-cm-tfm-sv A-h-Xcn- n- m³ {]-hm-n-i ]-Xv-\n-amÀ {i-an- p-ambn-cp- p. ssa-em- n-sb ]-än-bp-å \-_n(k) bp-ss A-`n-{]m-bw tnm-zn- -t mä B-Ci (d) ]-d-ª-xv, "A-Xn-sâ \n-dw A-t±-l-s A-Ûp-X-s -Sp- n-bn-cp- p ]-t A-Xn-sâ K-Ôw A-t±-l- n-\v C-ã-am-bn-cp- n-ã. A-Xv D-]-tKm-Kn- p- -Xv l-dmw A-Ã' F- m-wv (16) A-hÀ-s m- w sne-h-gn- p- cm-{xn- IÄ A-t±-lw Xp-ey-am-bn ho-xn- pw. cm-{xn \n-ý-bn- -s -«`m-cy-bp-ss A-\p-a-Xn-bn-Ãm-sX H-cn-  t]m-epw a-säm-cm-fp-ss A-Sp-  A-t±-lw t]m-bn-cp- n-ã. bm-{x t]m-ip-t¼mä `m-cy-amà- n-s-bnâ \-dp- n-«v H-cmsf Xn-c-sª- Sp- -Xv H- w sim-ïp-t]m-ip-am-bn-cp- p. (17) taâ D-²-cn- N-cn-{X bm-ymà-yy- -fnâ \n- v a-\-ên-em- m-hp- Im-cyw, X- -sf B-thm-fw kv-t\-ln-, kà-h A-h-Im-i- - fpw \Â-In H- w \nà- n-b {]n-b-x-a-sâ HmÀ-½-I-fm-Wv {]hm-ni `mcy-amà ]nâ- me- p tem-i-p-\- Ä- v ]-d-ªp-sim-sp- - Xv. B-scm-s F-{X-sbm-s A-{I-an- m-epw \n-µn- m-epw B a-l- m-b kz-`m-h- n-sâbpw hy-àn-xz- n-sâ-bpw kv-^-sn-i In-co-Sw H-cn- -epw ho-wp-s-bp-i-bn-ã. \_n-kvt\lw A\p-`-hn `mcy-am-cpss Xc-fn-X-amb {] W-b-km- y- sf aqsn-sh v {]hm-n-is\ Zm¼-Xy-hn-j-b- nâ IsÃ-dn-bp Hmdn-bâen-Ìv-þ-an-j-\-dn-þ-bp-àn-hmZn Im]Syw XI-cpI Xs sn pw. XoÀ. ½ Ip-dn- p-iä 1. _p-jm-cn : ap-kv-enw : 7/ ap-kv-\-zv A-lv-a-Zv : ko-d- p C-_v-\p ln-imw, t]-pv : _p-jm-cn : 3662, ap-kv-enw : \-km-cu : _p-jm-cn : A-_q-Zm-hq-Zv : 4932, \-km-cu : A-_q-Zm-hq-Zv : IzpÀ-B³ 66:1 11. ap-kv-enw : ap-kv-enw : 300, _p-jm-cn : 295, _p-jm-cn : 2035, ap-kv-enw : _p-jm-cn : k-lo-lpâ Pm-an-Av, AÂ-_m-\n: 4996, ap-kv-\-zv A-lv-a-Zv _n³ l-¼â : _p-jm-cn :

44 XnÂaoZv \mkznlv sâ {]-k-àn- m-wv- A-k- n-kv-[-am-bn A-Sn-h-c-bn-Sp- -Xv-. "Km-Ôn-bp-sS Im-e- v- Rm-\p-ïm-bn-cp-s - nâ tkm-uv-sk-sbho-ïpw H-cp H-Iv-täm-_À am-kw I-S- p-t]m-bn. cmjv-{s-]n-xm-hv- a-lm-ßm Km-Ôn-sb kw-_-ôn- HmÀ-a-IÄ A-t±-l- n-sâ P- -Zn-\-t m-s-\p-_-ôn- v- hoïpw k-po-h-am-bn. b-ymà- - nâ, cm-pv-l-«nâ B-Wv- HutZym-Kn-I {]-Wm-a- Ä \-S- m-dp-å-sx- n-epw Km-Ôn-sb B-ßmÀ- -am-bn HmÀ- p- -h-cp-ss-sb-ãmw a-\-êv- t]m-ip- -Xv- _nà-fm lu-kn-te- m-wv P-\p-h-cn 30\v _nà-fm lu-kn-se- {]mà- -\m tbm-k- n-\n-ss Km-Ôn-sb ln-µp-xz `o-i-c³ \m-yp-dmw tkm-uv-sk sh-sn-sh- p-sim- -Xn-sâ \-Sp- w cm-py- n-sâ a-tx-x-c a-\-êm- n-sb C-\n-bpw hn-«p-t]m-bn-«n-ã. Km-Ôn Lm-X-I-cp-sS {]-Xy-b-im-kv-{Xw C³-Uy-bp-sS A-[n-Imcw I- m-fp- k-a-im-e- v- B \-Sp- w hà-[n- p-t D-Åq. H- -c \q-äm-tïm-fw ap-¼v- P-\n- Km-Ôn-tbm-Sp-Å Ip-Sn- -I ln-µp-xz- n-\v- C-t m-gpw A-h-km-\n- n-«n-sã- h-kv-xp-x ^m-jn-ìv- hn-cp-² t]m-cm-«- nâ B a-\p-jy- H-Iv-täm-_À ^m-jn-k-s - p-dn- v- ]-d-bp- -Xvcm-jv -{S-]n-Xm-hv - a-lm-ßm Km-Ôn-sb kw-_-ôn- HmÀ-a-IÄ A-t±-l- n-sâ P- -Zn-\-t m-s-\p-_- Ôn- v - ho-ïpw k-po-h-am-bn. b-ymà- - nâ, cm-pv -L-«n B-Wv - Hu-tZym-Kn-I {]-Wm-a- Ä \-S- m-dp-å-sx- n-epw Km-Ôn-sb B-ßmÀ- am-bn HmÀ- p- -h-cp-ss-sb-ãmw a-\-êv- t]m -Ip- -Xv - _nà-fm lu-kn-te- m-wv -. 46

45 - - - mä ap-t Rm³ kz- w ssi-iä sim-ïv- A-bm-sf h-[n- p-am-bn-cp- p' F- v A-Jn-e `m-c-xo-b ln-µp-a-lm-k- `-bp-ss tz-io-b sk-{i-«-dn tum. ]q-pm i-ip³ ]m-tþ C- -gn-ª Hm-K-Ìv- amk- nâ {]-kw-kn- -Xv- A-en-K-Un \n- v dn-t mà-«v- sn- -s -«n-cp- p. c-ï-sn \o-f-hpw c-ï-sn ho-xn-bp-ap-å tkm-uv-- sk {]-Xn-a ao-d-än-se X- -fp-ss Hm- ^o-knâ A-\m-Om-Z-\w sn-bv-xp-simïm-wv- a-lm-k-`m t\-xm- Ä 2016 H-Iv-tSm-_À c-ïv- "B-tLm-jn- -Xv'.- Km-Ôn-h-[- nâ ln-µp-xz- nsâ ]- v- a-d- p-sh- m³ _n.sp.]n-bpw BÀ. F-kv-.F-kpw {i-an- p- -Xv- A-]-e-]- \o-b-am-sw- v 2017 H-Iv-täm-_-dn ln-µp a-lm-k-`-bp-ss tz-io-b ssh-kv- {]-kn- Uâv- A-tim-Iv- ià-a {]-kv-xm-hn- n-cp- p. ln-µp-xzw A-`n-am-\-t m-ss G-äp-]-dtb-ï Km-Ôn-h-[- nâ \n- pw tkm-uvsk-bnâ \n- pw A-I-ew A-`n-\-bn- m³ {i-an- p- -h-tcm-sv-- {]-Xn-tj-[-ap-sï- v ià-a ]-d-ªp-. Km-Ôn-h-[-s - p-dn- v- A-]-am-\-te-i-an-Ãm-sX kw-km-cn- m³ D-Å ss[-cyw ln-µp a-lm-k-`-bp-ss G-ähpw h-en-b k-hn-ti-j-x-bm-wv-. BÀ.Fkv-.F-kn-\pw _n.sp.]n- pw B ss[-cyan-sã- v ià-a ]-cn-l-kn- p. apw-ss_- m-c-\m-b ]- -Pv- ^-Sv- \-kv- Km-Ôn-sb sim- -Xv- tkm-uv-skbp-ss sh-sn-bp-ï-i-f-sã- v h-cp- m³ {i-an- v- kp-{]o tim-s-xn-bnâ k-aà- n- s]-äo-j-\n-se hm-z- Ä- p-taâ A-t\zj-Ww \-S- m³ tim-s-xn H-Iv-tSm-_À B-dn-\v- A-an- -kv- Iyq-dn-sb \n-tbm-kn- kw-`-h-t m-sv- {]-Xn-I-cn-I-cn- p-simïm-wv- ià-a C- -s\ {]-kv-xm-hn- -Xv--. tkm-uv-sk-bp-ss sh-sn-bp-ï-iä X-s - bm-wv- Km-Ôn-sb sim- -Xv-. tkm-uv-sk ln-µp a-lm-k-`- m-c³ B-bn-cp- p. ln- µp a-lm-k-`-bnâ \n- pw tkm-uv-sk-bn  \n- pw Km-Ôn-h-[- n-sâ "s{i-un-äv-' X-«n-sb-Sp- m-\p-å {i-a- Ä-s -Xn-sc k-` \n-e-sim-åpw; -ià-a-bp-ss ]-cm-aài- Ä ]p-tcm-k-an- -Xv- C- -s\-sbm-s - bm-wv-. Km-Ôn-h-[- n-\p-]n-- nâ k-hà-w ln-µp-xzw X-s -bm-sw- v hn-i-z-am-bn Øm-]n- p-sim-ïv- a-lm-ßm Km-Ôn-bpsS {]-]u-{x³ Xp-jmÀ Km-Ôn Let's kill 1948 P-\p-h-cn 30\v _nà-fm lu-kn-se- {]mà- -\m tbm-k- n-\n-ss Km-Ônsb ln-µp-xz `o-i-c³ \m-yp-dmw tkm-uv sk sh-sn-sh- p-sim- -Xn-sâ \-Sp- w cm-py- n-sâ a-tx-x-c a-\-êm- n-sb C-\n-bpw hn-«p-t]m-bn-«n-ã. Km-Ôn Lm- X-I-cp-sS {]-Xy-b-im-kv -{Xw C³-Uy-bpsS A-[n-Im-cw I- m-fp- k-a-im-e- v - B \-Sp- w hà-[n- p-t D-Åq. H- -c \q-äm-tïm-fw ap-¼v - P-\n- Km- Ôn-tbm-Sp-Å Ip-Sn- -I ln-µp-xz- n-\v C-t m-gpw A-h-km-\n- n-«n-sã- h-kv Xp-X ^m-jn-ìv - hn-cp-² t]m-cm-«- nâ B a-\p-jy-sâ {]-k-àn- m-wv - A-k- n-kv -[-am-bn A-Sn-h-c-bn-Sp- -Xv -. Gandhi F- ]p-kv-x-iw F-gp-Xn-bn-«p-ïv--. tkm-uv-sk BÀ.F-kv.F-kn-sâ I-Sp- hnaà-i-i-\m-bn-cp- p-sh- pw kw-l-hp-am-bn A-t±-l- n-\v bm-sxm-cp _-Ô-hp-apïm-- ^mjnkw bn-cp- n-sã- pw FÂ.sI A-Zzm-\n \p-w ]-d-ª-xn-s\ Xp-SÀ- v 1993 \-hw-_à 21\v \m-yp-dm-an-sâ C-f-b-ktlm-Z-c-\pw Km-Ôn-h-[ Kq-Vm-tem-N- \m ti-kv {]-Xn-bp-am-bn-cp- tkm-]m-  tkm-uv-sk Zn ln-µp {Kq- n-sâ {^âv-sse³ am-k-kn-\v- A-`n-ap-Jw \Â-In-bn-cp- p. "R- Ä F-Ãm k-tlm- Z-c- m-cpw BÀ.F-kv.F-kn-ep-ïmbn-cp- p. ho-«nâ F- -Xn-t\- mä BÀ.F-kv.F-kn-em-Wv R- Ä h-fà- -Xv. BÀ.F-kv.F-kv R- Ä- v Ip- Spw-_w t]m-se-bm-bn-cp- p' F- pw "\m-yp-dmw BÀ.F-kv.F-kn _u-²n- Iv Im-cy-hm-l-Iv B-bn-cp- p' F- pw "Xm³ BÀ.F-kv.F-kv hn-«n-cp- -Xmbn \m-yp-dmw tim-s-xn-bnâ ]-d-ª-xv Km-Ôn-h-[w BÀ.F-kv.F-kn-t\-bpw tkmä-hmä- -sd-bpw h-en-b {]-iv-\- p-cp- nâ' A-I-s -Sp- n-b-xn-\m-emsw- pw tkm-]mâ A-`n-ap-J- nâ ]-d-ªn-cp- p ap-xâ \m-yp-dmw ln-µp-a-lm-k-`-bp-ss {]-hà- -\- -fnepw ]-s -Sp- p-xp-s- n-sb- v tkm-]m-  ]-d-bp- p-ïv. Xo-{h-ln-µp-hÀ-Ko-b {Kq- p-i-fnâ k-po-h-am-hp-i-bm-wv tkm-uv-sk Ip-Spw- _- nâ an- -h-cpw Km-Ôn-h-[- n-\pti-j-hpw sn-bv-x-xv. tkm-]m-en-sâ ]p-- {Xn k-hà- -dp-ss C-f-b-k-tlm-Z-c-sâ a-i-s\-bm-wv hn-hm-lw I-gn- -Xv. ln-am- \o k-hà- À F- -dn-b-s -«C-hÀ A-`n- \-hv `m-c-xn-sâ A-[y- -bm-bn {]-ikv-x-bm-bn- oà- p. tkm-]mâ 2005epw ln-am-\n 2015epw a-c-w-s -«p. ½ 47

46 apln-ºpâ hzqzv AÃmlp \s½ ]cm-p-b-s -Sp- p Nne t\c- Ä Ä DÄ-sIm-Åp- -Xm-Wv-. A-h-sb a-\-ên-em- m-\p-å {i-aw \-½p-sS "C³-im A-Ãm-lv-'I-sf Iq-Sp-XÂ Po-h-Êp-ä-Xpw a-[p-c- X-c-hp-am- pw. "C³-im A-Ãm-lv-' H-cp {]mà- -\ Iq-Sn-bm-Wv-. "d-tº, Rm- \n- m-cyw \-S- -W-sa- m-{k-ln- p- p. ]-t F-\n- v- A-Xn- \v- I-gn-bn-Ã. \o-bm-w-xv- \-S- n- -tc-ï-xv-. F-sâ B-{K-lw \o Z-bm-]qÀ-hw km- m-xv-i-cn- p-x-c-tw' F- a-t\m-`m-h-apa-\-ên-s\ A-Xn-sâ tcm-k- -fnâ \n- v kw-kv-i-cn- p- A-t\-Iw DÄ-Im-gv-N-IÄ A-Ãm-lp- kv-t\-l-]q- À-hw ]-IÀ- p-\â-ip- A-Xn-a-t\m-l-c-am-b IzpÀ-B-\n- Im-[ym-b-am-Wv- AÂ-I-lv-^v-. "C³-im A-Ãm-lv-' (A-Ãm-lp C-Ñn- mâ) F- p tnà- p-sim-ï-ãm-sx \m-sf/`m-hnbnâ F-s - n-epw sn- pw/\-s- pw/d-ïm-ipw F- v ]-dbm³ ]m-sn-sã- C-kv-em-an-I hn-[n t\à- p-t\-sc {]-kv- Xm-hn- -s -«n-«p-å IzpÀ-B³ h-n-\- -fm-wv-- I-lv-^n-se 23, 24 B-b- p-iä. F-s m-s kw-`-hn- -Ww/th-ï F- p Xo-cp-am-\n- p- -Xv- A-Ãm-lp-hm-sW- pw A-h-sâ hn-[n-sb- p-dn- bm-sxm-c-dn-hpw a-\p-jyà- v- \Â-I-s - «n-«n-ã F- pw C-cn-s `m-hn-bp-ss K-Xn-hn-K-Xn-I-sf-bpw A-Xn-se X-sâ `m-k-t[-b-s -bpw Ip-dn- p X-d- n- v- Im-cy- Ä ]-d-bp- -Xn-se i-cn-ti-sn-s\- p-dn- v- ap-kv-enw km-[mc-w- mà- p-h-sc [m-c-w-bp-ïv-. \-½-fp-sS Cw-Kn-X- -f-ã, A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ Xo-cp-am-\- -fm-wv- \-S- n-em-hp-i F- -Xn- \m-â BÀ-s - n-epw F-s - n-epw hm- v- \Â-Ip-t¼mÄ "C³ im A-Ãm-lv-' F- v Iq-«n- -d-bm³ H-cp-hn-[-sa-Ãm-h-cpw C-t mä {i-²n- m-dp-ïv-. A-Ãm-lp-hn-sâ h-ep- -hpw \-½psS sn-dp- -hpw Xn-cn- -dn-ªv- Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- "C³-im A-Ãm-lv-' F- sn-dp-hm-n-iw hn-im-e-am-b Ip-td AÀ- - F-s m-s kw-`-hn- -Ww/th-ï F- p Xo-cp-am- \n- p- -Xv- A-Ãm-lp-hm-sW- pw A-h-sâ hn-[n-sb- p-dn- bm-sxm-c-dn-hpw a-\p-jyà- v - \Â-I-s -«n-«n-ã F- pw C-cn-s `m-hn-bp-ss K-Xn-hn-K-Xn-I-sf-bpw A-Xnse X-sâ `m-k-t[-b-s -bpw Ip-dn- p X-d- n- v - Im-cy- Ä ]-d-bp- -Xn-se i-cn-ti-sn-s\- p-dn- v- ap-kv-enw km-[m-c-w- mà- p-h-sc [m-c-w-bp-ïv -. 48

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