Fluid Mechanics61341


 Robert Thornton
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 AnNajah National University College of Engineering Fluid Mechanics Chapter [2] Fluid Statics 1 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
2 Fluid Statics Problems Fluid statics refers to the study of fluids at rest or moving in such a manner that no shearing stresses exist in the fluid These are relatively simple problems since no velocity gradients exist. Thus, viscosity does not play a role Applications include the hydraulic pressure, manometry, dams, and fluid containment (tanks) 2 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
3 Pressure (P) is the force per unit area, where the force is perpendicular to the area F (N) P (N/m 2 or Pa) = A (m2 ) Pressure 1 kn/m 2 = 1 kpa 1 kpa = psi Pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions Pressure in a static liquid increases linearly with depth pressure increase p= γ h increase in depth (m) 3 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
4 Pressure at a Point Pressure is a scalar quantity that is defined at every point within a fluid Force balance in the xdirection: 4 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
5 Pressure at a Point Force balance in the zdirection: Vertical force on DA Vertical force on lower boundary Total weight of wedge element = specific weight 5 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
6 From last slide: Pressure at a Point Divide through by to get Now shrink the element to a point: This can be done for any orientation, so 6 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
7 Pressure at a Point The result shows that pressure at any point in a fluid at rest has a single value, independent of direction as long as there are no shearing stresses (or velocity gradients) present in the fluid For fluids in motion with shearing stresses, this result is not exactly true, but is still a very good approximation for most flows 7 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
8 Pressure Transmission In a closed system, pressure changes from one point are transmitted throughout the entire system (Pascal s Law). F out A A out in F in Hydraulic Lift 8 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
9 Pressure Variation with Elevation Static fluid: All forces must balance as there are no accelerations Look at force balance in direction of D l 9 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
10 Pressure Variation with Elevation From the previous figure, note that Shrink cylinder to zero length: From the previous slide: or 10 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
11 Pressure Variation with Elevation The pressureelevation relation derived on the previous slide, is perfectly general (applies also to variable g) But if g is constant, the above equation is easy to integrate: The quantity and is known as the piezometric pressure is called the piezometric head 11 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
12 Pressure Variation with Elevation For an incompressible fluid (g is constant), pressure and elevation at one point can thus be related to pressure and elevation at another point as: p p 1 2 z 1 z2 or z 2 or z 1 h p 1 Constant p p p p z z ) ( 2 1 h 12 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
13 Absolute and Gage Pressure 13 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
14 Absolute and Gage Pressure 14 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
15 What is the pressure at the faucet? What do you do if you want more pressure at the faucet? 15 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
16 Blood Pressure 26.8 k Pa 16 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
17 Example 1 Solution: 17 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
18 Example 2 What is the water pressure at a depth of 35 ft? Solution: With the information given, all we can calculate is the pressure difference between points 1 and 2 18 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
19 Example 3 What is the gage pressure at point 3? Solution: Two step solution: 1) Calculate 2) Calculate s.g.=0.8 (relative to atmospheric pressure at point 1) 19 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
20 Pressure Measurement Mechanical Pressure Gages The Bourdon pressure and Aneroid barometer are typical mechanical devices for measuring gage and absolute pressures, respectively 20 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
21 Pressure Measurement Liquid Pressure Gages Manometer: gravimetric device based upon liquid level deflection in a tube Mercury barometer: evacuated glass tube with open end submerged in mercury 21 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
22 The Manometer Simple, accurate device for measuring small to moderate pressure differences Rules of Manometry: pressure change across a fluid column of height h is gh pressure increases in the direction of gravity, decreases in the direction opposing gravity two points at the same elevation in a continuous static fluid have the same pressure 22 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
23 The Manometer p p 1 l p 2 0 h x 1 23 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
24 The Manometer p l p 4 p p x 1 1 y l h 24 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
25 ) 0( 1 gage p p atm The Manometer l p p p l h p p p h p m m Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics 25
26 Example 4 Find the location of the surface in the manometer Solution: The distance Dh is the height of the liquid in the manometer above the heavier liquid in the tank A B D C p C h m p B h m w w cm 26 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
27 Example 5 Find the gage pressure at the pipe center A C Solution: Manometer equation from the pipe center to the open end of the manometer p p A A 0( gage) p C 2.5(1)(62.4) 0 1(2)(62.4) 0.5(1)(62.4) p C 27 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
28 Example 6 28 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
29 Example 6 (Solution) 29 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
30 Find the specific weight of the fluid which filled part CD of the tube Solution: D V 2 d h 4 (0.5) 4 2 h 2cm Manometer Equation p A liq ( h 0.05) h Example 7 3 liq ( h 0.05) h ( ) h cm p D (9810) liq p A 4995 N A B p D / m 3 h C 2 cm 3 o (gage) 30 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
31 Differential Manometer Used for measuring pressure differences between points along a pipe g w l p 1 wl mh w l h) ( p 2 g m p p p ( ) h 2 1 w m 31 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
32 Find the change in piezometric pressure and in piezometric head between points 1 and 2. Solution: Manometer equation from point 2 to point 1 In general Example 8 (piezometric pressure) (piezometric head) 32 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
33 Example 9 33 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
34 Example 9 (Solution) 34 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
35 Example 9 (Solution) 35 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
36 Pressure Forces on Plane Surfaces Surfaces exposed to fluids experience a force due to the pressure distribution in the fluid The resultant force on vertical, rectangular surfaces can be found using a graphical interpretation known as the pressure prism 36 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
37 The differential force is df Pressure Forces on Plane Surfaces pdah dal sin da Integrating to get the total force on the gate yields: F sin lda From basic mechanics, we recall for first moment of area, So, lda F γl c l c A Asin α Recognizing that l c sin α h c F h c A 37 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
38 In general, the resultant force on an area equals the pressure at the centroid of the area (gh c ) times the area (A) To complete the analysis, we must compute the location of the center of pressure where the resultant force F can be assumed to act Pressure Forces on Plane Surfaces da l da l l ldf F l p sin ) sin ( 2 38 A l I l l l A l I F l A l I A l F l A l A l I A l I F l A l I I da l c c c p c c c c c c c p c c c c c p c c o sin / by ) multiplying ( sin Recognizing that Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
39 Example Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
40 Example 10 (Solution) 40 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
41 Example 10 (Solution) 41 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
42 Example 10 (Solution) 42 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
43 Example 10 (Solution) 43 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
44 Example 10 (Solution) 44 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
45 Example Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
46 Example 11 (Solution) 46 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
47 Example 11 (Solution) 47 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
48 Example 11 (Solution) 48 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
49 Example 12 Find the normal force required to open the rectangular gate if it is hinged at the top. The gate is 5 m wide and θ =30 o Solution: First find the total hydrostatic force acting on the plate F h c A 9810N / m 3 10m5m5m 2.45MN 3 Ic o 55 /12 l p lc ((8/ cos30 ) 2.5) m l A M c hinge o o F 5m 2.45MN ((11.92 (8/ cos30 )) F 1.31MN 49 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
50 Example 13 Given: Gate AB is 4 ft wide, hinged at A and Gage G reads psi. Find the horizontal force at B to hold gate. Air G 5ft 18ft Water A gate Oil SG=0.75 6ft B 50 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
51 Example 13 (Solution) First convert negative pressure in tank to ft of water p h 5 ft 62.4 Total hydrostatic force acting on the gate from oil F F oil h c A o Ib water h c A 62.4(18 5 3) Ib l p( oil) 4 Total hydrostatic force acting on the gate from water ft 3 Ic 46 /12 l p( water) lc l A c ft 51 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
52 Example 13 (Solution) A 3.3ft 4ft F w F oil M A 0 F F water B B lb F oil F B 4 F B 6 F B 6 52 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
53 Pressure Forces on Curved Surfaces Resultant pressure forces on curved surfaces are more difficult to deal with because the incremental pressure forces, which are normal to the surface, vary continually in direction There are two ways to approach the problem. One is to use direct integration and the second method is to utilize the basic mechanics concepts of a free body and the equilibrium equations Fig Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
54 Pressure Forces on Curved Surfaces 54 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
55 Pressure Forces on Curved Surfaces 55 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
56 Example Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
57 Example 14 (Solution) 57 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
58 Example 14 (Solution) 58 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
59 Example 14 (Solution) 59 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
60 Example 14 (Solution) 60 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
61 Example 14 (Solution) 61 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
62 Example 14 (Solution) 62 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
63 Example 14 (Solution) 63 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
64 Example 14 (Solution) 64 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
65 Example 14 (Solution) 65 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
66 Example Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
67 Example 15 (Solution) 67 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
68 Example 15 (Solution) 68 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
69 Buoyancy and the Stability of Floating Bodies The familiar laws of bouncy (Archamedes principle) and flotation are usually stated (1) a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of fluid displaced; and (2) a floating body displaces its own weight of the liquid in which it floats 69 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
70 Buoyancy and the Stability of Floating Bodies The resultant buoyant force on a submerged or partially submerged object in a static fluid is given by Archimedes principle as: F B ( volumeof submerged object) or F B ( volumeof liquid displaced) The buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object and is in a direction opposite the gravitational force 70 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
71 Buoyancy and the Stability of Floating Bodies The line of action of the buoyant force passes through the centroid of the displaced volume, often called the center of buoyancy (COB) The stability of submerged objects (balloon and submarine) is determined by the center of gravity (G): Stable: G is below COB Unstable: G is above COB 71 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
72 Buoyancy and the Stability of Floating Bodies For floating objects, stability is complicated by the fact that the COB changes with rotation The stability of floating objects (Ship) is determined by the metacentric (M) (the point of intersection of the vertical line through B with the centerline of the ship): Stable: G is below M Unstable: G is above M 72 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
73 Example 16 Solution: 73 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
74 Example Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
75 Example 17 (Solution) 75 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
76 Example 17 (Solution) 76 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
77 Example Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
78 Example 18 (Solution) 78 Fluid Mechanics2nd Semester [2] Fluid Statics
AnNajah National University Civil Engineering Departemnt. Fluid Mechanics. Chapter [2] Fluid Statics
AnNajah National University Civil Engineering Deartemnt Fluid Mechanics Chater [2] Fluid Statics 1 Fluid Statics Problems Fluid statics refers to the study of fluids at rest or moving in such a manner
More informationChapter 3 Fluid Statics
Chapter 3 Fluid Statics 3.1 Pressure Pressure : The ratio of normal force to area at a point. Pressure often varies from point to point. Pressure is a scalar quantity; it has magnitude only It produces
More informationCHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS. A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude.
CHARACTERISTIC OF FLUIDS A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress at any magnitude. In a fluid at rest, normal stress is called pressure. 1 Dimensions,
More informationHydrostatic. Pressure distribution in a static fluid and its effects on solid surfaces and on floating and submerged bodies.
Hydrostatic Pressure distribution in a static fluid and its effects on solid surfaces and on floating and submerged bodies. M. Bahrami ENSC 283 Spring 2009 1 Fluid at rest hydrostatic condition: when a
More informationFluid Mechanics. Forces on Fluid Elements. Fluid Elements  Definition:
Fluid Mechanics Chapter 2: Fluid Statics Lecture 3 Forces on Fluid Elements Fluid Elements  Definition: Fluid element can be defined as an infinitesimal region of the fluid continuum in isolation from
More informationEric G. Paterson. Spring 2005
Eric G. Paterson Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Pennsylvania State University Spring 2005 Reading and Homework Read Chapter 3. Homework Set #2 has been posted. Due date: Friday 21 January.
More informationHydrostatics. ENGR 5961 Fluid Mechanics I: Dr. Y.S. Muzychka
1 Hydrostatics 2 Introduction In Fluid Mechanics hydrostatics considers fluids at rest: typically fluid pressure on stationary bodies and surfaces, pressure measurements, buoyancy and flotation, and fluid
More informationChapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 11 The Fluid. 12 Dimensions. 13 Units. 14 Fluid Properties. 1 11 The Fluid: It is the substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress. Matter Solid Fluid
More informationApplications of Hydrostatics
Applications of Hydrostatics Pressure measurement with hydrostatics Mercury Barometer  This is a device used to measure the local atmospheric pressure, p a. As seen in the sketch, it is formed by inverting
More informationIntroduction to Marine Hydrodynamics
1896 1920 1987 2006 Introduction to Marine Hydrodynamics (NA235) Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering Shanghai Jiao Tong University
More informationPressure in stationary and moving fluid Lab Lab On On Chip: Lecture 2
Pressure in stationary and moving fluid LabOnChip: Lecture Lecture plan what is pressure e and how it s distributed in static fluid water pressure in engineering problems buoyancy y and archimedes law;
More informationTOPICS. Density. Pressure. Variation of Pressure with Depth. Pressure Measurements. Buoyant ForcesArchimedes Principle
Lecture 6 Fluids TOPICS Density Pressure Variation of Pressure with Depth Pressure Measurements Buoyant ForcesArchimedes Principle Surface Tension ( External source ) Viscosity ( External source ) Equation
More informationPHYSICS 220 Lecture 16 Fluids Textbook Sections
PHYSICS 220 Lecture 16 Fluids Textbook Sections 10.110.4 Lecture 16 Purdue University, Physics 220 1 States of Matter Fluids Solid Hold Volume Hold Shape Liquid Hold Volume Adapt Shape Gas Adapt Volume
More informationCHAPTER 28 PRESSURE IN FLUIDS
CHAPTER 8 PRESSURE IN FLUIDS EXERCISE 18, Page 81 1. A force of 80 N is applied to a piston of a hydraulic system of crosssectional area 0.010 m. Determine the pressure produced by the piston in the hydraulic
More informationLagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline Eulerian, tangent line to instantaneous velocity field.
Chapter 2 Hydrostatics 2.1 Review Eulerian description from the perspective of fixed points within a reference frame. Lagrangian description from the perspective of a parcel moving within the flow. Streamline
More informations and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum equations E. Pipe and other internal flow 7% of FE Morning Session I
Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam General Section Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering October 26, 2010 s and FE X. A. Flow measurement B. properties C. statics D. impulse, and momentum
More informationSteven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013
Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam Mechanics Steven Burian Civil & Environmental Engineering September 25, 2013 s and FE Morning ( Mechanics) A. Flow measurement 7% of FE Morning B. properties Session
More informationMEB41 Lab 1: Hydrostatics. Experimental Procedures
MEB41 Lab 1: Hydrostatics In this lab you will do four brief experiments related to the following topics: manometry, buoyancy, forces on submerged planes, and hydraulics (a hydraulic jack). Each experiment
More informationDIMENSIONS AND UNITS
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS A dimension is the measure by which a physical variable is expressed quantitatively. A unit is a particular way of attaching a number to the quantitative dimension. Primary Dimension
More informationCHAPTER 2 Fluid Statics
Chapter / Fluid Statics CHPTER Fluid Statics FEtype Eam Review Problems: Problems  to 9. (C). (D). (C).4 ().5 () The pressure can be calculated using: p = γ h were h is the height of mercury. p= γ h=
More information11.1 Mass Density. Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an
Chapter 11 Fluids 11.1 Mass Density Fluids are materials that can flow, and they include both gases and liquids. The mass density of a liquid or gas is an important factor that determines its behavior
More informationThe general rules of statics (as applied in solid mechanics) apply to fluids at rest. From earlier we know that:
ELEMENTARY HYDRAULICS National Certificate in Technology (Civil Engineering) Chapter 2 Pressure This section will study the forces acting on or generated by fluids at rest. Objectives Introduce the concept
More informationChapter 14. Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics. Dr. Armen Kocharian
Chapter 14 Lecture 1 Fluid Mechanics Dr. Armen Kocharian States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite
More information1 Fluid Statics. 1.1 Fluid Properties. Fluid
1 Fluid Statics 1.1 Fluid Properties Fluid A fluid is a substance, which deforms when subjected to a force. A fluid can offer no permanent resistance to any force causing change of shape. Fluid flow under
More informationCE MECHANICS OF FLUIDS
CE60  MECHANICS OF FLUIDS (FOR III SEMESTER) UNIT II FLUID STATICS & KINEMATICS PREPARED BY R.SURYA, M.E Assistant Professor DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING SRI VIDYA COLLEGE
More informationCHAPTER 2 Pressure and Head
FLUID MECHANICS Gaza, Sep. 2012 CHAPTER 2 Pressure and Head Dr. Khalil Mahmoud ALASTAL Objectives of this Chapter: Introduce the concept of pressure. Prove it has a unique value at any particular elevation.
More informationFluid Mechanics. If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding
Fluid Mechanics HOOKE'S LAW If deformation is small, the stress in a body is proportional to the corresponding strain. In the elasticity limit stress and strain Stress/strain = Const. = Modulus of elasticity.
More informationFluid Mechanics. du dy
FLUID MECHANICS Technical English  I 1 th week Fluid Mechanics FLUID STATICS FLUID DYNAMICS Fluid Statics or Hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's
More informationPressure in stationary and moving fluid. LabOnChip: Lecture 2
Pressure in stationary and moving fluid LabOnChip: Lecture Fluid Statics No shearing stress.no relative movement between adjacent fluid particles, i.e. static or moving as a single block Pressure at
More informationFluid Mechanics Discussion. Prepared By: Dr.Khalil M. AlAstal Eng.Ahmed S. AlAgha Eng.Ruba M. Awad
Discussion Prepared By: Dr.Khalil M. AlAstal Eng.Ahmed S. AlAgha Eng.Ruba M. Awad 20142015 Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Fluids and their Properties Fluids (Liquids or gases) which a substance
More informationFluid Statics. Pressure. Pressure
Pressure Fluid Statics Variation of Pressure with Position in a Fluid Measurement of Pressure Hydrostatic Thrusts on Submerged Surfaces Plane Surfaces Curved Surfaces ddendum First and Second Moment of
More informationFE Fluids Review March 23, 2012 Steve Burian (Civil & Environmental Engineering)
Topic: Fluid Properties 1. If 6 m 3 of oil weighs 47 kn, calculate its specific weight, density, and specific gravity. 2. 10.0 L of an incompressible liquid exert a force of 20 N at the earth s surface.
More informationFluid Mechanics. Spring Course Outline
Fluid Mechanics (Fluidmekanik) Course Code: 1TV024 5 hp Fluid Mechanics Spring 2011 Instruct: Chris Hieronymus Office: Geocentrum Dk255 Phone: 471 2383 email: christoph.hieronymus@geo.uu.se Literature:
More informationNicholas J. Giordano. Chapter 10 Fluids
Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 10 Fluids Fluids A fluid may be either a liquid or a gas Some characteristics of a fluid Flows from one place to another Shape varies according
More informationstorage tank, or the hull of a ship at rest, is subjected to fluid pressure distributed over its surface.
Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces Hydrostatic forces mean forces exerted by fluid at rest.  A plate exposed to a liquid, such as a gate valve in a dam, the wall of a liquid storage tank,
More informationPhysics 220: Classical Mechanics
Lecture 10 1/34 Phys 220 Physics 220: Classical Mechanics Lecture: MWF 8:40 am 9:40 am (Phys 114) Michael Meier mdmeier@purdue.edu Office: Phys Room 381 Help Room: Phys Room 11 schedule on course webpage
More informationChapter 14. Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics States of Matter Solid Has a definite volume and shape Liquid Has a definite volume but not a definite shape Gas unconfined Has neither a definite volume nor shape All of these
More informationCHAPTER 13. Liquids FLUIDS FLUIDS. Gases. Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility. To begin with... some important definitions...
CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility Pressure in a fluid! Hydraulic lift! Hydrostatic paradox Measurement of pressure! Manometers and barometers Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle! Upthrust!
More informationLinear Transport Relations (LTR)
Linear Transport Relations (LTR) Much of Transport Phenomena deals with the exchange of momentum, mass, or heat between two (or many) objects. Often, the most mathematically simple way to consider how
More informationFigure 3: Problem 7. (a) 0.9 m (b) 1.8 m (c) 2.7 m (d) 3.6 m
1. For the manometer shown in figure 1, if the absolute pressure at point A is 1.013 10 5 Pa, the absolute pressure at point B is (ρ water =10 3 kg/m 3, ρ Hg =13.56 10 3 kg/m 3, ρ oil = 800kg/m 3 ): (a)
More informationChapter 12. Fluid Mechanics. A. The density ρ of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V.
Chapter 12 Fluid Mechanics 12.1 Density A. The density ρ of a substance of uniform composition is defined as its mass M divided by its volume V. That is,! = M V The density of water at 4 o C is 1000 kg/m
More informationFormulae that you may or may not find useful. E v = V. dy dx = v u. y cp y = I xc/a y. Volume of an entire sphere = 4πr3 = πd3
CE30 Test 1 Solution Key Date: 26 Sept. 2017 COVER PAGE Write your name on each sheet of paper that you hand in. Read all questions very carefully. If the problem statement is not clear, you should ask
More informationChapter 15  Fluid Mechanics Thursday, March 24 th
Chapter 15  Fluid Mechanics Thursday, March 24 th Fluids Static properties Density and pressure Hydrostatic equilibrium Archimedes principle and buoyancy Fluid Motion The continuity equation Bernoulli
More informationChapter 9: Solids and Fluids
Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids State of matters: Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma. Solids Has definite volume and shape Can be crystalline or amorphous Molecules are held in specific locations by electrical
More informationMULTIPLECHOICE PROBLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions Below.)
MULTIPLECHOICE PROLEMS:(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter eside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions elow.) 1. The absolute viscosity µ of a fluid is primarily a function of: a. Density. b.
More informationStatic Forces on SurfacesBuoyancy. Fluid Mechanics. There are two cases: Case I: if the fluid is above the curved surface:
Force on a Curved Surface due to Hydrostatic Pressure If the surface is curved, the forces on each element of the surface will not be parallel (normal to the surface at each point) and must be combined
More informationPhysics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1
Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1 Fluid Statics Pascal s Principle Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy) Fluid Dynamics Continuity Equation Bernoulli Equation 11/30/2009 Physics 201, UWMadison 1 Fluids Density
More informationFluid Mechanics Testbank By David Admiraal
Fluid Mechanics Testbank By David Admiraal This testbank was created for an introductory fluid mechanics class. The primary intentions of the testbank are to help students improve their performance on
More informationFluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Lecture  9 Fluid Statics Part VI
Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture  9 Fluid Statics Part VI Good morning, I welcome you all to this session of Fluid
More informationChapter 14  Fluids. Archimedes, On Floating Bodies. David J. Starling Penn State Hazleton PHYS 213. Chapter 14  Fluids. Objectives (Ch 14)
Any solid lighter than a fluid will, if placed in the fluid, be so far immersed that the weight of the solid will be equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. Archimedes, On Floating Bodies David J.
More informationUNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND STATICS
SIDDHARTH GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS :: PUTTUR Siddharth Nagar, Narayanavanam Road 517583 QUESTION BANK (DESCRIPTIVE) Subject with Code : Fluid Mechanics (16CE106) Year & Sem: IIB.Tech & ISem Course & Branch:
More informationThermodynamic Systems
Thermodynamic Systems For purposes of analysis we consider two types of Thermodynamic Systems: Closed System  usually referred to as a System or a Control Mass. This type of system is separated from its
More informationFluid Engineering Mechanics
Fluid Engineering Mechanics Chapter 3 Fluid Statics: ressure intensity and pressure head: pressure and specific weight relationship, absolute and gauge pressure, Forces on submerged planes & curved surfaces
More informationPhysics 123 Unit #1 Review
Physics 123 Unit #1 Review I. Definitions & Facts Density Specific gravity (= material / water) Pressure Atmosphere, bar, Pascal Barometer Streamline, laminar flow Turbulence Gauge pressure II. Mathematics
More informationEQUILIBRIUM OBJECTIVES PRELECTURE
27 FE3 EQUILIBRIUM Aims OBJECTIVES In this chapter you will learn the concepts and principles needed to understand mechanical equilibrium. You should be able to demonstrate your understanding by analysing
More informationP = ρ{ g a } + µ 2 V II. FLUID STATICS
II. FLUID STATICS From a force analysis on a triangular fluid element at rest, the following three concepts are easily developed: For a continuous, hydrostatic, shear free fluid: 1. Pressure is constant
More informationGATE PSU. Chemical Engineering. Fluid Mechanics. For. The Gate Coach 28, Jia Sarai, Near IIT Hauzkhas, New Delhi 16 (+91) ,
For GATE PSU Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics GATE Syllabus Fluid statics, Newtonian and nonnewtonian fluids, Bernoulli equation, Macroscopic friction factors, energy balance, dimensional analysis,
More informationPhysics 207 Lecture 18
Physics 07, Lecture 8, Nov. 6 MidTerm Mean 58.4 (64.6) Median 58 St. Dev. 6 (9) High 94 Low 9 Nominal curve: (conservative) 8000 A 679 B or A/B 346 C or B/C 933 marginal 98 D Physics 07: Lecture 8,
More informationME 262 BASIC FLUID MECHANICS Assistant Professor Neslihan Semerci Lecture 4. (Buoyancy and Viscosity of water)
ME 262 BASIC FLUID MECHANICS Assistant Professor Neslihan Semerci Lecture 4 (Buoyancy and Viscosity of water) 16. BUOYANCY Whenever an object is floating in a fluid or when it is completely submerged in
More informationFluid Mechanics Introduction
Fluid Mechanics Introduction Fluid mechanics study the fluid under all conditions of rest and motion. Its approach is analytical, mathematical, and empirical (experimental and observation). Fluid can be
More informationCE 6303 MECHANICS OF FLUIDS L T P C QUESTION BANK 3 0 0 3 UNIT I FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLUID STATICS PART  A 1. Define fluid and fluid mechanics. 2. Define real and ideal fluids. 3. Define mass density
More informationAMME2261: Fluid Mechanics 1 Course Notes
Module 1 Introduction and Fluid Properties Introduction Matter can be one of two states: solid or fluid. A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress, no matter
More informationLiquids CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS FLUIDS. Gases. Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility. To begin with... some important definitions...
CHAPTER 13 FLUIDS FLUIDS Liquids Gases Density! Bulk modulus! Compressibility Pressure in a fluid! Hydraulic lift! Hydrostatic paradox Measurement of pressure! Manometers and barometers Buoyancy and Archimedes
More informationApproximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure kn/m 2 and temperature 15 C.
Appendix FLUID MECHANICS Approximate physical properties of selected fluids All properties are given at pressure 101. kn/m and temperature 15 C. Liquids Density (kg/m ) Dynamic viscosity (N s/m ) Surface
More informationMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
CHAPTER10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS QUESTIONS 1 marks questions 1. What are fluids? 2. How are fluids different from solids? 3. Define thrust of a liquid. 4. Define liquid pressure. 5. Is pressure
More informationR09. d water surface. Prove that the depth of pressure is equal to p +.
Code No:A109210105 R09 SET1 B.Tech II Year  I Semester Examinations, December 2011 FLUID MECHANICS (CIVIL ENGINEERING) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 75 Answer any five questions All questions carry equal
More informationMULTIPLECHOICE PROBLEMS :(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct Answer in the Questions Below.)
Test Midterm 1 F2013 MULTIPLECHOICE PROBLEMS :(Two marks per answer) (Circle the Letter Beside the Most Correct nswer in the Questions Below.) 1. The absolute viscosity µ of a fluid is primarily a function
More informationFluid Dynamics Exam #1: Introduction, fluid statics, and the Bernoulli equation March 2, 2016, 7:00 p.m. 8:40 p.m. in CE 118
CVEN 311501 (Socolofsky) Fluid Dynamics Exam #1: Introduction, fluid statics, and the Bernoulli equation March 2, 2016, 7:00 p.m. 8:40 p.m. in CE 118 Name: : UIN: : Instructions: Fill in your name and
More informationChapter 9. Solids and Fluids. 1. Introduction. 2. Fluids at Rest. 3. Fluid Motion
Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids 1. Introduction 2. Fluids at Rest 3. Fluid Motion 1 States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma 2 Density and Specific Gravity What is Density? How do I calculate it? What are
More informationToday s Discussion: Fluids Pressure and Pascal s principle Bouyancy, Archimedes principle Bernoulli s equation
1 Physics 213 Waves, Fluids and Thermal Physics Summer 2007 Lecturer: Mike Kagan (mak411@psu.edu, 322 Whitmore) Today s Discussion: Fluids Pressure and Pascal s principle Bouyancy, Archimedes principle
More informationChapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW
Faculty Of Engineering at Shobra nd Year Civil  016 Chapter 4 DYNAMICS OF FLUID FLOW 41 Types of Energy 4 Euler s Equation 43 Bernoulli s Equation 44 Total Energy Line (TEL) and Hydraulic Grade Line
More informationPhysics 153 Introductory Physics II. Week One: FLUIDS. Dr. Joseph J. Trout
Physics 153 Introductory Physics II Week One: FLUIDS Dr. Joseph J. Trout joseph.trout@drexel.edu 6103486495 States (Phases) of Matter: Solid: Fixed shape. Fixed size. Even a large force will not readily
More informationChapter 15: Fluid Mechanics Dynamics Using Pascal s Law = F 1 = F 2 2 = F 2 A 2
Lecture 24: Archimedes Principle and Bernoulli s Law 1 Chapter 15: Fluid Mechanics Dynamics Using Pascal s Law Example 15.1 The hydraulic lift A hydraulic lift consists of a small diameter piston of radius
More informationLECTURE NOTES FLUID MECHANICS (ACE005)
LECTURE NOTES ON FLUID MECHANICS (ACE005) B.Tech IV semester (Autonomous) (201718) Dr. G. Venkata Ramana Professor. DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING (Autonomous) DUNDIGAL,
More informationChapter 3 Bernoulli Equation
1 Bernoulli Equation 3.1 Flow Patterns: Streamlines, Pathlines, Streaklines 1) A streamline, is a line that is everywhere tangent to the velocity vector at a given instant. Examples of streamlines around
More informationQ1 Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each):
FLUID MECHANICS First Year Exam Solutions 03 Q Give answers to all of the following questions (5 marks each): (a) A cylinder of m in diameter is made with material of relative density 0.5. It is moored
More informationM E 320 Professor John M. Cimbala Lecture 05
M E 320 Professor John M. Cimbala Lecture 05 Today, we will: Continue Chapter 3 Pressure and Fluid Statics Discuss applications of fluid statics (barometers and Utube manometers) Do some example problems
More informationThe online of midtermtests of Fluid Mechanics 1
The online of midtermtests of Fluid Mechanics 1 1) The information on a can of pop indicates that the can contains 460 ml. The mass of a full can of pop is 3.75 lbm while an empty can weights 80.5 lbf.
More informationS.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 100
Total No. of Questions 12] [Total No. of Printed Pages 8 Seat No. [4262]113 S.E. (Mech.) (First Sem.) EXAMINATION, 2012 (Common to Mech/Sandwich) FLUID MECHANICS (2008 PATTERN) Time : Three Hours Maximum
More informationFluids. Fluid = Gas or Liquid. Density Pressure in a Fluid Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Fluids in Motion
Chapter 14 Fluids Fluids Density Pressure in a Fluid Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle Fluids in Motion Fluid = Gas or Liquid MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised 10/13/01 Densities MFMcGrawPHY45 Chap_14HaFluidsRevised
More informationFluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak
Fluid Mechanics Abdusselam Altunkaynak 1. Unit systems 1.1 Introduction Natural events are independent on units. The unit to be used in a certain variable is related to the advantage that we get from it.
More information10  FLUID MECHANICS Page 1
0  FLUID MECHANICS Page Introduction Fluid is a matter in a state which can flow. Liquids, gases, molten metal and tar are examples of fluids. Fluid mechanics is studied in two parts: ( i ) Fluid statics
More informationME 262 BASIC FLUID MECHANICS Assistant Professor Neslihan Semerci Lecture 3. (Hydrostatic forces on flat and curved surfaces)
ME 262 BSIC FLUID MECHNICS ssistant Professor Neslihan Semerci Lecture 3 (Hydrostatic forces on flat and curved surfaces) 15. HYDROSTTIC PRESSURE 15.1 Hydrostatic pressure force on flat surfaces When a
More informationFluid: Air and water are fluids that exert forces on the human body.
Fluid: Air and water are fluids that exert forces on the human body. term fluid is often used interchangeably with the term liquid, from a mechanical perspective, Fluid: substance that flows when subjected
More informationChapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications
Chapter (6) Energy Equation and Its Applications Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli equation is one of the most useful equations in fluid mechanics and hydraulics. And it s a statement of the principle of conservation
More informationCONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS. Prepared by Engr. John Paul Timola
CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS Prepared by Engr. John Paul Timola ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Science that involves design and analysis of devices and systems for energy conversion Deals with heat and work and
More informationHOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ON BERNOULLI S EQUATION
AMEE 0 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics Instructor: Marios M. Fyrillas Email: m.fyrillas@frederick.ac.cy HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ON BERNOULLI S EQUATION. Conventional sprayguns operate by achieving a low pressure
More informationch01.qxd 8/4/04 2:33 PM Page 1 Part 1 Basic Principles of Open Channel Flows
ch01.qxd 8/4/04 2:33 PM Page 1 Part 1 Basic Principles of Open Channel Flows ch01.qxd 8/4/04 2:33 PM Page 3 Introduction 1 Summary The introduction chapter reviews briefly the basic fluid properties
More informationMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS:
Important Definitions: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS: Fluid: A substance that can flow is called Fluid Both liquids and gases are fluids Pressure: The normal force acting per unit area of a surface is
More informationStates of matter. Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent)
Fluids States of matter Solids Fluids crystalline amorphous liquids gasses Interatomic forces strong > strong >> very weak Density high > high >> low (pressure dependent) Density is an important material
More informationPhysics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1
Physics 201 Chapter 13 Lecture 1 Fluid Statics Pascal s Principle Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy) Fluid Dynamics Continuity Equation Bernoulli Equation 11/30/2009 Physics 201, UWMadison 1 Fluids Density
More informationhapter 13 Archimedes Upthrust
hapter 13 Archimedes Upthrust In science, buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. The buoyant force is also called Archimedes Upthrust force. Proof
More informationChapter 2 Hydrostatics Buoyancy, Floatation and Stability
Chapter 2 Hydrostatics uoyancy, Floatation and Stability Zerihun Alemayehu Rm. E119 AAiT Force of buoyancy an upward force exerted by a fluid pressure on fully or partially floating body Gravity Archimedes
More informationCivil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids. Pressure and Fluid Statics. The fastest healing part of the body is the tongue.
Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids and Fluid Statics The fastest healing part of the body is the tongue. Common Units 2 In order to be able to discuss and analyze fluid problems we need to
More informationStates of Matter. Pressure PHYSICS 220. Illustration. Lecture 16. Fluids. Solid. Liquid. Gas. Pressure = F normal / A
PHYSICS 220 States of Matter Lecture 16 Fluids Fluids Solid Hold Volume Hold Sape Liquid Hold Volume Adapt Sape Gas Adapt Volume Adapt Sape Lecture 16 Purdue University, Pysics 220 1 Lecture 16 Purdue
More informationFluid Mechanics. Chapter 14. Modified by P. Lam 6_7_2012
Chapter 14 Fluid Mechanics PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Twelfth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by James Pazun Modified by P. Lam 6_7_2012 Goals for Chapter 14 To study
More information5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION
5 ENERGY EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION 5.1 Introduction In order to develop the equations that describe a flow, it is assumed that fluids are subject to certain fundamental laws of physics. The pertinent laws
More informationCHAPTER 6 Fluids Engineering. SKMM1922 Introduction of Mechanical Engineering
CHAPTER 6 Fluids Engineering SKMM1922 Introduction of Mechanical Engineering Chapter Objectives Recognize the application of fluids engineering to such diverse fields as microfluidics, aerodynamics, sports
More informationPressure in a fluid P P P P
Fluids Gases (compressible) and liquids (incompressible) density of gases can change dramatically, while that of liquids much less so Gels, colloids, liquid crystals are all oddball states of matter We
More informationPressure variation with direction. Pressure variation with location How can we calculate the total force on a submerged surface?
Definitions and Alications CVEN Statics: no relative motion between adjacent fluid layers. Shear stress is ero Only ressure can be acting Gravity force acts on the fluid ( body force) Alications: Pressure
More information