# Problems -X-O («) s-plane. s-plane *~8 -X -5. id) X s-plane. s-plane. -* Xtg) FIGURE P8.1. j-plane. JO) k JO)

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1 Problems 1. For each of the root loci shown in Figure P8.1, tell whether or not the sketch can be a root locus. If the sketch cannot be a root locus, explain why. Give all reasons. [Section: 8.4] *~8 -X-O JO) k -X -5 («) id) JO) X j-plane FIGURE P8.1 -* Xtg)

2 Problems Sketch the general shape of the root wileypws locus for each of the open-loop pole- tfmll^ zero plots shown in Figure P8.2. control solutions [Section: 8.4] m G(s) cm Jta /o FIGURE P8.3 j-plane 3! 5-plane 4. Let -x x- G(s)=-> (5 + 6) jco ( ) jo) in Figure P8.3. a. Plot the root locus. b. Write an expression for the closed-loop transfer function at the point the three closed-loop poles meet. O O j; )[ 5. Let ^) =,2 + 2, + 2 with > 0 in Figure P8.3. [Sections: 8.5, 8.9] X X X X p s^a&ne. O O jco splane * x - a a. Find the range of for closed-loop stability. b. Sketch the system's root locus. c. Find the position of the closed-loop poles when = 1 and = For the open-loop pole-zero plot shown in Figure P8.4, sketch the root locus and find the break-in point. jo) i if) FIGURE P Sketch the root locus for the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3 for the following transfer functions: [Section: 8.4] (s + 2){s + 6) a. s 2 + 8s + 25 {s 2 + 4) b. (* 2 + l) {s 2 + 1) c. s2 d. {s + ly(s + 4) -o- -3 o fl FIGURE P Sketch the root locus of the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, (s + 3)(s + 5) «-(, + 1)(,-7) and find the break-in and breakaway points. [Section: 8.5]

3 434 Chapter 8 Root Locus Techniques 8. The characteristic polynomial of a feedback control system, which is the denominator of the closed-loop transfer function, is given by {20 + 7) Sketch the root locus for this system. [Section: 8.8] 9. Figure P8.5 shows open-loop poles and zeros. There are two possibilities for the sketch of the root locus. Sketch each of the two possibilities. Be aware that only one can be the real locus for specific open-loop pole and zero values. [Section: 8.4] 13. For each system shown in Figure P8.6, make an accurate plot of the root locus and find the following: a. The breakaway and break-in points b. The range of to keep the system stable c. The value of that yields a stable system with critically damped second-order poles d. The value of that yields a stable system with a pair of second-order poles that have a damping ratio of v-plane R(s) +/r?\ * 9 (s + 2)(s + 1) (s-2)(s-\) Qs) System 1 -O X- B(s) t(c A 9 (s + 2)(s+l) (s 2-2s + 2) C{s) FIGURE P Plot the root locus for the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, (s + 2)(s2 + 4) (' +5)(s-3) For what range of will the poles be in the right half-plane? 11. For the unity feedback system shown in wiieypws Figure P8.3, djjj «,* W-9) sketch the root locus and tell for what values of the system is stable and unstable. 12. Sketch the root locus for the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, 2) GW--^. + 3)(. + 4) Give the values for all critical points of interest. Is the system ever unstable? If so, for what range of l System 2 FIGURE P Sketch the root locus and find the range of for stability for the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3 for the following conditions: {s 2 + 1) a. G{s) = (.-1)(5+2)(. b. {s 2-2s + 2) s(s + l)(s + 2) 15. For the unity feedback system of Figure P8.3, 3) (s + 3) (.2+2)(.-2)(5 + 5) WileyPLUS CJJSJ sketch the root locus and find the range of such that there will be only two right-half-plane poles for the closed-loop system. 16. For the unity feedback system of Figure P8.3, G(.) =.(. + 6)(. + 9) plot the root locus and calibrate your plot for gain. Find all the critical points, such as breakaways, asymptotes, /w-axis crossing, and so forth.

4 Problems Given the unity feedback system of Figure P8.3, make an accurate plot of the root locus for the following: (s 2-2s+ 2) a. (s + l)(s + 2) (s-l){s-2) b. (s + l){s + 2) Calibrate the gain for at least four points for each case. Also find the breakaway points, the jco-axis crossing, and the range of gain for stability for each case. Find the angles of arrival for Part a. 18. Given the root locus shown in Figure P8.7, [Section: 8.5] a. Find the value of gain that will make the system marginally stable. b. Find the value of gain for which the closed-loop transfer function will have a pole on the real axis at Given the unity feedback system of Figure P8.3, (s + 1) s(s + 2)(s + 3){s + 4) do the following: b. Find the asymptotes. c. Find the value of gain that will make the system marginally stable. d. Find the value of gain for which the closed-loop transfer function will have a pole on the real axis at For the unity feedback system of Figure wileyplus PS.3, >'i'iu*--» {) s(s + 3)(s + 6) find the values of or and that will yield a secondorder closed-loop pair of poles at -1 ±/ For the unity feedback system of Figure P8.3, (s - l){s - 2) G{s) = s(s+i: sketch the root locus and find the following: a. The breakaway and break-in points b. The jco-axis crossing c. The range of gain to keep the system stable d. The value of to yield a stable system with second-order complex poles, with a damping ratio of For the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, (s + 10)(s + 20) (s + 30) (s 2-20s + 200) b. Find the range of gain,, that makes the system stable. c. Find the value of that yields a damping ratio of for the system's closed-loop dominant poles. d. Find the value of that yields closed-loop critically damped dominant poles. 23. For the system of Figure P8.8(a), wileypws sketch the root locus and find the a'.'j J f following: [Section: 8.7] a. Asymptotes b. Breakaway points c. The range of for stability d. The value of to yield a 0.7 damping ratio for the dominant second-order pair To improve stability, we desire the root locus to cross the jco-axis at ;5.5. To accomplish this, the open-loop function is cascaded with a zero, as shown in Figure P8.8(b).

5 436 Chapter 8 Root Locus Techniques. ^ R(s) + -r *A/ ^ 1 /s: Cs + l)(.v + 2)(.5 + 3)(s + 4) <«) it(s + a) (s + \)(s + 2)(s + 3){s + 4) (b) FIGURE P8.8 C(s) t m_ e. Find the value of a and sketch the new root locus. f. Repeat Part c for the new locus. g. Compare the results of Part c and Part f. What improvement in transient response do you notice? 24. Sketch the root locus for the positive-feedback system shown in Figure P8.9. [Section: 8.9] R(s) + i(5+l) FIGURE P8.9 C{s) 25. Root loci are usually plotted for variations in the gain. Sometimes we are interested in the variation of the closed-loop poles as other parameters are changed. For the system shown in Figure P8.10, sketch the root locus as a is varied. [Section: 8.8] R(s)+ t?\» 9 i s(s + a) FIGURE P8.10 C(s) 26. Given the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3. G(s) (5 + 1)(5 + 2)(5 + 3) do the following problem parts by first making a second-order approximation. After you are finished with all of the parts, justify your second-order approximation. [Section: 8.7] b. Find for 20% overshoot. c. For found in Part b, what is the settling time, and what is the peak time? d. Find the locations of higher-order poles for found in Part b. e. Find the range of for stability. 27. For the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, (s 2-2s + 2) ^ + 2)(5 + 4)(5 + 5)(5 + 6) b. Find the asymptotes. c. Find the range of gain,, that makes the system stable. d. Find the breakaway points. e. Find the value of that yields a closed-loop step response with 25% overshoot. f. Find the location of higher-order closed-loop poles when the system is operating with 25% overshoot. g. Discuss the validity of your second-order approximation. MATLAB h. Use MATLAB to obtain the closed-loop step re- CLU^P sponse to validate or refute your second-order approximation. 28. The unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, #(5 + 2)(5 + 3) 5(5 + 1) is to be designed for minimum damping ratio. Find the following: [Section: 8.7] a. The value of that will yield minimum damping ratio b. The estimated percent overshoot for that case c. The estimated settling time and peak time for that case d. The justification of a second-order approximation (discuss) e. The expected steady-state error for a unit ramp input for the case of minimum damping ratio

6 29. For the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, (5 + 2) 5(5 + 6)(5 + 10) find to yield closed-loop complex poles with a damping ratio of Does your solution require a justification of a second-order approximation? Explain. [Section: 8.7] 30. For the unity feedback system shown in wileyplus Figure P8.3, avjjf f[(v _ _ QJ) 5(5 + 1)(5 + 10) find the value of a so that the system will have a settling time of 4 seconds for large values of. Sketch the resulting root locus. [Section: 8.8] 31. For the unity feedback system shown in Figure 8.3, (5 + 6) > )(5 + l) z (5 + a) design and a so that the dominant complex poles of the closed-loop function have a damping ratio of 0.45 and a natural frequency of 9/8 rad/s. 32. For the unity feedback system shown in Figure 8.3, 5(5 + 3)(5+4)(5 + 8) b. Find the value of that will yield a 10% overshoot. 36. c. Locate all nondominant poles. What can you say about the second-order approximation that led to your answer in Part b? d. Find the range of that yields a stable system. 33. Repeat Problem 32 using MATLAB. MATLAB Use one program to do the dyjjp following: a. Display a root locus and pause. b. Draw a close-up of the root locus the axes go from 2 to 0 on the real axis and 2 to 2 on the imaginary axis. c. Overlay the 10% overshoot line on the close-up root locus Problems 437 d. Select interactively the point the root locus crosses the 10% overshoot line, and respond with the gain at that point as well as all of the closed-loop poles at that gain. e. Generate the step response at the gain for 10% overshoot. For the unity feedback system shown in Figure 8.3, ( ) > )(5+ 3)(5+ 4) wiieypius MVi^4¾ a. Find the gain,, to yield a 1-second peak time if one assumes a second-order approximation. b. Check the accuracy of the ^TL^g second-order approximation ^j^^) using MATLAB to simulate the system. 35. For the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, G{s) = (5 + 2)(5+3) ( )(5 + 4)(5 + 5)(5 + 6) b. Find the /w-axis crossing and the gain,, at the crossing. c. Find all breakaway and break-in points. d. Find angles of departure from the complex poles. c. Find the gain,, to yield a damping ratio of 0.3 for the closed-loop dominant poles. Repeat Parts a through c and e of Problem 35 for [Section: 8.7] (5 + 8) 5(5 + 2)(5 + 4)(5 + 6) 37. For the unity feedback system shown in Figure P8.3, G(5) = (5 + 3)( ) a. Find the location of the closed-loop dominant poles if the system is operating with 15% overshoot. b. Find the gain for Part a.

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