Electronics II Physics 3620 / 6620


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1 Electronics II Physics 3620 / 6620 Jan 28, 2009 Part 1 Operational Amplifiers 2/3/2009 1
2 Some History Fairchild 0.60 Inches 1964: The First Linear IC The µa702 OpAmp 12 Transistors Designer: Bob Widlar 1965: A BestSeller The µa709 OpAmp 14 Transistors Designer: Bob Widlar 2/3/2009 2
3 2 Minute Quiz Name Section What is the voltage measured by the blue probe (#1)? What is the voltage measured by the green probe (#2)? R1 90k #3 R2 10k # What is the voltage measured by the red probe(#3)? 0 #1 2/3/2009 3
4 The green probe: 10 The red probe: 1 The blue probe: 0 Answers oltage Divider: R1 90k 1 R2 10 = R R + 2 R k 0 2/3/2009 4
5 What can you do with infinite gain? The goal of amplifier designers: huge gain. What are the problems and opportunities associated with infinite gain? First, we need a model. 2/3/2009 5
6 OpAmp 2/3/2009 6
7 Ideal OpAmp Model Gain is infinite Input resistance is infinite A = OUT + OUT = IN R IN Output resistance is zero Input voltage is zero R OUT = 0 IN = 0 Input current is zero I + = 0 I = 0 2/3/2009 7
8 Ideal OpAmp Continued Bandwidth is also infinite. Thus, an ideal opamp works the same at all frequencies. 2/3/2009 8
9 Feedback Like most engineered systems, the opamp uses feedback to realize its potential value. Feedback comes in two forms Positive Feedback Negative Feedback It seems like positive feedback might be best, but negative feedback makes the opamp work 2/3/2009 9
10 Feedback Examples From a Zoology Course You just ate a Krispy Kreme donut and your blood glucose levels are on the rise. In response to this rise, the pancreas is releasing insulin into the blood stream stimulating storage of glucose. As a result, blood glucose levels begin to drop. Is this an example of positive or negative feedback? A woman is in labor, pressure receptors in the birth canal send messages to her brain that result in increased contraction of the uterus and increased pressure in the birth canal. Is this positive or negative feedback? 2/3/
11 Feedback: alve Example As the water nears the specified level, the valve is closed. Negative feedback is most commonly used to control systems. 2/3/
12 Golden Rules for OpAmps The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the two inputs zero. (Negative Feedback is Required) The inputs draw no current. 2/3/
13 Positive and Negative Feedback Connecting the output to the positive input is positive feedback Connecting the output to the negative input is negative feedback 2/3/
14 OpAmp Configurations Buffer or oltage Follower No voltage difference between the output and the input Draws no current, so it puts no load on the source Used to isolate sources from loads 2/3/
15 OpAmp Configurations 2 NonInverting Amplifier No voltage difference between inputs Resistors act like voltage divider 2/3/ = = 1 2 R R R O
16 OpAmp Configurations NonInverting Amplifier Continued Combining the two equations for the voltages gives us the relationship between input and output 2/3/ OUT = IN + R R 1 1 2
17 OpAmp Configurations 2 Inverting OpAmp Current through R 1 equals the current through R f No current in the inputs = 0 The voltage at both inputs is zero 2 2/3/
18 OpAmp Configurations Inverting OpAmp Continued Current through R 1 Current through R f O O 2 R R 2/3/2009 f f 18 I I 1 = = 1 0 = R 1 R =
19 OpAmp Configurations Why the minus sign for the current through R f? The convention for Ohm s Law is that the current flows from the high voltage to the low voltage for a resistor Here the current flows from the low voltage (ground) to the high voltage ( O ) 2/3/
20 OpAmp Configurations Inverting OpAmp Continued The current through R 1 must equal the current through R 2 since there is no current in the inputs. Combining the two equations for the currents R OUT = IN R 2/3/ f 1
21 OpAmp Configurations Inverting Summing Amplifier Each input resistor contributes to the current. 2/3/ OUT f f f = R R R R R R 1 2 3
22 OpAmps: Practical Issues We use real opamps: LF351 Note the pin connections for the IC Note: Literally a Black Box 2/3/
23 OpAmps: Practical Issues OpAmps require power 351 requires cc of ±1215 Others may require only positive or both positive and negative voltages Output voltage is limited to < < + CC OUT CC Usually filter capacitors are connected to power to reduce noise 2/3/
D is the voltage difference = (V +  V  ).
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