General Physics I Momentum


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1 General Physics I Momentum
2 Linear Momentum: Definition: For a single particle, the momentum p is defined as: p = mv (p is a vector since v is a vector). So p x = mv x etc. Units of linear momentum are kg m/s.
3 Momentum Conservation The concept of momentum conservation is one of the most fundamental principles in physics. This is a component (vector) equation. Momentum along a certain direction is conserved when there are no external forces acting in this direction. Recall that force causes a chance in velocity and as momentum is defined by velocity.well, you see! You will see that we often have momentum conservation even when energy is not conserved.
4 1D Conservation of Linear Momentum What this means is that the momentum before and the momentum after must be equal to each other. We will primarily deal with conservation of momentum with respect to 1D linear collision situations For a 2body system this is: m 1 v 1i + m 2 v 2i = m 1 v 1f + m 2 v 2f This is a component vector equation since velocity is a vector! So don t forget that this means that the velocity could be positive or negative
5 Comment on Energy Conservation We have seen that the energy of a system is not necessarily conserved. Energy can be lost: Heat (bomb) Bending of metal (crashing cars) In terms of collisions, kinetic energy is not conserved since work is done during the collision! We talk about kinetic energy since, in the context of momentum, the object(s) has velocity. We will also deal with conservation of kinetic energy with respect to 1D linear collision situations For a 2body system this is: 1 / 2 m 1 v 2 1i + 1 / 2 m 2 v 2 2i = 1 / 2 m 1 v 2 1f + 1 / 2 m 2 v 2 2f
6 Elastic vs. Inelastic Collisions A collision is said to be elastic when kinetic energy as well as momentum is conserved before and after the collision. K before = K after Carts colliding with a spring in between, billiard balls, etc. v i A collision is said to be inelastic when kinetic energy is not conserved before and after the collision, but momentum is conserved. K before K after Car crashes, collisions where objects stick together, etc.
7 Inelastic Collision in 1D A block of mass M is initially at rest on a frictionless horizontal surface. A bullet of mass m is fired at the block with a muzzle velocity (speed) v. The bullet lodges in the block, and the block ends up with a speed V. In terms of m, M, and V : What is the initial energy of the system? What is the final energy of the system? What does momentum conservation tell us? Is kinetic energy conserved? x v V before after
8 Momentum Conservation Two balls of equal mass are thrown horizontally with the same initial velocity. They hit identical stationary boxes resting on a frictionless horizontal surface. The ball hitting box 1 bounces back with the same velocity it had initially, while the ball hitting box 2 gets stuck. Which box ends up moving faster? V 1 V (a) Box 1 (b) Box 2 (c) Same
9 Collisions A box sliding on a frictionless surface collides and sticks to a second identical box which is initially at rest. What is the ratio of initial to final kinetic energy of the system? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 2
10 Inelastic collision in 2D Consider a collision in 2D (cars crashing at a slippery intersection...no friction). v 1 V m 1 m 1 + m 2 m 2 v 2 before after
11 Inelastic collision in 2D... There are no net external forces acting. Use momentum conservation for both components. X: P = = ( + ) ox P fx m 1 v 1 m 1 m 2 V x V x = m1 m m v ( + ) y: P = = ( + ) oy P fy m 2 v 2 m 1 m 2 V y m Vy = 2 m + m v ( ) v 1 V = (V x,v y ) m 1 m 2 m 1 + m 2 v 2
12 Explosion (inelastic uncollision) Before the explosion: M After the explosion: v 1 v 2 m 1 m 2 No external forces, so P is conserved. Initially: P = Finally: P =
13 The Crazy Bomb A bomb explodes into 3 identical pieces. Which of the following configurations of velocities is possible? v m v m v m m V v m m v (1) (2) (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) Both
14 Elastic Collisions Elastic means that kinetic energy is conserved as well as momentum. This gives us more constraints We can solve more complicated problems!! Billiards (2D collision) The colliding objects have separate motions after the collision as well as before. Initial Final Let s start with a simpler 1D problem...
15 Elastic Collision in 1D initial m 1 m 2 v 1i v 2i x final v 1f m 1 m 2 v 2f
16 Elastic Collision in 1D m 1 m 2 Conserve P X : before v 1i v 2i m 1 v 1i + m 2 v 2i = m 1 v 1f + m 2 v 2f x after Conserve Kinetic Energy: v 1f v 2f 1 / 2 m 1 v 2 1i + 1 / 2 m 2 v 2 2i = 1 / 2 m 1 v 2 1f + 1 / 2 m 2 v 2 2f Suppose we know v 1i and v 2i We need to solve for v 1f and v 2f Should be no problem 2 equations & 2 unknowns! This relationship becomes: v 1i v 2i = v 2f v 1f
17 An example of 2D elastic collisions: Billiards. If all we know is the initial velocity of the cue ball, we don t have enough information to solve for the exact paths after the collision. But we can learn some useful things...
18 Billiards. Consider the case where one ball is initially at rest. p f p i v net F P f initial The final direction of the red ball will depend on where the balls hit. final
19 Billiards. The final directions are separated by 90 o. p i p f v net F P f initial final
20 Billiards. So, we can sink the red ball without sinking the white ball.
21 Billiards. So, we can sink the red ball without sinking the white ball. However, we can also scratch. All we know is that the angle between the balls is 90 o.
22 End of Momentum Lecture
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