# Region 16 Board of Education. Precalculus Curriculum

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1 Region 16 Board of Education Precalculus Curriculum

2 Course Description This course offers students an opportunity to explore a variety of concepts designed to prepare them to go on to study calculus. Such topics will include analyzing patterns and functions using a variety of strategies, and tools, including content-specific technology. This course will explore polynomials, and rational equations, as well as logarithmic and exponential functions and regression analysis. This course will offer students opportunities to solve real-world problems utilizing the skills that they learn. Prerequisites This course is intended for students who have successfully completed Algebra 2 and Geometry. It serves as a foundational course that will support students in their study of calculus. Course Objectives Students will be able to: recognize, analyze, and graph functions. Determine the domain and range of functions and perform operations on functions. solve everyday problems that can be modeled using functions. demonstrate an understanding of trigonometric functions, their basic values and their formulas. solve problems using polar coordinates and polar equations. solve polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, and rational equations. draw and interpret graphs of relations and scatter plots by hand using transformations and by using a graphing utility. use vectors to solve authentic world problems. Skill Objectives Students will: determine x and y intercepts of graphs. test for x axis, y axis and origin symmetry. determine, use and interpret the slope of a line as a rate of change. determine the equation of a line from its graph or its given attributes. solve linear, quadratic and absolute value equations and inequalities algebraically and graphically. solve everyday problems that can be modeled using linear and quadratic equations. determine whether a graph represents a function. identify the domain and range of a function. identify an appropriate symbolic representation for a function or a relation displayed graphically or verbally. use functions to model problems. determine the average rate of change of a function. determine increasing intervals, decreasing intervals, constant intervals, local maxima and local minima for a function. identify even or odd functions from graphs or equations. sketch the graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, reciprocal, absolute value and greatest integer functions and their transformations. represent translations, reflections, and dilations of plane figures using sketches, coordinates, vectors, and function notation to examine the effects of transformations and their composites and to solve related geometric problems. graph piecewise-defined functions. perform the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and composition with functions. 2

3 find the inverse of a relation from graphs or equations and determine if the inverse is a function. graph functions using transformations. form the composite function and determine its domain. construct and analyze a function. solve right triangles using trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem. apply the Law of Sines and Law of Cosines to solve triangles. determine the area of a triangle using Sines or Heron's formula. convert measures of angles between degrees and radians. use the relationship between radius, arc length and measure of the central angle of a circle to solve for missing values. determine the linear speed of an object traveling along a circular path. find the exact value of trigonometric functions of special angles. graph the six basic trigonometric and identify their domain and range. use the inverse trigonometric functions to solve problems. use Double angle formulas for Sine, Cosine and Tangent. solve trigonometric equations using identities. use Sum and Difference formulas. determine amplitude, period and phase shift of a sinusoidal function. graph sinusoidal functions. use sinusoidal functions to model data from real life situations. determine the area of a sector of a circle in radian measure. use a calculator to approximate the values of trigonometric functions. determine the domain and range of trigonometric functions. use even and odd properties to determine the exact values of trigonometric functions. graph transformations of the trigonometric functions. determine an equation for a sinusoidal graph. determine the approximate value of the inverse trigonometric function. solve right triangles and applied problems using right triangle trigonometry. determine an equation for an object in simple harmonic motion. plot points using polar coordinates. convert between polar and rectangular coordinates. use Cartesian, navigational, and polar systems to represent, analyze, and solve geometric and measurement problems. graph simple polar equations by hand. graph polar equations using a graphing utility. perform operations on complex numbers in polar and rectangular form. graph and identify polar equations by converting to rectangular equations. test polar equations for symmetry graphically and algebraically. solve polynomial and rational inequalities algebraically and graphically. solve exponential and logarithmic equations algebraically and graphically. determine the complex zeros of polynomial functions by using a graphing utility, factoring, quadratic formula, and synthetic division. determine the vertical, horizontal and oblique asymptotes of rational functions both algebraically and graphically. graph polynomial and rational functions by hand and by using a graphing utility determine the local extrema of polynomial functions compare and contrast the properties of numbers and number systems including rational, real, and complex numbers. determine the x and y intercepts of rational functions. determine the domain and range of polynomial and rational functions. determine any removable discontinuities of rational functions. evaluate, graph and identify domain and range of exponential and logarithmic functions. define the number e and the natural logarithmic function. 3

4 apply exponential and logarithmic functions to solve problems involving. compound interest, future and present value, growth and decay. identify polynomial functions and their degree, domain, and range. compare and contrast the properties of numbers and number systems including rational, real, and complex numbers. determine a polynomial function given specified zeros. analyze the graph of a rational function. graph and analyze exponential and logarithmic functions including domain and range. convert between exponential and logarithmic expressions. apply the properties of logarithms. define and apply the number e as it relates to exponential and logarithmic functions. solve problems using any bases. investigate, organize, display, and analyze data in tabular, graphical, and symbolic forms. make and justify predictions based on patterns and regression models. determine the polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions of best fit to data. determine the polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions of best fit to data (regression analysis). determine the magnitude of two dimensional vectors. determine the angle between two vectors in two dimensions. solve real world problems involving vectors. construct a graphical representation of a vector. add vectors. multiply vectors by a scalar quantity. determine the dot product of two dimensional vectors. determine position and unit vectors of two dimensional vectors. Math Standards Algebraic Reasoning: Patterns And Functions Patterns and functional relationships can be represented and analyzed using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. Core 1.1 Students should understand and describe patterns and functional relationships. 1.1a Students will describe relationships and make generalizations about patterns and functions. 1.2 Students should represent and analyze quantitative relationships in a variety of ways. 1.2a Students should represent and analyze linear and non-linear functions and relations symbolically and with tables and graphs. 1.3 Students should use operations, properties, and algebraic symbols to determine equivalence and solve problems. 1.3a Students will manipulate equations, inequalities, and functions to solve problems. 1.1 Students should understand and describe patterns and functional relationships. 1.1a Students will model real world situations and make generalizations about mathematical relationships using a variety of patterns and functions. 1.2 Students should represent and analyze quantitative relationships in a variety of ways. 1.2a Students will relate the behavior of functions and relations to specific parameters and determine functions to model real world situations. 4

5 1.3 Students should use operations, properties, and algebraic symbols to determine equivalence and solve problems. 1.3a Students will use and extend algebraic concepts to include real and complex numbers, vectors, and matrices. Numerical and Proportional Reasoning Quantitative relationships can be expressed numerically in multiple ways in order to make connections and simplify calculations using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. 2.1 Students should understand that a variety of numerical representations can be used to describe quantitative relationships. 2.1a Students will extend the understanding of number to include the set of complex numbers. 2.2 Use numbers and their properties to compute flexibly and fluently, and to reasonably estimate measures and quantities. 2.2a Investigate mathematical properties and operations related to objects that are not numbers. Geometry and Measurement Shapes and structures can be analyzed, visualized, measured and transformed using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. Core 3.3 Students should develop and apply units, systems, formulas and appropriate tools to estimate and measure. 3.3a Students will solve a variety of problems involving one- two- and three-dimensional measurements using geometric relationships and trigonometric ratios. 3.2 Students should use spatial reasoning, location and geometric relationships to solve problems. 3.2a Students will use a variety of coordinate systems and transformations to solve geometric problems in two- and three-dimensions using appropriate tools and technology. 3.3 Students should develop and apply units, systems, formulas and appropriate tools to estimate and measure. 3.3a Students will approximate measurements that can not be directly determined with some degree of precision using appropriate tools, techniques and strategies. Working with Data: Probability and Statistics Data can be analyzed to make informed decisions using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. 4.1 Collect, organize and display data using appropriate statistical and graphical methods. 4.1a Model real data graphically using appropriate tools, technology and strategies. Essential Questions How do patterns and functions help us describe data and physical phenomena and solve a variety of problems? How are quantitative relationships represented by numbers? How do geometric relationships and measurements help us to solve problems and make sense of our world? How can collecting, organizing and displaying data help us analyze information and make reasonable predictions and informed decisions? 5

6 Focus Questions What are the major attributes to analyze a function? When is a relation a function? How do you determine the average rate of change of a function? How do you determine if a function is even or odd graphically or algebraically? How do you determine the composition of two functions? What is the domain of a composite function? What are the major attributes of each trigonometric function? How do you determine a sinusoidal function from given data? How do you determine the exact values of trigonometric functions? How do you determine the approximate values of trigonometric functions? How do you convert degree measure to radian measure? How do you convert radian measure to degree measure? How are trigonometric identities used to solve trigonometric equations? How is right triangle trigonometry used to solve right triangles? How are Law of Sines and Law of Cosines used to solve triangles? How are Sines and Heron s formulas used to determine area of triangle? What are the major attributes of polar graphs? How do you convert polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates? How do you convert rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates? How do you convert polar equations to rectangular equations? How do you convert rectangular equations to polar equations? How can a graph be used to solve an equation or inequality? How can a polynomial, rational, exponential or logarithmic equation be solved algebraically? How can a polynomial or rational inequality be solved algebraically? How can you determine the features of a graph given the equation? How can you determine equivalent forms of rational, exponential and logarithmic expressions? How do you apply the principles of polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic functions to real world situations? How can a graphing utility be used to determine a regression equation of best fit? How can you use the binomial theorem to expand a binomial? How do you perform operations on vectors? How can you determine the angle between two vectors? How can you use vectors to solve real world problems? How can mathematical induction be used to solve statements true for all n? 6

7 UNITS OF STUDY 1. Defining and Analyzing Functions and Relations Math Standards Algebraic Reasoning: Patterns And Functions Patterns and functional relationships can be represented and analyzed using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. Core 1.1 Students should understand and describe patterns and functional relationships. 1.1a Students will describe relationships and make generalizations about patterns and functions. 1.2 Students should represent and analyze quantitative relationships in a variety of ways. 1.2a Students should represent and analyze linear and non-linear functions and relations symbolically and with tables and graphs. 1.3 Students should use operations, properties, and algebraic symbols to determine equivalence and solve problems. 1.3a Students will manipulate equations, inequalities, and functions to solve problems. 1.1 Students should understand and describe patterns and functional relationships. 1.1a Students will model real world situations and make generalizations about mathematical relationships using a variety of patterns and functions. 1.2 Students should represent and analyze quantitative relationships in a variety of ways. 1.2a Students will relate the behavior of functions and relations to specific parameters and determine functions to model real world situations. 1.3 Students should use operations, properties, and algebraic symbols to determine equivalence and solve problems. 1.3a Students will use and extend algebraic concepts to include real and complex numbers, vectors, and matrices. Essential Question How do patterns and functions help us describe data and physical phenomena and solve a variety of problems? Focus Questions What are the major attributes to analyze a function? When is a relation a function? How do you determine the average rate of change of a function? How do you determine if a function is even or odd graphically or algebraically? How do you determine the composition of two functions? What is the domain of a composite function? Core Topics Define and analyze a function Average rate of change of a function Even and odd functions 7

8 Graph functions Composite functions and their domain Unit Objectives Students will be able to: recognize, analyze, and graph functions. Determine the domain and range of functions and perform operations on functions. solve everyday problems that can be modeled using functions. Skill Objectives Students will: determine x and y intercepts of graphs. test for x axis, y axis and origin symmetry. determine, use and interpret the slope of a line as a rate of change. determine the equation of a line from its graph or its given attributes. solve linear, quadratic and absolute value equations and inequalities algebraically and graphically. Construct, analyze, and solve everyday problems that can be modeled using a function. determine whether a graph represents a function. identify the domain and range of a function. identify an appropriate symbolic representation for a function or a relation. displayed graphically or verbally. use functions to model problems. determine the average rate of change of a function. determine increasing intervals, decreasing intervals, constant intervals, local maxima and local minima for a function. identify even or odd functions from graphs or equations. sketch the graphs of linear, quadratic, cubic, square root, reciprocal, absolute value and greatest integer functions and their transformations. represent and graph translations, reflections, and dilations of parent functions using sketches, coordinates, and function notation to examine the effects of transformations and their composites to solve related problems. graph piecewise-defined functions. perform the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and composition with functions. find the inverse of a relation from graphs or equations and determine if the inverse is a function. form the composite function and determine its domain. Pacing 6 weeks 8

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11 Math Standards 2. Polynomial, Rational, Exponential and Logarithmic Functions and Equations Algebraic Reasoning: Patterns And Functions Patterns and functional relationships can be represented and analyzed using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. Core 1.1 Students should understand and describe patterns and functional relationships. 1.1a Students will describe relationships and make generalizations about patterns and functions. 1.2 Students should represent and analyze quantitative relationships in a variety of ways. 1.2a Students should represent and analyze linear and non-linear functions and relations symbolically and with tables and graphs. 1.3 Students should use operations, properties, and algebraic symbols to determine equivalence and solve problems. 1.3a Students will manipulate equations, inequalities, and functions to solve problems. 1.1 Students should understand and describe patterns and functional relationships. 1.1a Students will model real world situations and make generalizations about mathematical relationships using a variety of patterns and functions. 1.2 Students should represent and analyze quantitative relationships in a variety of ways. 1.2a Students will relate the behavior of functions and relations to specific parameters and determine functions to model real world situations. 1.3 Students should use operations, properties, and algebraic symbols to determine equivalence and solve problems. 1.3a Students will use and extend algebraic concepts to include real and complex numbers, vectors, and matrices. Numerical and Proportional Reasoning Quantitative relationships can be expressed numerically in multiple ways in order to make connections and simplify calculations using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. 2.1 Students should understand that a variety of numerical representations can be used to describe quantitative relationships. 2.1a Students will extend the understanding of number to include the set of complex numbers. 2.2 Use numbers and their properties to compute flexibly and fluently, and to reasonably estimate measures and quantities. 2.2a Investigate mathematical properties and operations related to objects that are not numbers. Essential Questions How do patterns and functions help us describe data and physical phenomena and solve a variety of problems? How are quantitative relationships represented by numbers? Focus Questions How can a graph be used to solve an equation or inequality? How can a polynomial, rational, exponential or logarithmic equation be solved algebraically? 11

12 How can a polynomial or rational inequality be solved algebraically? How can you determine the features of a graph given the equation? How can you determine equivalent forms of rational, exponential and logarithmic expressions? How do you apply the principles of polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic functions to real world situations? Core Topics Analyze polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic functions and their graphs Solve polynomial, rational, exponential and logarithmic equations Polynomial and Rational Inequalities Unit Objective Students will be able to: solve polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, and rational equations. Skill Objectives Students will: solve polynomial and rational inequalities algebraically and graphically. solve exponential and logarithmic equations algebraically and graphically. determine the complex zeros of polynomial functions by using a graphing utility, factoring, quadratic formula, and synthetic division. determine the vertical, horizontal asymptotes of rational functions both algebraically and graphically. graph polynomial and rational functions by hand and by using a graphing utility. determine the local extrema of polynomial functions. determine the x and y intercepts of rational functions. determine the domain and range of polynomial and rational functions. determine any removable discontinuities of rational functions. evaluate, graph and identify domain and range of exponential and logarithmic functions. define the number e and the natural logarithmic function. apply exponential and logarithmic functions to solve problems involving compound interest, future and present value, growth and decay. identify polynomial functions and their degree, domain, and range. Review operations with complex numbers. determine a polynomial function given specified zeros. analyze the graph of a rational function. graph and analyze exponential and logarithmic functions including domain and range. convert between exponential and logarithmic expressions. apply the properties of logarithms. solve problems using any bases. Pacing 10 weeks 3. Trigonometric Functions 12

13 Math Standards Algebraic Reasoning: Patterns And Functions Patterns and functional relationships can be represented and analyzed using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. Core 1.1 Students should understand and describe patterns and functional relationships. 1.1a Students will describe relationships and make generalizations about patterns and functions. 1.2 Students should represent and analyze quantitative relationships in a variety of ways. 1.2a Students should represent and analyze linear and non-linear functions and relations symbolically and with tables and graphs. 1.3 Students should use operations, properties, and algebraic symbols to determine equivalence and solve problems. 1.3a Students will manipulate equations, inequalities, and functions to solve problems. 1.1 Students should understand and describe patterns and functional relationships. 1.1a Students will model real world situations and make generalizations about mathematical relationships using a variety of patterns and functions. 1.2 Students should represent and analyze quantitative relationships in a variety of ways. 1.2a Students will relate the behavior of functions and relations to specific parameters and determine functions to model real world situations. Geometry and Measurement Shapes and structures can be analyzed, visualized, measured and transformed using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. Core 3.3 Students should develop and apply units, systems, formulas and appropriate tools to estimate and measure. 3.3a Students will solve a variety of problems involving one- two- and three-dimensional measurements using geometric relationships and trigonometric ratios. 3.2 Students should use spatial reasoning, location and geometric relationships to solve problems. 3.2a Students will use a variety of coordinate systems and transformations to solve geometric problems in two- and three-dimensions using appropriate tools and technology. 3.3 Students should develop and apply units, systems, formulas and appropriate tools to estimate and measure. 3.3a Students will approximate measurements that can not be directly determined with some degree of precision using appropriate tools, techniques and strategies. Essential Questions How do patterns and functions help us describe data and physical phenomena and solve a variety of problems? How do geometric relationships and measurements help us to solve problems and make sense of our world? 13

14 Focus Questions What are the major attributes of each trigonometric function? How do you determine a sinusoidal function from given data? How do you determine the exact values of trigonometric functions? How do you determine the approximate values of trigonometric functions? How do you convert degree measure to radian measure? How do you convert radian measure to degree measure? How are trigonometric identities used to solve trigonometric equations? How is right triangle trigonometry used to solve right triangles? How are Law of Sines and Law of Cosines used to solve triangles? How are Sines and Heron s formulas used to determine area of triangle? Core Topics Define and analyze trigonometric functions Graph trigonometric functions Sinusoidal function determined from data Exact and approximate values of trigonometric functions Degree and radian measure of angles Trigonometric identities Solve trigonometric equations Right triangle trigonometry, Law of Sines, and Law of Cosines Area of a triangle using Sines and Heron s formula Unit Objective Students will be able to: demonstrate an understanding of trigonometric functions, their basic values and their formulas. Skill Objectives Students will: Pacing solve right triangles using trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem. apply the Law of Sines and Law of Cosines to solve triangles. determine the area of a triangle using Sines or Heron's formula. convert measures of angles between degrees and radians. use the relationship between radius, arc length and measure of the central angle of a circle to solve for missing values. determine the linear speed of an object traveling along a circular path. find the exact value of trigonometric functions of special angles. graph the three basic trigonometric functions and identify their domain and range. graph transformations of the trigonometric functions. use the inverse trigonometric functions to solve problems. use Double angle formulas for Sine, Cosine and Tangent. determine amplitude, period, vertical shift and phase shift of a sinusoidal function. graph sinusoidal functions. determine an equation for a sinusoidal graph. use sinusoidal functions to model data from real life situations. determine the area of a sector of a circle in radian measure. use a calculator to approximate the values of trigonometric functions. use even and odd properties to determine the exact values of trigonometric functions. 14

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16 4. Statistics Math Standards Working with Data: Probability and Statistics Data can be analyzed to make informed decisions using a variety of strategies, tools and technologies. 4.1 Collect, organize and display data using appropriate statistical and graphical methods. 4.1a Model real data graphically using appropriate tools, technology and strategies. Essential Question How can collecting, organizing and displaying data help us analyze information and make reasonable predictions and informed decisions? Focus Questions How can a graphing utility be used to determine a regression equation of best fit? How can you use the binomial theorem to expand a binomial? Core Topic Regression Analysis Unit Objective Students will be able to: draw and interpret graphs of relations and scatter plots by hand using transformations and by using a graphing utility. Skill Objectives Students will: Pacing investigate, organize, display, and analyze data in tabular, graphical, and symbolic forms. make and justify predictions based on patterns and regression models. determine the polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions of best fit to data. determine the polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions of best fit to data (regression analysis). 1 week 16

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