3.5 Vorticity Equation


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1 .0  Marine Hydrodynamics, Spring 005 Lecture Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 9 Lecture 9 is structured as follows: In paragraph 3.5 we return to the full NavierStokes equations (unsteady, viscous momentum equations) to deduce the vorticity equation and study some additional properties of vorticity. In paragraph 3.6 we introduce the concept of potential flow and velocity potential. We formulate the governing equations and boundary conditions for potential flow and finally introduce the stream function. 3.5 Vorticity Equation Return to viscous incompressible flow. The NavierStokes equations in vector form v p + v v = + gy + ν v t ρ By taking the curl of the NavierStokes equations we obtain the vorticity equation. In detail and taking into account u ω we have (NavierStokes) v p ( + ( v v) = + gy + ν v ) t ρ The first term on the left side, for fixed reference frames, becomes v ω = ( v) = t t t In the same manner the last term on the right side becomes ν v = ν ω Applying the identity scalar = 0 the pressure term vanishes, provided that the density is uniform ( p + gy) = 0 ρ 1
2 The inertia term v v, as shown in Lecture 8, 3.4, can be rewritten as 1 v v v = ( v v) v ( v) = v ω where v v = v v and then the second term on the left side can be rewritten as v ( v ) v = ( v ω) = ( ω v) = ( v ) ω ( ω ) v + ω ( v) + v ( ω) }{{}}{{} Putting everything together, we obtain the vorticity equation =0 =0 since incompressible ( v)=0 fluid D ω =(ω ) v + ν ω Dt Commentsresults obtained from the vorticity equation Kelvin s Theorem revisited  from vorticity equation: If ν 0, then D ω =( ω ) v, soif ω 0 everywhere at one time, ω 0 always. Dt ν can be thought of as diffusivity of vorticity (and momentum), i.e., ω once generated (on boundaries only) will spread/diffuse in space if ν is present. ω v ω v ω v ω v Dv v = υ v +... Dt Dωω v = υ v ω +... Dt
3 Diffusion of vorticity is analogous to the heat equation: heat diffusivity. T t = K T, where K is the Numerical example ( for ) ν 1mm /s. For diffusion time t = 1 second, diffusion distance L O νt O (mm). For diffusion distance L = 1cm, the necessary diffusion time is t O (L /ν) O(10)sec. In D space (x, y), v = (u, v, 0) and 0 z So, ω = v is to v (ω is parallel to the zaxis). Then, so in D we have ( ω ) v = ω x + ω y + ω z v 0, }{{} x }{{} y z 0 }{{} 0 0 D ω = ν ω Dt If ν =0, D ω = 0, i.e., in D following a particle the angular velocity is conserved. Dt Reason: In D space the length of a vortex tube cannot change due to continuity. 3
4 In 3D space, Dω i v i ω i = ω j + ν Dt x j x j x }{{}}{{ j } vortex turning and stretching diffusion for example, Dω u u u = ω 1 + ω + ω 3 + diffusion Dt x 1 x x }{{}}{{}}{{} 3 vortex turning vortex stretching vortex turning z x 3 dy dz z x 3 u dz > 0 x 3 u = 0 x x 1 y x u dy > 0 x u = 0 x x 1 y x u x D ω > 0 > 1443 Dt 0 vortex stretching rate u ω 3 > 0 > x 3 D ω 1443 Dt > 0 0 vortex turning rate 4
5 3.5.1 Example: Pile on a River Scouring What really happens as length of the vortex tube L increases? IFCF is no longer a valid assumption. Why? Ideal flow assumption implies that the inertia forces are much larger than the viscous effects. The Reynolds number, with respect to the vortex tube diameter D is given by UD R e ν As the vortex tube length increases the diameter D becomes really small that big after all. Therefore IFCF is no longer valid. R e is not 5
6 3.6 Potential Flow Potential Flow (PFlow) is an ideal and irrotational fluid flow Inviscid Fluid ν = 0 + Ideal Flow PFlow Incompressible Flow v =0 + Irrotational Flow ω = 0or Γ= Velocity potential For ideal flow under conservative body forces by Kelvin s theorem if ω 0 at some time t, then ω 0 irrotational flow always. In this case the flow is PFlow. Given a vector field v for which ω = v 0, there exists a potential function (scalar)  the velocity potential  denoted as φ, for which Note that v = φ ω = v = φ 0 for any φ, so irrotational flow guaranteed automatically. At a point x and time t, the velocity vector v( x, t) in cartesian coordinates in terms of the potential function φ( x, t) is given by φ φ φ v ( x, t) = φ ( x, t) =,, x y z 6
7 φ (x) u u x φ u = 0 φ > 0 < 0 x x u > 0 u < 0 from low φ to high φ The velocity vector v is the gradient of the potential function φ, so it always points towards higher values of the potential function Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions for Potential Flow (a) Continuity v = 0= φ φ = 0 Number of unknowns φ Number of equations φ = 0 Therefore we have closure. In addition, the velocity potential φ and the pressure p are decoupled. The velocity potential φ can be solved independently first, and after φ is obtained we can evaluate the pressure p. p = f ( v) = f ( φ) Solve for φ, then find pressure. 7
8 (b) Bernoulli equation for PFlow This is a scalar equation for the pressure under the assumption of PFlow for steady or unsteady flow. Euler equation: v v p + v ω = + gy t ρ Substituting v = φ and ω = 0 into Euler s equation above, we obtain or which implies that φ 1 p + φ = + gy t ρ { } φ 1 p + φ + + gy =0, t ρ φ 1 p + φ + + gy = f(t) t ρ everywhere in the fluid for unsteady, potential flow. The equation above can be written as [ ] φ 1 p = ρ + φ + gy + F (t) t which is the Bernoulli equation for unsteady or steady potential flow. DO NOT CONFUSE WITH BERNOULLI EQUATION FROM 3.4, USED FOR STEADY, ROTATIONAL FLOW 8
9 Summary: Bernoulli equations for ideal flow. (a) For steady rotational or irrotational flow along streamline: 1 p = ρ v + gy + C(ψ) (b) For unsteady or steady irrotational flow everywhere in the fluid: (c) For hydrostatics, v 0, t =0: φ 1 p = ρ + φ + gy + F (t) t p = ρgy + c hydrostatic pressure (Archimedes principle) (d) Steady and no gravity effect ( =0,g 0): t ρv ρ p = + c = φ + c Venturi pressure (created by velocity) (e) Inertial, acceleration effect: Eulerian inertia {}}{ φ p ρ t + p ρ v t + u p δx p + p δx x 9
10 (c) Boundary Conditions KBC on an impervious boundary φ v }{{} nˆ = }{{ u nˆ } no flux across boundary = U n n nˆ φ U n given DBC: specify pressure at the boundary, i.e., φ 1 ρ + φ + gy = given t Note: On a freesurface p = p atm. given 10
11 3.6.3 Stream function Continuity: v = 0; Irrotationality: v = ω =0 Velocity potential: v = φ, then v = ( φ) 0 for any φ, i.e., irrotationality is satisfied automatically. Required for continuity: Stream function ψ defined by v = φ = 0 v = ψ Then v = ψ 0 for any ψ, i.e., satisfies continuity automatically. Required for irrotationality: v = 0 ψ = ψ ψ = 0 (1) } {{ } still 3 unknown ψ =(ψ x,ψ y,ψ z ) For D and axisymmetric flows, ψ is a scalar ψ (stream functions are more useful for D and axisymmetric flows). For D flow: v = (u, v, 0) and z 0. î ĵ ˆk v = ψ = x y z ψ = ψ î + ĵ + kˆ z ψ z ψ y ψ x y x x y x ψ y ψ z ψ Set ψ x = ψ y 0 and ψ z = ψ, then u = y ; v = x ψ So, for D: ψ = ψ x + ψ y + ψ z 0 x y z Then, from the irrotationality (see (1)) equation. 11 ψ = 0 and ψ satisfies Laplace s
12 D polar coordinates: v = (v r,v θ ) and z 0. y r ê ê r x v r v θ v {}} z ê { r rê θ ê {}}{{}}{ ( ) 1 z 1 ψ z ψ z 1 v = ψ = r θ z ψ = ê r ê θ + rψ θ ψ r ê z r r θ r r r θ r ψ θ ψ z Again let ψ r = ψ θ 0 and ψ z = ψ, then 1 ψ ψ v r = and v θ = r θ r For 3D but axisymmetric flows, ψ also reduces to ψ (read JNN 4.6 for details). 1
13 Physical Meaning of ψ. In D We define u = ψ y and ψ v = x x ψ( x, t) = ψ( x 0,t)+ v ndl ˆ = ψ( x 0,t)+ (udy vdx) x } 0 x {{} 0 total volume flux from left to right accross a curve C between x and x 0 v x x C v t x v o C nˆ For ψ to be singlevalued, must be path independent. = or =0 v nˆ dl = }{{} v ds =0 C C C C C C S =0, continuity Therefore, ψ is unique because of continuity. 13
14 Let x 1, x be two points on a given streamline ( v nˆ = 0 on streamline) streamline Therefore, ψ 1 = ψ, i.e., ψ is a constant along any streamline. For example, on an impervious stationary body v nˆ =0, so ψ = constant on the body is the appropriate boundary condition. If the body is moving v nˆ = U n ψ = ψ 0 + U }{{} n dl on the boddy x ψ ( x ) = ψ ( x 1 ) + v }{{} nˆ dl }{{}}{{} ψ ψ x =0 1 1 along a streamline given u = 0 φ ψ = constant = 0 n ψ = given ψ o 14
15 Flux Δψ = vδx = uδy. Therefore, u = ψ y ψ and v = x (x, y + Δy) u v streamline streamline (x,y) (x +Δx, y) ψ ψ + Δψ 15
16 Summary of velocity potential formulation vs. streamfunction formulation for ideal flows For irrotational flow use φ For incompressible flow use ψ For PFlow use φ or ψ definition continuity v = 0 irrotationality v = 0 D: w = 0, z =0 continuity irrotationality velocity potential v = φ φ = 0 automatically satisfied φ = 0 automatically satisfied streamfunction v = ψ automatically ( satisfied ψ ) ( = ψ ) ψ = 0 automatically satisfied ψ = 0 ψ ψ z : CauchyRiemann equations for (φ, ψ) = (real, imaginary) part of an analytic complex function of z = x + iy Cartesian (x, y) Polar (r,θ) u = φ x v = φ y v r = φ r v θ = 1 φ r θ u = ψ y v = ψ x v r = 1 ψ r θ v θ = ψ r Given φ or ψ for D flow, use CauchyRiemann equations to find the other: e.g. If φ = xy, then ψ =? φ ψ 1 u = = y = ψ = y + f1 (x) x y φ ψ 1 v = = x = ψ = x + f (y) y x 1 ψ = (y x )+ const 16
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