Lecture 15 OUTLINE. MOSFET structure & operation (qualitative) Review of electrostatics The (N)MOS capacitor

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1 Lecture 15 OUTLINE MOSFET structure & operation (qualitative) Review of electrostatics The (N)MOS capacitor Electrostatics Charge vs. voltage characteristic Reading: Chapter EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 1 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

2 The MOSFET Metal-Oide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor: GATE LENGTH, L g Gate OXIDE THICKNESS, T o Source Drain Substrate JUNCTION DEPTH, X j M. Bohr, Intel Developer Forum, September 24 Current flowing through the channel between the source and drainis controlled by the gate voltage. N-channel & P-channel MOSFETs operate in a complementary manner CMOS Complementary MOS CURRENT V TH GATE VOLTAGE EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 2 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

3 N Channel MOSFET Structure Circuit symbol The conventional gate material is heavily doped polycrystalline silicon (referred to as polysilicon or poly Si or poly ) Note that the gate is usually doped the same type as the source/drain, i.e. the gate and the substrate are of opposite types. The conventional gate insulator material is SiO 2. To minimize current flow between the substrate (or body ) and the source/drain regions, the p type substrate is grounded. EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 3 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

4 Review: Charge in a Semiconductor Negative charges: Conduction electrons (density n) Ionized acceptor atoms (density N A ) Positive charges: Holes (density p) Ionized donor atoms (density N D ) The net charge density [C/cm 3 ] in a semiconductor is ρ q ( p n + ) N D N A Note that p, n, N D, and N A each can vary with position. The mobile carrier concentrations (n and p) in the channel of a MOSFET can be modulated by an electric field via V G. EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 4 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

5 Channel Formation (Qualitative) As the gate voltage (V G ) is increased, holes are repelled away from the substrate surface. The surface is depleted of mobile carriers. The charge density within the depletion region is determined by the dopant ion density. As V G increases above the threshold voltage V TH, a layer of conduction electrons forms at the substrate surface. For V G > V TH, n > N A at the surface. The surface region is inverted to be n type. V G < V TH V G V TH The electron inversion layer serves as a resistive path (channel) for current to flow between the heavily doped (i.e. highly conductive) source and drain regions. EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 5 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

6 Voltage Dependent Resistor In the ON state, the MOSFET channel can be viewed as a resistor. Since the mobile charge density within the channel depends on the gate voltage, the channel resistance is voltage dependent. EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 6 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

7 Channel Length & Width Dependence Shorter channel length and wider channel width each yield lower channel resistance, hence larger drain current. Increasing W also increases the gate capacitance, however, which limits circuit operating speed (frequency). EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 7 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

8 Comparison: BJT vs. MOSFET In a BJT, current (I C ) is limited by diffusion of carriers from the emitter to the collector. I C increases eponentially with input voltage (V BE ), because the carrier concentration gradient in the base is proportional to e V BE / V T In a MOSFET, current (I D ) is limited by drift of carriers from the source to the drain. I D increases ~linearly with input voltage (V G ), because the carrier concentration in the channel is proportional to (V G V TH ) In order to understand how MOSFET design parameters affect MOSFET performance, we first need to understand how a MOS capacitor works... EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 8 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

9 MOS Capacitor A metal oide semiconductor structure can be considered as a parallel plate capacitor, with the top plate being the positive plate, the gate insulator being the dielectric, and the p type semiconductor substrate being the negative plate. The negative charges in the semiconductor (for V G > ) are comprised of conduction electrons and/or acceptor ions. In order to understand how the potential and charge distributions within the Si depend on V G, we need to be familiar with electrostatics... EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 9 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

10 Gauss Law E If the magnitude of electric field changes, there must be charge! In a charge free region, the electric field must be constant. Gauss Law equivalently says that if there is a net electric field leaving a region, there must be positive charge in that region: ρ EdV dv ε V E dv S E ds V E ds ρ ε V Q ε ρ Q dv ε ε V ρ is the net charge density ε is the dielectric permittivity The integral of the electric field over a closed surface is proportional to the charge within the enclosed volume EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 1 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

11 Gauss Law in 1 D E( ) E de Consider a pulse charge distribution: ρ() qn A X d de d ρ d ε ρ ε ρ( ') E( ) + d' ε E() X d EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 11 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

12 Electrostatic Potential The electric field (force) is related to the potential (energy): E dv d 2 d V ( ) 2 d ρ ( ) ε Note that an electron ( q charge) drifts in the direction of increasing potential: F e qe q dv d ρ() E() V () qn A X d X d X d EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 12 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

13 Boundary Conditions Electrostatic potential must be a continuous function. Otherwise, the electric field (force) would be infinite. Electric field does not have to be continuous, however. Consider an interface between two materials: Δ E 1 ( ε 1 ) ε E ds ε 1 E1S + ε 2E2S Qinside E 2 ( ε 2 ) S If Q inside Δ, 1 E1S + ε 2E2S then Discontinuity in electric displacement εe charge density at interface! EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 13 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley ε E E 1 2 ε 2 ε 1

14 MOS Capacitor Electrostatics Gate electrode: Since E() in a metallic material, V() is constant. Gate electrode/gate insulator interface: The gate charge is located at this interface. E() changes to a non zero value inside the gate insulator. Gate insulator: Ideally, there are no charges within the gate insulator. E() is constant, and V() is linear. Gate insulator/semiconductor interface: Since the dielectric permittivity of SiO 2 is lower than that of Si, E() is larger in the gate insulator than in the Si. Semiconductor: If ρ() is constant (non zero), then V() is quadratic. EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 14 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

15 MOS Capacitor: V GB If the gate and substrate materials are not the same (typically the case), there is a built in potential (~1V across the gate insulator). Positive charge is located at the gate interface, and negative charge in the Si. The substrate surface region is depleted of holes, down to a depth X do ρ() V () X do V S,o Q dep -t o X do EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 15 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

16 Flatband Voltage, V FB The built in potential can be cancelled out by applying a gate voltage that is equal in magnitude (but of the opposite polarity) as the built in potential. This gate voltage is called the flatband voltage because the resulting potential profile is flat. ρ() -t o V () -t o There is no net charge (i.e. ρ()) in the semiconductor under for V GB V FB. EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 16 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

17 Voltage Drops across a MOS Capacitor V V V + V GB FB o S V () -t o X d If we know the total charge within the semiconductor (Q S), we can find the electric field within the gate insulator (E o ) and hence the voltage drop across the gate insulator (V o ): Q Q S S QS E ds Eo A Vo Eoto to ε A o ε o Co where Q S is the areal charge density in the semiconductor [C/cm 2 ] C and is the areal gate capacitance [F/cm 2 ] o ε o t o EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 17 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

18 V GB < V FB (Accumulation) If a gate voltage more negative than V FB is applied, then holes will accumulate at the gate insulator/semiconductor interface. ρ() -t o V () -t o Areal gate charge density [C/cm 2 ]: Q G C o ( V V ) GB FB EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 18 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

19 V FB < V GB < V TH (Depletion) If the applied gate voltage is greater than V FB, then the semiconductor surface will be depleted of holes. If the applied gate voltage is less than V TH, the concentration of conduction electrons at the surface is smaller than N A ρ() qn A () ρ() X d -t o Areal depletion V () charge density [C/cm 2 ]: -t o X d Q qn dep A X d V GB ( V V ) EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 19 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley V X d FB V ε C Si o o + V B 2C 1+ qn AX C 2 o qε o GB Si N d A + qn AX 2ε FB Si 1 2 d

20 V GB > V TH (Inversion) If the applied gate voltage is greater than V TH, then n > N A at the semiconductor surface. At V GB V TH, the total potential dropped in the Si is 2φ B where φ B VT ln ρ() N n i A X d,ma -t o V () -t o X d,ma V TH V + 2φ + (2φ ) EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 2 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley FB B 2qε N Si C o A B

21 Maimum Depletion Depth, X d,ma As V GB is increased above V TH, V S and hence the depth of the depletion region (X d ) increases very slowly. This is because n increases eponentially with V S, whereas X d increases with the square root of V S. Thus, most of the incremental negative charge in the semiconductor comes from additional conduction electrons rather than additional ionized acceptor atoms, when n eceeds N A. X d can be reasonably approimated to reach a maimum value (X d,ma ) for V GB V TH. Q dep thus reaches a maimum of Q dep,ma at V GB V TH. If we assume that only the inversion layer charge increases with increasing V GB above V TH, then inv o ( VGB VTH ) and so QG ( VGB) Co( VGB VTH ) Qdep, ma Q C + EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 21 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

22 Q V Curve for MOS Capacitor Q G X d,ma 2ε Si (2φ B ) qn A Q inv C o ( V V ) GB TH Q dep,ma V GB [ V ] V FB V TH Qdep,ma qnaxd,ma 2 qnaε Si (2 ϕb ) EE15 Spring 28 Lecture 15, Slide 22 Prof. Wu, UC Berkeley

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