C-Mod Transport Program

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1 C-Mod Transport Program PAC 2006 Presented by Martin Greenwald MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center 1/26/2006

2 Introduction Programmatic Focus Transport is a broad topic so where do we focus? Where C-Mod has unique capabilities, runs in unique regimes or observes unique or unusual phenomena. τ ei <<τ E, Ti = Te, ν*, no core particle or momentum sources Where we can make important comparisons with other devices Further tests of standard model for ion energy transport Dependence on collisionality - ν* and magnetic shear - Ŝ Studies of other transport channels are of increasing interest Momentum stabilizing effects in low torque, low ρ* plasmas? Particles what will the density profiles be with no core source? Electron energy no ignorable energy channel

3 Comparisons With Theory And Modeling Form A Critical Part Of The Program Prediction and control are the ultimate goals of transport studies. Validation of codes is an emerging theme in the transport community Experiments and theory have progressed to the point where meaningful, quantitative tests are being made. Increasing activity - synthetic diagnostic development Theory plays critical role in motivation and design of most of our experiments. We have close collaborations with theory and modeling groups at MIT and elsewhere these will continue.

4 Transport Themes For Campaigns Role of magnetic shear including Marginal stability in conventional regimes ITBs Collisionality effects Self-generated rotation and momentum confinement Core fluctuations including electron transport Particle transport Pedestals (discussed previously)

5 LHCD Should Allow Steady-state Control Of Magnetic Shear Shear is predicted to be important for ITG, TEM, ETG stability (linear and nonlinear dependences are complicated) One of only a very few free parameters that (are predicted to) determine R/L T Experiment: Test ITG models by evaluating change in R/L T and fluctuations as we modify Ŝ. Max. growth rate (normalized) GS2 simulations Electrostatic Z eff = 1.5 s=0.6 ^ Z eff Z eff = 1.5, ^s = R/L IFS-PPPL analytic critical R/L Ti Ti eff = 1.5 s=1.2 ^ (Mikkelsen) Fixed q, sawtoothing discharges

6 HECE With Field Scan Allows Highly Accurate Measurement of L Te a/lte MA 1.9x10 20 /m MA 1.6x10 20 /m MA 0.8x10 20 /m 3 (Phillips) RMID Crucial for R/L T scaling studies.

7 Modification of Magnetic Shear Should Broaden ITB, Hybrid-Mode Research Area As Well C-Mod internal barriers are apparently created and controlled through the interplay of R/L T and R/L n. Up til now, ITBs in C-Mod have only a weak effect on temperature profile due to electron-ion coupling? At very low or reversed shear, growth rates are predicted to be much lower (also - suppression of sawteeth with q > 1) With Ŝ near or below 1, can we create and maintain ITBs with strong central heating? (and weak ExB flow shear!) Simultaneous electron and ion transport barriers? Increase core temperature gradient? Exploit barrier control opportunities?

8 Note Recent Results: ITB Foot Location Controlled by B T and I P (magnetic shear effect?) (Fiore) Efficient, off-axis current drive may allow creation of largevolume ITBs

9 Impact of Collisionality on Transport Has Become An Important Issue Physics Issues nonlinear regulation of turbulence Plasma Profiles ITG - Nonlinear effects through change in electron dynamics Reduction of instability drive (ITG) predicted to be more important than zonal flow damping? TEM Drives and dissipation? Effects on particle transport and density profile? Previous results at higher collisionality (ν* = 0.2 1) Bτ E ~ ν* -1.0±0.2 in H-mode; Bτ E ~ ν* -0.4± 0.1 in L-mode Drift Waves Zonal Flows Collisional Damping Collisionless Damping

10 Cryopump Should Allow Operation at Significantly Lower Collisionality At fixed pressure, a small change in density can have a large effect on ν* Should provide more overlap with other experiments Test predictions of nonlinear simulations apparent contradiction with highcollisionality results Note collaboration w/ McKee DIII-D Zonal flow pellet diagnostic total heat flux (normalized) Linear critical gradients five times lower ν e & ν i R/L T (Mikkelsen) C-Mod EDA H-mode plasma r/a=0.56 GS2 actual ν e & ν i

11 Test Collisionality Effects on Density Profile With No Particle Source ITER interest better fusion performance with moderate density peaking Results from ASDEX, JET suggest increase in density peaking at low ν* (Most work has significant beam heating/fueling) With cryo-pump, C-Mod should be able to test in overlapping ranges Angione et al. ASDEX-U

12 Self-Generated Rotation and Momentum Transport Rotation important for stabilization of turbulence and MHD But we re moving toward low torque, low ρ* regimes (ITER) What is the origin and scaling of self-generated flows? What is the role of boundary flows, neutrals? Is there a steep rotation pedestal? If so, how is momentum transported in that region? Toroidal Velocity (km s-1) USN LSN Core Ar17+ Doppler (LaBombard, Rice) Outer Probe ρ = 1 mm Toroidal Projection of Parallel Velocity (km s-1) Data from Ohmic target plasmas

13 Momentum Transport Research Plans (Rice) Emphasis will be on Multi-machine studies w/itpa Edge-core coupling mechanisms Extend range of L-H threshold studies C-Mod DIII-D JET Tore Supra JT60-U Pedestal rotation profiles and transport Comparison with GK simulations (eventually) connection to fluctuations

14 Self-Generated Rotation and The Pedestal We need to fill in gap in measurements (NeSoX, CXR) What is the relation between pedestal scaling for Te, ne and Vφ? Does self-generated rotation contribute to ExB stabilization of pedestal? Based on (incomplete) current measurements, we hypothesize that a significant portion of the toroidal velocity gradient is in the pedestal V Tor (10 4 m/s) V Tor (10 4 m/s) EDA r/a t (s) 8 6 EDA r/a (Rice)

15 Enhanced Core Fluctuation Diagnostics Opening Up Window To Core Transport (Lin, Porkolab) PCI Spatial Localization with fast spatial scan high k (25 cm-1) high frequency (5 MHz) Reflectometer Set up all channels for fluctuation measurements 140GHz channel = 2.4x10 20 Correlation length measurements HECE core n e fluctuations via cutoff Broadband fluctuations propagate in +R direction, QC mode in R direction

16 With Localization, PCI Can Distinguish Core Modes From Edge Fluctuations (Lin, Porkolab) In barrier, QC mode propagates in electron direction (previously noted) In core, broadband fluctuations propagate in ion direction Large part of this due to Doppler shift from core rotation Plasma frame propagation? L-mode experiments H-mode at q = 2.9

17 Electron Energy Transport Experiments have begun with enhanced PCI diagnostic Start by looking at linear Ohmic regime Some differences seen But high k fluctuations do not stand out Need to compare to nonlinear simulations Comparisons with DIII-D, NSTX discussed (Lin)

18 Renewed Interest and Emphasis on Particle Transport Poorly understood channel ITER What will density profiles be? Ash removal? Collisionality dependence (as noted)? Relative importance of TEM and ITG in particle transport? Internal Barrier work will continue Gyrokinetic studies with gs2 LHCD should enable repetition of Tore Supra experiments with no core source or Ware pinch Further transient transport experiments planned

19 Barrier formation understood as stabilization of ITG via modification of L T. (Zhurovich) (Ernst) No ITB ITB Supported by recent experiments. Barrier saturation and control via TEM destabilization ITBs In C-Mod Not Dominated By ExB Stabilization

20 Particle Transport in ITB In Quantitative Agreement With TEM Predictions (Basse) HECE measurements indicate these fluctuations are inside barrier density fluctuation spectra[a.u.] New GS 2 k R spectrum Wavenumber [cm -1 ] original GS 2 k y spectrum Measured P CI k R spectrum (Ernst, Long)

21 Studies Of Particle Transport In Baseline Regimes Dependence of density profile on collisionality Compare with thermodiffusion (TTD) and turbulence equipartition (TEP) models n T q or n T q Comparison with simulations of particle transport. Transient transport experiments Impurity transport via CXR Pinch? With E Φ = 0?

22 H-mode and Pedestal Work Will Continue To Be An Emphasis of Transport Program L/H threshold connection to SOL flows, theories ELM types, effects QC mode physics Pedestal scaling Self-generated rotation momentum transport in pedestal Transition/bifurcation dynamics Turbulence spreading? intermediate gradient region in pedestal Te profile

23 Summary The C-Mod experiment offers excellent opportunities to advance the state of transport science Capable and unique facility Strong diagnostic set Wide collaborations with theory and modeling All three of these components will be improved and expanded. Cryopump and LHCD present important opportunities Significant upgrades in core profile and fluctuation measurements

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