KpW-ta-³-a-IÄ hyxy-kv-x-xsb A-S-bm-f-s -Sp- p- p

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1 _nkn\-êv s{]m-ss^â

2 hy-xy-kv-x-amip-i F- mâ A-Xn-\À w a-äp-å-h-tc- mä an-i- -Xm-bn F-s - nepw \Â-Ip-hm³ R- Ä- v km-[n pw F- m-wv. C-Xph-sc-bpÅ Io-gvh-g- - -fnâ- \n pw hy-xy-kv-x-am-bn, D-bÀ Kp-W-ta³-a B-kz-Zn- phm\pw A-Xn-eq-sS FÃm-hÀ- pw H-cp-an- p-å h-fà- D-d- m- p-hm-\pw, H-cp an-i- h-gn sx-c-sª-sp- p-hm³ R- -tfm-ssm- w ] ptncq. ]-cn-an-xn-i-fnãm- H-«-\h[n A-h-k-c- Ä D-d- p-\â-ip- am-xr-im-]-cam-b H-cp _n-kn-\êv ssi-en-bm-wv amà- v-eo-uv ap-t m-«v sh- p- -Xv. hy-àn-]-cam-b kzm-x-{ y- n-\pw, hy-àn-]-cam-b tk-h- \- Ä pw A-Xn-ep-ap]cn t\-xr-xz-ti-jnbp-å hy-àn-xz- Ä pw k-hntij aqeyw IÂ- n- p- H-cp kw-hn-[-m\-am- -bm-wv amà- veo-uv F- B-ib-s cq-]-s -Sp- n-bn-«p-åxv. Im-e-L-«- n-sâ KpW-ta-³-a-IÄ hyxy-kv-x-xsb A-S-bm-f-s -Sp- p- p G-ähpw an-i- Kp-W-ta -bmà- D-Xv-]- - -fn-eq-ss-bpw, A-h-bp-sS D-]-t`m-K- n-eq-ss an-i- em-`hpw D-d- p-h-cp n, e-t m-]e w Po-h-nX- -sf k-t m-j-`-cn-x-am p-isb a-l m-b e yw D-bÀ- n-]n-sn- p-ibpw aä-«n- se-hâ amà- -änw-kv F- \ho\ hn-] W-\-ssi-en-sb A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am- n {]-hà- n- p-ibpw sn- p, Xn-I pw hy-xy-kv-xhpw k-hn-ti-j-hpamb H-cp _n-kn-\-êv B-i-b- n-sâ km-^-ey-amwv amà- v-eo-uv F kw-cw`w. B-[p-\n-I-hpw ]-c-¼-cm-k-xhpamb- _n-kn-\-êv ssi-en-i-fnâ-\n- pw A-\p-`-h-k- ¼-- pw {]-tnm-z-\hpw DÄ-sIm-ïn-«pÅ hnz-kv-[-cmb H-cp Iq-«w s{]m-^-j-\-ep-i-fmwv amà- veo-un-\v t\-xrxzw \Â-Ip- -Xv. am-ä -sf DÄ-s mïp-sim-ïv, temi k-aq-l- n-tâbpw hym-h-km-bn-i-tem-i- n-tâbpw {]-Xo- -I-sf Hcp-t]m-se \n-d-th-äp -Xn-\mbn, D-Xvv]- - fpw tk-h-\- fpw Xp-SÀ- -bm-bn \-ho-icn- p-sim-ïpw ]-cn-jv-i-cn- p-sim-ïpw b-ymà Kp-W-ta³-a-bp-sS i-cnbmb h-àm- -fm-bn am-dp-hm\pw amà- veo-uv e- y-an-sp p. B-ßmÀ- amb {]-bxv-\- n-tâbpw ]p-xp-a-bmà ssi-en-i-fp-ssbpw B-[p\nI kw-cw-`-i-xz- -fp-ssbpw {]-Xo-I-am-Wv amà- v-eo-uv F- B-i-bw. D-Õm-l-]qÀÆhpw {In-bm-ß-Ihpam-b {]-hà- -\- -fn-eq-ss A-Sn-Øm-\ku-Icy- Ä hn-i-kn- n- p-hm-\pw ]pxn-b km-t -Xn-I-hn-Zy-IÄ kzm-b- -am- phm\pw A-Xn-eq-sS hn-x-c-w mà pw D-]- t`m-àm- Ä pw an-i- kw-xr-]v-xnbpw h-cp-am-\hpw D-d- p-h-cp- p ssi-en-bm- Wv amà- v-eo-uv ]n³-xp-s-cp- -Xv. Xp-SÀ- bm-b ]-cn-io--e\- n-eq-ssbpw {]-tnm-z-\- fn-eq-ssbpw I-gn-hp-ä Hcp t\-xr-xz-\n c-sb hmà-s -Sp- p- -Xnepw A-Xn-eq-sS an-i- H-cp amà- -änw-kv ir-j-e h-fà- nsb-sp- p- -Xnepw amà- v-eo-uv AXo-h {i-²- ]-Xn- n- p- p. an-i- km-¼- n-i- `-{Z-Xbpw Øn-c-X-bpw D-d- p-h-cp- p- -Xnte- mbn i-cnbmb ZoÀ-L-ho- -W- ntâbpw i-àam-b km-¼ ni A-Sn- -d-bn-ep-am-wv amà- v-eo-uv F Cu kw-cw`w ]-Sp- p-bà- n-bn-«p-åxv. 2 I amà- v-eouv

3 a-t\m-`m-h Ä hn-p-b- -fn-te- v \-bn- p- p Po-hn-X- nâ IqSp-X Iq-Sp-X D-b-c- -fn-se- p-hm³ B-{K-ln- p- - ip-`m-]v-xn-hn-izmkn-ifpw ]-cn-{i-a-im-en-i-fp-am-b hy-àn-xz- Ä v H-«-\h-[n A-h-k-c- -fm-wv amà- v-eo-uv ap-t m-«p-sh- p- Xv. Kp-W-ta ]- p-sh- p- -Xn-sâ t\-«ä FÃm-hÀ pw B-kz-Zn- p-hm\pw A-Xn-eq-sS FÃm-hÀ pw an-i- em-`w t\-sn-sb-sp phm-\pw k-lm-b-i-am-b hf-sc e-fn-xam-b H-cp Uyp-h ¹m-\m-Wv amà- v-eo-uv A-h-X-cn- n- p- Xv. ap-dp-si ]n-sn- p- aq-ey- Ä \n -fp-ss Po-hnX-s ]-cn-t]m-jn- n pi hn-izmky-x: Kp-W-ta- -bp-å D-Xv-]- - fpw tk-h-\- fpw D-d- m- p-i-bpw A-Xn-th-K- nâ {]Xn-^ew \Â-Ip-Ibpw sn- p- hn-iz-k-\o-bam-b kw-cw`w. k-xykô-x: \o-xn-bp-àamb Ir-XyXbpw kp-xm-cy-xbpw D-d- p-h-cp- -W-sa v \n-jv- IÀ-jn- p-i-bpw \n-co- n- p-ibpw sn- p- k-xy-k-ôam-b kw-cw`w. ho Ww ]-cn-jv-ir-xhpw kp-øn-c-hpam-b aä-«n-se-hâ amà- -änw-kv kw-hn-[m-\- n-eq-ss an-i-hp-ä D-Xv-]- - -fpw tk-h-\- -fpw hn-xc-ww sn-bv-xp-simïpw A-Xn-eq-sS Iq-SpX _n-kn\kv A-h-k-c- -Ä kr-ãn- p-ibpw sn-bvxp-sim-ïpw tem-iw ap-gp h³ Aw-Ko-I-cn- p- H-cp U-b-d-Iv-äv skãnw-kv I-¼-\n-bm-bn ]p-tcm-k-an- p-i. ZuXyw an-i-hn-tâbpw G-tIm-]-\- n-tâbpw D-bÀ- aq-ey- Ä D-bÀ- n- n-sn p-simïv ]-cn-jv-ir-xhpw kp-øn-c-hpam-b Hcp aä-«n-se-hâ amà- -änw-kv kw-hn-[m-\- n-eq-ss D-bÀ- Kp-W-ta- -bp-å D-Xv- ]- - -Ä am{xw hn-xc-ww sn- p- Xn-I pw kz-x-{ am-b hn-x-c-w- m-cp-ss Im-cy- -aam-b Hcp hn]-w-\ irw-j-e krãn-s Sp p-ibpw Ah-sc Hm-tcm-cp- -tcbpw tem-tim- -c-\n-e-hmchpw A-km-am\y t\-xrxz-ti-jn-bp-ap-å kw-cw-`- I-cm- n hmà-s -Sp- p-ibpw sn- pi. k-a-`mh-\: bmsxmcp hn-[- n-ep-å thà-xncn-hp-iä pw hn-th-n-\- Ä pw C-S-\ÂImsX, kw-cw-`- n-sâ Ip-S- o-gn-ep-å FÃm-hcp-tSbpw A-h-Im-i- fpw B-\p-Iq-ey- -fpw Hcp-t]m-se kw-c- n- -s -Sp-sa- B-ZÀ-iw D-bÀ- n- n-sn- p- kw-cw`w. D-Xv-]-Xn-jvWp-X: A-Sn-Øm-\ B-ZÀ-i- - fnâ-\n pw aq-ey- -fnâ-\n pw hy-xn-n-en- msx Xs, ]p-xn-b- Im-ew ap-t m-«p-sh- p B-h-iy-I-X-I-sf Xn-cn- -dn-bp-hm\pw Im-em-\pkr-Xamb am-ä -sfbpw ]-cn-jv-im-c- -tfbpw DÄ-sIm-Å-p-hm-\p-w I-gn-bp kw-cw`w. k-a-{k-w: A-Sn-Øm-\-X-Xz- -fpw [mà-½n-i- Xbpw am-\-z-þ- fpw ap-dp-si- n-sn p-sim-ïv k-a-{kam-bn ap-t -dp- kw-cw`w. B-ßmÀ -X: Øn-c-X-bp-tSbpw k-xy- ntâbpw B-[n-Im-cn-I-X-bp-tSbpw h-àm- -fmbn hà- n- p kw-cw`w. hn\-bw: kà-æ-kr-ãmhmb ssz-h-t m- Sp-Å B-Z-chpw \-µnbpw \n-e-\nà n-simïv klkw-cw-`- -fp-ss {]-hà- -\- Ä pw kâ-t -cn\pw If- w h-cp- m-sx-, hn-\-bm- \zn-x-am-bn {]-hà- n- p kw-cw-`w 3 I amà- v-eouv

4 tamà Sp eouv CþtIm-ta-gv-k (Hm -sse³ tjm- v, amà- v-eo-uv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-t«-gvkn\pam{Xw) amà- v-eo- amà- v-eo-uv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq«À D]t`màm Ä amà- v-eo- (amà- v-eo-uv tìm-gvkv amà- v-eo-uv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-t«-gvkn\pam{Xw) amà- v-eo-uv s{]mu-îv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-j³ kn-kvddw C-Xph-sc CÃm-Xn-cp, H-cp aä-«n se-hâ amà- -änw-kv ¹mäv-t^m-an-eqsS, hy-xykv-xcm-b \nà-½m-xm- -fp-ss AXnhn-in-ãam-b D-Xv-]- - Ä, CþsIm-ta-gv-kv kw-hn-[m-\- n-eq-ssbpw amà- v-eo-un-sâ {_m³u-uv kv-täm-gv-kv irw-j-e-i-fn-eq-ssbpw s{]m-tam-«v sn- p- -Xn-\pÅ a-säm-cp an-i- A-hk-cw Iq-Sn amà- v-eo-uv A-h-X-cn- n p p. CþtIm-ta-gv-kn-sâ t\-«ä F-t mä -th-w-sa- nepw hm- p-ibpw hnâ- p-ibpw sn- mw. tem-i- n-se-hn-ssbpw hm- p-ibpw hnâ- p-ibpw sn mw. hy-àn]-cam-b Hm -sse³ A-\p-`-h-w. kà- -ti-jn-sb F-fp- - nâ t{]m-õm-ln- n- p-hm³ I-gn-bp p. I-Ì-ta-gv-kn-s\ F-fp- - nâ ]p\-øm]n p- -Xnt\m doamà -äv sn p Xn\pw I-gnbp p. kz-im-cy-x-bn-te- p-å I-S- pib-äw F txm- Â D-ïm-Ip- nã. Iq-Sp-XÂ hen-b HmÀ-U-dp-IÄ t{]mk-êv sn- p-hm-\p-å ku-i-cyw. th-k- nâ _n-kn-\-ên-s\ hn-e-bn-cp- p- - Xn-\p-Å ku-icyw. kw-xr-]vxn-tbm-sp-iq-sn ss\-êà-kn-i-ambn _n-kn\-êv h-fà- p- -Xn-\p-Å ku-icyw. ka-bw em-`n mw. bm-{x-bp-ss B-Ip-e-X-IÄ H-gn-hm mw. `u-xn-iam-b kv-täm-dp-i-fp-ss t\-«- Ä P-\-{]nb-X. XÕ-a-b kw-xr-]vxn. D-Xv-]- - Ä ]-co- n- p-hm³ I-gn-bp p. km-aq-ln-iam-b kzo-imcyx. Hm -sse³ ]À-t -kp-i-fp-ss hn-izmky-x hà-²n- n- p p. ^-e-{]-z-am-bn {_m³-uv sn- p-hm³ I-gnbp p. D-Xv-]- - -fp-ss hn-]p-eam-b t{i-wn e-`y-am- p-hm³ I-gn-bp p. aä-«n se-hâ amà- -änw-kn-sâ t\-«- Ä sndn-b \n-t -]- n-eqss B-cw-`w Ip-dn- mw. \n-t -] Ä ]-c-amh-[n {]-tbm-p-\- s -Sp- p- -Xn-\p-Å A-hkcw. k-a-b-]-c-ambpw km-¼ n-i-ambpw ]qà kzm-x-{ yw. B-tKm-f hym-]m-c- n-\p-å km[y-x. an-i-hpä I-Ì-aÀ k-t mà«pw ]-cn-io-e-\- km-[y-x-ifpw. hy-àn-xz-hn-im-k- n-\p-å ku-icyw. ]-tcm- am-b a-säm-cp h-cp-am-\-amà- w IqSn. Po-hn-X-\n-e-hm-cw D-bÀ- p- -Xn-\p-Å km-l-ncyw. hy-àn-]-cam-b A-Sp- Ä D-Xv-]- - - fp-ss -hn-izmkyx D-d- m- p p. {]m-b-tam, -enw-k-tam, a-x-tam, I-gn-hp- Itfm F- bm-sxm-cphn[ hn-th-n-\- Ä pw Øm-\-anÃ. shà- zâ Hm-^o-kv ku-i-cy-t m-sp- Iq-Sn-b kzbw- sxm-gnâ kw-cw-`- -sf ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp- p p. t\-xr-xz-\n-ci-sf hmà-s -Sp- p-hm³ k-lm-bn- p p. Iq-SpXÂ km-aq-ln-i_-ô- -fpw hyàn-]-cam-b Aw-Ko-I-mc-hpw. 4 I amà- v-eouv

5 A-Xn-hn-in-ãam-b D-Xv-]- - -fp-ss hn-]p-eambt{iwn A-Xn-hn-in-jvSamb D-Xv-]- - -fp-ss hn-]p-eam-b H-cp t{i-wn e-`y-am- n-simv. FÃm-hn-`mKw P-\- Ä- pw k-t m-jw ]-IÀ- p -\Â-Ip-I-bpw, Iq-SmsX {]-kv-xp-x D-Xv-]- - -fp-ss Kp-W-ta- D-]-tbm-Kn- p- -Xn-\pw, B-kz-Zn- p- -Xn-\pw, t{]m-õmln- n- p- -Xn\pw, Hmtcm D-]-t`m-àm-hn\pw {]-Xn^-ew D-d- m- p-i-bpw sn pi F- {]-tnmz-\m-ß-iam-b H-cp B-i-b- n-sâ km-^-ey-am-wv amà- v-eouv. DXv`m-K- Ä ImÀjn-I D-Xv-] - Ä `-t ym-xv-] - Ä B-tcm-Ky kw-c- Ww ku-µcy kw-c- Ww cp-nn- q-«piä Kr-tlm-Xv-]- Ä hy-ànkw-c- Ww kz-im-cy D-Xv-] - Ä h-kv-t{xm-xv-]- Ä _m-kp-iä Kr-tlm-Xv-]- Ä a ]m-{x Ä 5 I amà- v-eouv

6 HmÀant ï {][m\s «Imcy Ä timw-]-³tk-j³ ¹m³ FÃm-hÀ- pw ]-e-as- v {]-Xn-^-e Ä D-d- m- p- G-ähpw e-fn-xam-b Uyp-hÂ-¹m³ G-ähpw an-i D-Xv-]- - -fp-ss hn-]p-eam-b H-cp tij-cw A-h-X-cn- n p-simïv e-t m-]e- w P-\- -fp-ss Po-hn-X -sf D-bÀ- Kp-W-ta- -bn-eqss k-t m-j-`-cn-x-am p-i F- - {]-tnm-z-\m-ß- Iam-b H-cp B-i-b-am-Wv amà- v-eo-uv D-bÀ- n- ]n-sn- p- -Xv. FÃm-änepw D]-cn-bmbn {]-kv-xp-x D-Xv-]- - -fp-ss Kp-W-ta- B-kz-Zn- p-ibpw t{]m-õm-ln- n- p-ibpw sn- p- -Xn-eq-sS FÃm-h À- pw B-IÀ-j-Iamb {]-Xn^-ew D-d- m- p-i-bpw sn- p- p F- -Xm-Wv amà- v-eo-uv kw-cw-`- n-sâ k-hn-tij-x. FÃm-hÀ pw A-Xn-cp-I-fnÃmsX A-h-k-c- Ä H-cp- p-, I -kyq-aà tem-bâ-än t{]m-{km-w A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am- n cq-]-s -Sp n-b am-xr-im-]-cam-b H-cp Po-hn-X-ssi-en-bm-Wv amà- v-eo-uv ap-t m-«p-sh- p- -Xv. -CXph-sc Xp-SÀ- p-h-cp- - ssi-en-i-fnâ \n pw hy-xy-kv-x-ambn, ani Kp-W-ta- - B-kz-Zn- p-hm\pw D-bÀ Po-hn-X-hn-P-bw D-d- m- p-hm-\pw A-Xn-eq-sS hensbm-cp am-ä- n-\v Xp-S w Ip-dn- p-hm\pw R- -tfm-ssm- w tncq. kv-]nâþhm-hà - t]m-bnâv hm-eyp, Un-kv-{Sn-_yp-«-À B-Zy-s ]À-t bvkv \-S- p-t¼mäxs (B-Iv-än-thj-\p ap-¼m-bn) t_mw-kv I-W- m- p- -Xn-\mbn t]m-bnâv hm-eyp D]tbmKn- p p. FÃm amà- veo-uv D-Xv-]- - Ä pw Hcp t]m-bnâv hm-eyp- \n-ý-bn- n-«pïv. (1 t]m-bnâv hm-eyp = 10 cq-]) - _n-kn\-kv thmfyw Un-kv-{Sn-_yq«À Hm-tcm X-h-W ]À-t -bv-kv B-hÀ- n- p-t¼m-gpw (B-Iv-än-th-j-\p -ti-jw) t_mw-kv I-W- m- p- -Xn-\mbn _n-kn\-kv thmfyw A-\p-h-Zn- p- p. FÃm amà- veo-uv D-Xv-]- - Ä pw Hcp _n-kn\-kv thm-fy-amwv \n-ý-bn- n-«p- Å-Xv. (_n-kn\-kv thmfyw = 1 cq]) - A-Iyp-a-teäUv _n-kn\-kv thmfyw (B-Zy-s ]À-t bv-knsâ _n-kn\-kv thmfyw DÄ-s -Sp n) t]-gv-k WÂ _n-kn\-kv thm-fy-hpw {Kq v _n-kn\-kv thm-fyhpw tnà- p-å kwjy. - t]-gv-kwâ _n-kn\-kv thmfyw. -- {Kq v _n-kn\-kv thm-fyhpw{]-xnamk t]-gv-kwâ _n-kn\-kv thm-fy-hpw \n- -fp-ss Io-gnÂ-h-cp- {Kq- p- IfpsS _n-kn\-kv thm-fyhpw tnà- p-å hmeyp. -- bq-wn-th-gvkâ _n-kn\-kv thmfyw I-¼-\n-bp-sS sam w _n-kn\-kv thmfyw. -- \n- Ä- p ap-i-fn-ep-å-hà sim-ïp-h-cp- Un-kv-{Sn- _yq-«à-amà \n- -fp-ss t¹-kv-saâv {So-bp-sS `m-k-am-bncn pw. Izmfn-ss^bnw-Kv Sow -- t_mw-kv I-W- m- p-t¼mä D-Ä-s -Sp- m-xn-cp G-ähpw Iq-SpXÂ t]m-bnâv hm-eyp t\-sp- Sow. t] Hu-«v Sow - Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_mw-kv IW- p-iq-«p- Xn-\p-th-ïn ]-cn-k-wn- p- G-ähpw Ip-dª t]m-bnâv hmeyp t\-sp- c-ïma-s Sow. Sow - t¹-kv-saâv s\-äv-hà- nâ \n- -fp-ss Io-gnÂ-h-cp- FÃm t¹-kv-saâp-i-fpw. {Kq- v - kv-t]m -kà s\-äv-hà- nâ DÄ-s -Sp \n- -fp-ss d-^-dâkv (ip-]mà-i sn- -s -Sp- hà). 6 I amà- v-eouv

7 t¹-kv-saâ v s\-äv-hà- v (]-c-am-h-[n 2 So-ap-IÄ am{xw) t¹-kv-saâv s\-ävhà- nse Hmtcm Aw-K- fpw H- p-inâ t\-cn-«p Xn-csª-Sp -htcm A-sÃ- nâ H-cp amà- veo-uv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«À AY-hm A-bm-fp-sS A-]vsse³ Xn-c-sª-Sp -htcm B-bn-cn pw. So-w - bp So-w - F _n kn Un C F^v kv-]nâþhm-hà A en-anä-uv su-]v v kv-]nâþhm-hà kv-t]m -kà s\-äv-hà- v (]-cn-[n-bnãm- {Kq- piä) kv-t]m -kà s\-ävhà- n-se FÃm Aw-K- fpw amà- veo-uv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«-dpsS t\-cn-«p-å d-^-dâkv (ip-]mà-i-iä) B-bncn pw. F Un _n C bp kn F^v A en-anä-uv hn-uv v A en-anä-uv su-]v v - 7 I amà- v-eouv

8 14 hn-[- nâ t\-«- Ä B-kz-Zn- p-hm³i-gn-bp- km-¼ n-i kzm-x-{ yw do-s«-bnâ em`w 20% hsc Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_mwkv 12% saâ-dnw-kv t_mw-kv 6% tjm- nw-kv t_mw-kv 6% ^m-ìv {Sm- v dn-hmà-uv A-Iyp-a-te-äo-hv s]à-t^m-a³-kv t_mw-kv 10%þ25% bq-wn-th-gv-kâ eo-uà-jn- v t_mwkv 20% bq-wn-th-gv-kâ {Sm-h ^ v 6% bq-wn-th-gv-kâ sh-ln- nä ^ v 6% bq-wn-th-gv-kâ lu-kv ^ v 6% Ub-a v C³-skâo-hv 10% bq-wn-th-gv-kâ U-ba v ]qä C³-Iw 10% {][m\ k-hn-ti-j-x-iä Po-hn-Xw ]cn-t]m-jn- n- p-hm³ 6 hn-[- n-ep-å h-cpam-\ t{km-x-êp-iä 1. Zn-h-tk-\-bp-Å h-cp-am\w 2. BgvN-bn-epÅ hcp-am\w 3. amkw-txm-dp-ap-å h-cp-am\w 4. AÀ-²-hmÀjn-I h-cp-am\w 5. hmà-jn-i-h-cp-am-\w 6. B-tKm-f- h-cp-am-\- n-sâ 5 hn-[- n-ep-å ]- p-iä i-àam-b am-t\-pv-saân-\p-io-gnâ {]-hà- n- p- kp-øn-cam-b aä-«n-se-hâ amà- -änw-kv kw-hn-[m-\w 1. sf.f-kv.h km y-s -Sp n-b 2. ^pä-kv-si-bnâ _n-kn\kv su-enh-dn kw-hn-[m\w Hm-t«m-taj³ 3. tem-tim- -c \n-e-hm-c-apå 4. \q-x-\amb km-t Xn-I hn-zy-iä t\-xr-xz\n-c a-äp-x-c- n-ep-å t\-«- Ä kup\y sa-un-  C³-jp-d³kpw D- -X- hn-zym-`ym-k- n-\p-å kv-tim-fà-jn pw e-fn-xam-b Uyp-h amà- -änw-kv ¹m³ A-Iyp-a-te-äo-hv _n-kn-\êv thmfyw C³-^n-\n-äv su-]v-xv ImÂ- p-te-j³ t\m dm- v Un-tam-j³ U-b-d-Iv-tä-gv-kv t_mw-kv 3%þ17% t{]m-^n-äv sj-b-dnw-kv 5% t\m ^vfjv Hu-«v t\m Izm«t\m sssw s{^bnw t^mà A- o-th-gv-kv en-an-äve-kv A- o-hv-saâv-kv 8 I amà- v-eouv

9 do-s«-bnâ em-`w ^-kv-äv ]À-t -bv-kv (GIv-än-thj-\v ap³]v) 10% Ingnhv 20% dn- o-äv Ingn-hv ]À-t -bv-kv (GIv-än-thj-\v tijw) do-s«-bnâ em-`w do-s«-bnâ em-`w Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_mw-kv Xm-sgbp-Å \n-c-bnâ (Uu sse³) B-sc- n-epw Ht m A-Xn-e-[n-Itam D-Xv-]- - Ä ]À-t -bv-kv sn-bvxpsim v Hcp A- u v B-Iv-än-th-äv sn-bv-xmâ, A-bm-fp-sS ap-i-fn-se \n-c-bn-ep-å-hà v (A-]v sse³) t]m-bnâv hm-eyp-hn-sâ A-Sn-Øm-\- nâ Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_m-w-kn-\v AÀ-l-X D m-bn-cn- pw. s{]m-u-iv-äv ]À-t -bv-kv B-Iv-än-th-j-\n-eq-sS D m-ip t]m-bnâv hmeyp A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bmwv t¹-bv-kvsaâv s\-ävhà- pw, t¹-bv-kv-saâv s\-ävhà- n-s\ A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bmwv Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_m-wkpw I-W- m- p- Xv. 600 PV (Izm-fn-ss^-bn- v Sow) SowþF Xm Ä 300 PV (t] Au-«v Sow) Sowþ_n t_mwêv =R = X A-Xn-cp-I-fnÃm t_mw-kv ]-cn-[n t] Hu-«n-\v AÀ-l-cm-Ip- B-Zy-s tpm-un v 1:2 / 2:1, Xp-SÀ- p-h-cp tpm-un-iä v 1:1 1 t]m-bnâv hmeyp = 10 cq] am nw-kv t] Hu-«v i-x-am-\w þ 12% su-bvv-en Iym- nwkv / ko-enwkvv þ {]-Xn-Zn\w 7500 cq] t_mw-kv sk-änâ-saâv ]n-co-uv þ {]-XnZn-\ sk-änâ-saâv Sow sk-änâ-sa-âv þ H-cp Zn-h-k-sa- -Xv C y³ kabw 0:00 apxâ 24:00 h-sc-bm-wv. H-cp Zn-hk-s t] Hu-«v sxm-«-sp- {]-hr n Znh-kw s{i-un-äv sn- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw. DZm-lcWw SowþF 300 ]n hn 500 ]n hn 1000 ]n hn 2000 ]n hn Sowþ_n 300 ]n hn 500 ]n hn 1000 ]n hn 2000 ]n hn t_m-wêv (X) M M M M I amà- v-eouv

10 saâ-dnw-kv t_m-w-kv \n- -fpss t\-cn-«p-å ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp- -ep-iä (d-^dâ) Xm Ä DZm-lcWw t\-cn-«p-å d-^-dâ B-gv-N-tXm-dp-ap-Å \n- -fpss Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_mw-kv \n- -fp-ss sa³-u-dnw-kv t_mw-kv F 52,500 3,150 _n 45,000 2,700 kn 25,000 1,500 Un 18,000 1,080 F _n kn Un B-gv-N-tXm-dpw R 8,430 cq-] hoxw \n- Ä v saâdnw-kv t_m-w-km-bn e-`n- p-xp-s- p p \n- Ä t\-cn-«p ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp- - -hà Sow am- nw-kv s]-tb-gv-kn-s\ sim p-h-cp- ap-d-bv- v, A-h-cp-sS Hcp BgvN-bnse sam w Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_m-wkn-sâ 6% FÃm Xn- -fm-gv-n-txmdpw \n- Ä- v e-`n p-sim-t -bn-cn- pw. tjm- nw-kv t_mw-kv \n- -fpss t\-cn-«p-å ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp- -ep-iä (d-^dâ) Xm Ä D²m-lcWw t\-cn-«p-å d-^-dâ B-gv-N-tXm-dp-ap-Å \n- -fpss Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_mw-kv \n- -fp-ss sa³-u-dnw-kv t_mw-kv F 52,500 3,150 _n 45,000 2,700 kn 25,000 1,500 Un 18,000 1,080 F _n kn Un B-gv-N-tXm-dpw R 8,430 cq-] hoxw \n- Ä v tjm- nwkv t_m-w-km-bn e-`n- p-xp-s- p p \n- Ä t\-cn-«p ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp- - -hà Sow am- nw-kv s]-tb-gv-kn-s\ sim p-h-cp- ap-d-bv- v, Ah-cpsS Hcp BgvN-bnse sam w Sow _nâ-unw-kv t_m-wkn-sâ 6% FÃm Xn- -fm-gv-n-txmdpw \n- Ä- v tjm-]n-w-kv t_m-w-kmbn e-`n p-sim-t -bn-cn- pw. 10 I amà- v-eouv t_mw-kv sk-änâ-saâv ]n-co-uv þ A-Xm-Xv B-gvN-bnÂX-s sk-änâ- sn- p p. B-gv-N-bp-sS k-a-b-]-cn[n I-W- m- p -Xv FÃm Xn- -fm-gv-nbpw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 1 a-wn ap-xâ Xp-SÀ- p-h-cp Rm-b-dmgv-N AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 12 a-wn h-sc- B-bn-cn- pw (C- y³ ka-bw A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n). t\-cn-«p-å ]-cn-n-bs -Sp- -ep-i-fn-eqss (U-b-d-Iv-äv d-^-dâ-kv) B-gv-N-tXmdpw I-W- m- -s - Sp t_mw-kv Xp-I FÃm Xn- -fm-gv-n-txmdpw A-\p-h-Zn- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw.

11 ^m-ìv {Sm- v dn-hmàuvv {Ia. \w am- n-wkv t]m-bnâv hmeyp tbm-ky-x k-a-b-]-cn-[n D-]-lm-c- n-sâ kz-`m-hw ]n. hn. B-Iv-än-th-äv sn- p- Znh-kw ap-xâ 7Znh-kw am{xw amà- v-eo-uv Kn-^v-äv ]m- v A-Iyp-a-te-äo-hv s]à-t^m-a³-kv t_mwkv A-Iyp-a-te-äo-hv s]à-t^m-a³-kv t_mw-kv Ém-_v (10% þ 25%) Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«-dneqsStbm A-bm-fp-sS {Kq- p-i-fn-eqsstbm B-hÀ- n- p-å ]À-t -kp-i-fn-eq-ss kz-cq-]n- p {Kq- v _n-kn\-kv thmfyw am{xw ]-cn-k-wn- p kv-t]m -kà s\-ävhà- n-s\ A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bmwv A-Iyp-a-te-äo-hv s]à-t^m-a³-kv t_mw-kv I-W- m- p- -Xv. {Ia \w. s]à-t^m-a³-kv t_mw-kv sehâ A-Iyp-a-te-äo-hv t_mw-kv thmfyw i-x-am-\w 1 _n-kn\-kv A-tkm-kn-tbäv 1 F._n.hn þ 7500 F._n.hn 10 % 2 Un-kv-{Sn-_yq«À 7501 F._n.hn þ F._n.hn 13 % 3 kq- À Un-kv-{Sn-_yq«À F._n.hn þ F._n.hn 16 % 4 I -kä«âv F._n.hn þ F._n.hn 19 % 5 ko-\n-bà I -kä«âv F._n.hn þ F._n.hn 22 % F._n.hn pw A-Xn-\p a-i-fnepw 25 % *Un-^-d³-jy ImÂ- p-te-j³ t_mw-kv sk-änâ-saâv ]n-co-uv þ A-Xm-Xv am-kw Xs sk-änâ- sn- p p. am-k- nsâ -]-cn[n I-W- m- p -Xv B-Zy-Zn-h-kw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 1 a-wn ap-xâ B am-k- n-sâ A-hkm-\ Znhkw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 12 a-wn h-sc- B-bn-cn- pw (C- y³ ka-bw A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n). t_mw-kv Xp-I FÃm am-k- n-sâbpw B-Zy B-gv-N-bnÂXs A-\p-h-Zn- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw. U-b-d-Iv-tä-gvkv t_mw-kv U-b-d-Iv-tä-gv-kv t_mw-kv Ém-_v (3% þ 17%) Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«-dneqsStbm A-bm-fp-sS {Kq- p-i-fn-eqsstbm B-hÀ- n- p-å ]À-t -kp-i-fn-eq-ss kz-cq-]n- p {Kq- v _n-kn\-kv thmfyw am{xw ]-cn-k-wn- p kv-t]m -kà s\-ävhà- n-s\ A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bmwv A-Iyp-a-te-äo-hv s]à-t^m-a³-kv t_mw-kv I-W- m- p- -Xv. {Ia \w. HmÀ-K-ss\-tk-j³ dn-iz-bà-saâv {Kq- v 1 {Kq- v 2 {Kq- v 3 1 Cà t{_m -kv knâ-hà tkmä-uv ¹m-än-\w t{_m -kv knâ-hà tkmä-uv ¹m-än-\w Cà Cà tkmä-uv ¹m-än-\w dm v t{_m -kv knâ-hà tkmä-uv ¹m-än-\w Ubaïv i-x-am\w 3 % 6 % 9 % 13 % 17 % *Un^-d³jy Im p-te-äà t_mw-kv sk-änâ-saâv ]n-co-uv þ A-Xm-Xv am-kw Xs sk-änâ- sn- p p. am-k- nsâ -]-cn[n I-W- m- p -Xv B-Zy-Zn-h-kw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 1 a-wn ap-xâ B am-k- n-sâ A-hkm-\ Znhkw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 12 a-wn h-sc- B-bn-cn- pw (C- y³ ka-bw A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n). t_mw-kv Xp-I FÃm am-k- n-tâbpw B-Zy B-gv-N-bnÂXs A-\p-h-Zn- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw. 11 I amà- v-eouv

12 bq-wn-th-gv-kâ eo-uà-jn- v t_mw-kv bq-wn-th-gv-kâ eo-uà-jn- v t_m-w-kv (20%) tem-i- m-i-am-\-ap-å amà- v-eouv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«-À-am-cpsS B-hÀ- n- p-å ]À-t -kp-i-fn-eq-ss kz-cq-]n- p- bq-wn-th-gvkâ _n-kn\-kv thmfyw A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bmwv bq-wn-th-gv-kâ eo-uà-jn- v t_m-w-kv I-W- m- p- -Xv. bq-wn-th-gv-kâ eo-uà-jn- v t_m-w-kv FÃm A- ohà-amà pw Xp-ey-am-bn ho-xn- p \Â-Ip p. {Ia \w. B-h-iy-s -Sp ]n.hn. {Kq- v þ1 {Kq- vþ2 B-h-iyamb dm- v A-hmÀUv ixam\w 1 30,000 ]n.hn. 30,000 ]n.hn. t{_m -kv 2 kvämà 3 % 2 40,000 ]n.hn. 40,000 ]n.hn. knâ-hà 3 kvämà 4 % 3 60,000 ]n.hn. 60,000 ]n.hn. tkmä-uv 4 kvämà 6 % 4 100,000 ]n.hn. 100,000 ]n.hn. ¹m-än-\w 5 kvämà 7 % *\n- -fp-ss Hcpamks _nkn-\êv thmfyw \n-e-\nà- n t_mw-kv t\-sn-sb-sp- p-i. t_mw-kv sk-änâ-saâv ]n-co-uv þ A-Xm-Xv am-kw Xs sk-änâ- sn- p p. am-k- nsâ -]-cn[n I-W- m- p -Xv B-Zy-Zn-h-kw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 1 a-wn ap-xâ B am-k- n-sâ A-hkm-\ Znhkw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 12 a-wn h-sc- B-bn-cn- pw (C- y³ ka-bw A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n). t_mw-kv Xp-I FÃm am-k- n-tâbpw B-Zy B-gv-N-bnÂXs A-\p-h-Zn- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw. {Sm-h sh-ln- nä tlmw bq-wn-th-gv-kâ C³-skâo-hv-kv bq-wn-th-gv-kâ C³-skâo-hv-kv A-\p-h-Zn- p Xv I¼\n-bpsS bq-wn-th-gv-kâ _n-kn\-kv thm-fy- nsâ 18% A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bmwv. amà- -eo-uv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«À-am-cn-eq-sS B-hÀ- n- p m-ip- ]À-t kp-i-fn-eq-ss kz-cq-]n- p- bq-wn-th-gv-kâ C³-skâo-hv-kv 6 am-k n-sem-cn-  sk-änâ sn- p- p. 6 amk-s k-a-b-]-cn-[n I-W- m- p -Xv P-\p-h-cn 1 ap-xâ Pq 30 h-scbpw Pq-em-bv 1 ap-xâ Un-kw- _À 31 h-sc-bp-am-wv. C³-skâo-hv P-\p-hcn, Pq-em-bv am-k- -fn-se B-Zy-s B-gv-N- X-s sk-änâ sn- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw. dm- nw-kv {Sm-h ImÀ tlmw BsI tkmä-uv U-b-d-Iv-äÀ 1% 1% 1% 3% ¹m-än-\w 2% 2% 2% 6% Uba v U-b-d-Iv-äÀ 3% 3% 3% 9% *\n- -fp-ss Hcp amks _n-kn\-êv thmfyw \n-e-\nà- n t_mw-kv t\-sn-sb-sp- p-i. 12 I amà- v-eouv Uba -v C³-skâo-hv Uba- ïv C³-skâo-hv (10%) \m-ev X-e- -fmbn B-hÀ- n- p ]À-t -kp-i-fn-eq-ss kz-cq-]n- p t]-gv-k- W _n-kn\-kv thm-fy-s bpw kv-t]m -kà s\-ävh-à- n-s\bpw A-Sn-Øm- \-am- n-bmwv Uba - v C³-skâo-hv I-W- m- p- -Xv. t\-cn-«p-å ]-cn-n-b-s -Sp- -epiä (U-b-d-Iv-äv d-^dâ) U-ba - v C³-skâohvv % 4% +3% +2% +1% tbm-kyx þ U-ba v U-b-d-Iv-ä-À pw A-Xn-\p ap-i-fn-ep-å-hà pw. C³-skâo-hv sk-änâ-saâv ]n-co-uv þ amkw-txmdpw sk-änâ sn- p- p. H-cp am-k- n-sâ ]-cn-[n I-W- m- p Xv am-k- n-sâ B-Zy-Zn-h-kw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 1 a-wn ap-xâ am-k- n-sâ A-h-km-\ Znh-kw AÀ-²-cm-{Xn 12 a-wn h-sc-bm-wv. t_mwkv XpI XpSÀ- p-h-cp- am-k- n-sâ B-Zy B-gv-N-bn X-s A-\p-h-Zn- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw. \n- -fp-ss bq-wn-th-gv-kâ eo-uà-jn v t_mw-kv = \n- -fp-ss {Sm-hÂþsh-ln- näþtlmw C³-skâo-hpIÄ bp_nhn i-x-am\w B-sI-bpÅ- A- o-hà-am-cp-ss F- w bp_nhn C³-skâo-hv i-x-am\w = B-sI-bpÅ- A- o-hà-am-cp-ss F- w I-¼-\n-bp-sS \n-b-am-h-en-iä- -\p-kr-x-am-bn an-i- s]à-t^m-a³-kv Im-gv-N-sh- p- eo-uà-amà pw Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«À-amÀ pw hà-j n-sem-cn  hn-tz-i-bm-{x- \-S- p- - Xn-\p-Å Hcp Hm-hÀ-ko-kv {Sm-h C³-skâohpw amà- v-eo-uv \Â-Ip- p. C-Xn-eq-sS tem-i- n-sâ hn-hn-[-`m-k- -fn-epå a-äv amà- v-eo-uv Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«À-am-sc I p-ap-«phm\pw A-h-cp-sS A-\p-`-h- Ä ]- p-sh- p-hm\pw A-hk-c-sam-cp- p p. A-Xn-ep-ap- ]-cn-bm-bn C-hÀ- v I-¼-\n-bp-sS G-ähpw D-bÀ- X-e- n-ep-å ko-\n-bà am-t\-pv-saâv hn-z-kv-[-cp-am-bn ap-jm-ap-jw NÀ- -IÄ \-S- p- -Xn\pw hn-tz-i-cm-py- -fn-se {]-i-kv- Xamb hn-t\m-z-k- mcti-{µ- Ä k-µà-in- p-hm\pw A-hk-cw e-`n- p p. A-Xn-\mh-iy-am-bn h-cp- bm{x, Xm-a-kw, ` -Ww Xp-S n-b FÃm Nn-e-hp-Ifpw amà- v-eo-uv h-ln- p- -Xm-Wv. Cu B\p-Iqeyw A-\p-h-Zn- p- -Xn-te- mbn FÃm B-dv am-k nsem-cn- epw Un-kv-{Sn-_yq-«À-am-cp-sS ani s]à-t^m-a³-kv hn-e-bn-cp- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw. bq-wn-th-gv-kâ _n-kn\-kv thm-fy- n-sâ 18% C-Xn-\m-bn amà- v-eo-uv \o- nsh- p- p. Hm-hÀ-ko-kv {Sm-h C³-skâo-hv A-\p-h-Zn- -Xn-\p-ti-jw an- w h-cp- s{i-un-äpiä, ImÀ, tlmw Xp-S n-b B-\p-Iq-ey- Ä- m-bn ]-cn-k-wn- p-ibpw sn- p p.

13 bq-wn-th-gvkâ U-ba - v ]qä C³-Iw I-¼-\n-bp-sS bq-wn-th-gv-kâ _n-kn-\êv thm-fy- n-sâ 10% C³-skâohvv I-W- m- p p. Hmtcm 12 am-k Im-e-b-f-hnepw amà- v-eo-uv Un-kv-{So-_yq-«À-amcn-eq-sS B-hÀ- n- p-å ]À-t -kp-i-ä A-Sn-Øm-\-am- n-bmwv bq-wn-th-gvkâ U-ba v ]qä C³-Iw ]-cn-k-wn- p-i. 12 am-k-sa- mâ P-\ph-cn ap-xâ U-n-kw-_À h-sc-bp-å Imew. P-\ph-cn amk-s B-Zy-s B-gv-N-bn t] Hu-«v A-\p-h-Zn- p- -Xm-bn-cn- pw. tbmkyx : Ub-a v Ub-d-IväÀ pw AXn-\p-ap-I-fn DÅhÀ pw. {Ia. HmÀ-K-ss\-tk-j³ dn-iz-bà-saâv dm- v \w. {Kq- v 1 {Kq- v 2 {Kq- v 3 ixam\w 1 Cà Cà Cà Uba v U-b-d-Iv-äÀ 4 % 2 Uba v U-b-d-Iv-äÀ Uba v U-b-d-Iv-äÀ Cà U-ºnÄ U-ba-ïv 3 U-ºnÄ U-ba-ïv U-ºnÄ U-ba-ïv U-ºnÄ U-ba-ïv tdm-bâ U-b-aïv. *\n- -fp-ss Hcp amks Pn_nhn \n-e-\nà- n t_mw-kv t\-sn-sb-sp- p-i. 6 % kv-s]-jyâ s_-\n-^n-äv F. U-b-a - v-kv sa-un-  C³-jp-d³-kv FÃm U-ba - v A- o-hà-amà pw amà- v-eo-uv sa-un-  C³-jp-d³-kv B-\p-Iq-eyhpw \Â-Ip p. _n.u-ºnä U-ba v l-bà F-Pyp-t -j-wâ kv -tim-fà-jn- v t{]m-{kmw l-bà F-Pyp-t -j-wâ kv-tim-fà-jn- v kz- -am- p-hm³ \n- -fp-ss {]n-b-s -«-hà- v ip-]mà-i sn- p-hm³ I-gn-bp- H-cp an-i- A-hkcw tbmkyx þ U-ºnÄ U-ba v \n -fp-ss bq-wn-th-gv-kâ U-ba-ïv ]qä C³Iw \o n-sh- n-cn- p- bp-_n-hn-bp-ss i-x-am\w = B-sI-bpÅ- A- o-hà-am-cp-ss F- w P U L S E em-`w ]- p-sh  h-à-jwtxmdpw ]- p-sh- p- em-`-hn-ln-xw þ 5% hmàjn-iem-`w ]- p-sh- p- -Xn-\p-Å k-a-b-]-cn-[n þ FÃm-hÀ-jhpw I-W- m- p- Ibpw A-Xm-Xv hà-jw X-s sk-änâ-saâv \-S- p--ibpw sn- p- p. tbmky-x þtdm-bâ U-b-aï v. 13 I amà- v-eouv Product : High Quality Products. User : Be a user to prove the quality & effectiveness. Learn : Study about the Product, Industry and the Compensation Plan. Share with at least 3 people and duplicate it. Then E A R N!!!

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