2 3.1 Pressure Pressure : The ratio of normal force to area at a point. Pressure often varies from point to point. Pressure is a scalar quantity; it has magnitude only
3 It produces a resultant force by its action on an area. The resultant force is normal to the area and acts in a direction toward the surface Compression Units: SI units: Newton/m 2 =Pascal (Pa) Standard atmospheric pressure, which is the air pressure at sea level, can be written using multiple units: 1.0 atm =101.3 KPa = 14.7 Psi = 33.9 ft- H 2 O = 760 mm-hg = in-hg = 2116 Psf
4 Absolute Pressure, Gage Pressure, and Vacuum Pressure The pressure in a perfect vacuum :absolute zero Pressure measured relative to this zero pressure is termed absolute pressure gage pressure : measured relative to local atmospheric pressure Vacuum pressure : When pressure is less than atmospheric P abs = P atm + P gage P abs = P atm P vacuum P vacuum = - P gage
5 Hydraulic Machines A hydraulic machine uses components such as pistons, pumps, and hoses to transmit forces and energy using fluids. braking systems, forklift trucks, power steering systems, and airplane control systems. Pascals Law: pressure applied to an enclosed and continuous body of fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of that fluid and to the walls غير منقوص of the containing vessel.
6 F=100N, find F M c small piston m 100N F m 0 33 m 100N 0 03m F 0 F P A F P A F 1100 N A1 πd1 π N F F 1100 P / 4 ( ) / 4 2 πd2 F F2 P2 A 2 0, P2 P 1, A 2, d m 4 lifter 6 2 F2 P1 A Pa m 12. 2KN π Pa
7 3.2 Pressure Variation with Elevation Hydrostatic Differential Equation F 0 F F 0 l pressure weight p A p p A γ l A sin α 0 pa γ l A sin α Divide the volume ' l A'to get p γsin α l z also sin α l p dp lim γ γ z z dz 0
8 Hydrostatic Equation The hydrostatic equation is used to predict pressure variation in a fluid with constant density integrate the differential equation p γz pz constant where the term z is elevation, which is the height (vertical distance) above a fixed reference point called a datum, and is piezometric pressure. Dividing by γ gives pz p z h h is the piezometric head. γ γ Since h is constant p1 p2 z1 z2 γ γ or p γz p γz
9 Problem 3.11) For the closed tank with Bourdon-tube gages tapped into it, what is the specific gravity of the oil and the pressure reading on gage C?
10 Pressure Variation in the Atmosphere The ideal gas law ρ ( p / RT ) γ ρg pg RT The last equation requires Temp-vs-elevation data for the atmosphere Troposphere height =13.7km
11 Pressure Variation in the Troposphere Linear Temperature profile approximation T T α( z z ) T : T at a reference level where the pressure is known : the lapse rate. dp γ d pg z RT Substitute for T dp pg dz R[ T α( z z )] 0 0 p p or p T0 α( z z0) T 0 0 T α( z z ) g/ αr 0 0 p 0 T0 g/ αr
12 Pressure Variation in the Lower Stratosphere In the lower part of the stratosphere (13.7 to 16.8 km above the earth's surface ) temperature is approximately constant dp dz ln p γ zg RT pg RT C At z z, p p p z z g / RT p or e p 0 p e 0 0 z z g / RT
13 3.3 Pressure Measurements Barometer: Mercury Barometer Bourdon-Tube Gage pressure by sensing the deflection of a coiled tube patm γhgh pv γhgh p v = atm at 20 C
14 3.3 Pressure Measurements Piezometer p γh Pressure transducers They convert pressure to an electrical signal vertical tube-transparent- in which a liquid rises in response to a positive gage pressure. Simplicity, direct measurement (no need for calibration) & accuracy. Limited to low pressure,not easy measure Gas Pressure
15 3.3 Pressure Measurements Manometer P3.39 Find the pressure at the center of pipe A. p2 p1 γ h γ h γ h i i down i i i i up the specific weight deflection "Height" p p γ h γ h A B i i i i down up p 0 ( * * ) 9810 A p kpa gage A
16 Calculate the pressure difference between the pipes Note : SG: specific Gravity S P A + (ρgh) w + (ρgh) Hg (ρgh) gly + (ρgh) oil = P B P B - P A = (ρgh) w + (ρg) w (S h) Hg (ρg) w (S h) gly + (ρg) w (S h) oil P B - P A =(ρg) w [(S h) w+ (S h) Hg (S h) gly + (S h) oil ] P B - P A = (9.81m/s )(1000 kg/m )[1(0.6 m)+ 13.5(0.2m) 1.26(0.45m) (0.1m)] P B - P A =27700 N/m 2 P B - P A =27.7 kn/m 2 = 27.7 kpa 16
17 3.4 Forces on Plane Surfaces (Panels) Uniform Pressure Distribution Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution F pda pa A
18 Distribution of hydrostatic pressure on a plane surface Pressure on the differential area can be computed if the y distance to the point is known df = p da = ( y sin) da Integrating the differential force over the entire area A Hydrostatic Force _ F y SinA _ p A Pressure at the centroid F Sin y da Sin y A A Integral is the first moment of the area _
19 Line of Action of the Resultant Force The torque due to the resultant force F will balance the torque due to the pressure distribution, df = p da also I A I 0 2 y da I y 2 " the second moment of the area" A 2 ycpf γ sin α ( I y A) also F γ y sin α A y y cp cp y y I ya I ya
20 Hydrostatic Force Hydrostatic Force Terms h: Vertical distance from centroid to the water surface y (This distance determines the pressure at the centroid) : p h y sin Inclined distance from water surface to the centroid y cp : Inclined distance from water surface to centre of pressure p : The pressure at the centroid
21 Problem 3.63 Determine P_load necessary to just start opening the 2 m wide gate. The length of the gate = Hydrostatic force h:the water VERTICAL depth at the centroid y cp N F 3m m 2m kN m I y where y h / sin : slanted distance from the surface ya 3 ( 25 ) / 12 ycp y m ( 25 ) M hinge 0 P_laod P_laod h=2+1= kN Force F is to surface Resultant force F acts at the center of pressure y cp y cp and ȳ slanted distance from surface
22 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces Find the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force acting on surface AB Important Questions to Ask 1. What is the shape of the curve? 2. How deep is the curved surface? 3. Where does the curve intersect straight surfaces? 4. What is the radius of the curve?
23 Hydrostatic Forces on Curved Surfaces A free-body diagram of a suitable volume of fluid can be used to determine the resultant force acting on a curved surface.
24 Hydrostatic forces on Curved surfaces. Find the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force acting on surface AB Forces acting on the fluid element 1. F V : Force on the fluid element due to the weight of water above C. 2. F H : Force on the fluid element due to horizontal hydrostatic forces on AC 3. W : Weight of the water in fluid element ABC 4. F : The force that counters all other forces - F has a horizontal component: Fx - F has a vertical component: Fy
25 Hydrostatic forces on Curved surfaces Find the magnitude and line of action of the hydrostatic force acting on surface AB, - Given: Surface AB with a width of 1 m Problem Solving Preparation 1. By inspection, curve is a ¼ circle. 2. The depth to the beginning of the curve (4 m depth to B) 3. The curve radius (2 m horizontal curve projection distance = curve radius) 4. Label relevant points: BCDE is water above fluid element defined by the curve ABC is the fluid element defined by the curve
26 Example 3.11: Hydrostatic forces on Curved surfaces Find F v, F H, W, F x, F y, F, Line of action for F H & F v Given: Surface AB goes 1 m into the paper F x = F H = (5 x 9810) (2 x 1) = 98.1 kn Pres. at the cenroid AC side area F y = W + F v F v = 9810 x 4 x 2 x 1 = 78.5 kn W= γv ABC = 9810 (1/4 x r2) 1 = 30.8 kn Fy= = kn The hydrostatic force acting on AB is equal and opposite to the force F shown
27 The centroid of the quadrant Location of the resultant force
28 If the region above the surface, volume abcd, were filled with the same liquid, the pressure acting at each point on the upper surface of ab would equal the pressure acting at each point on the lower surface. In other words, there would be no net force on the surface
29 The arc has a radius of 3 meters and the water level is at 6 meters. The spillway gate is 8 meters wide. What is the magnitude and the line of action of the resultant force exerted on the circular surface AB by the fluid? F Rx = ρgh c A AC F Rx =(1000 kg/m 3 ) (9.8 m/s 2 ) (4.5 m) (3 m) (8 m) F Rx = 1,058 kn, Note that h c is the vertical distance to the centroid of plane area AC. the y-component of the resultant force is the weight of the water directly above the curved surface (i.e., imaginary volume ABEF). F Ry = ρg Vol ABEF = ρg (Vol ADEF + Vol ABD ) F Ry = (1000 kg/m 3 ) (9.8 m/s 2 ) [ (3 m) (3 m) (8 m) + (π 3 2 /4) m 2 (8 m) ] F Ry = 1,260 kn Hence, the resultant force is given by F R = (F Rx 2 + F Ry2 ) 0.5 = [ (1,058 kn) 2 + (1,260 kn) 2 ] 0.5 F R = 1,645 kn And the angle θ is given by θ = tan -1 (F Ry / F Rx ) = tan -1 (1,260 kn / 1,058 kn) = 50 o
31 Buoyancy, Flotation & Stability The resultant fluid force acting on a body that is completely Submerged or floating in a fluid is called the buoyant force. Archimedes Principle Buoyancy is due to the fluid displaced by a body V D is the displaced or Submerged Volume F B γ D
32 What is the minimum volume [in m 3 ] of submerged alloy block shown (S=2.9) needed to keep the gate (1 m wide) in a closed position? let L = 2 m. Note the hinge at the bottom of the gate, ignore reactions at the stop. F y y h cp cp L L γ h v Area γ L* w γw I L wh y 12 ya 2 ( L / 2)( L* w) 1 3 wl ( ) 12 L L 2 L / 2 L ( L / 2)( L* w) M hinge 0 T * ( 5L / 4) F L y 0 T F L y / ( 5L / 4) h cp h cp T ( γwl / 2) L L / ( 5 / 4) 2 / 15 3 L γwl 2
33 T mg F γ Vol γ Vol Volume Volume b block water T T γ γ γ ( S 1) block water water block 2 T 2γwL / 15 γ ( S 1) γ ( S 1) water block water block
34 Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies Buoyancy force F B is equal only to The displaced volume * specific weight 1.ρ body <ρ fluid : Floating body 2.ρ body = ρ fluid : Neutrally buoyant 3.ρ body > ρ fluid ::Sinking body
35 Immersed Bodies: Rotational stability Rotational stability of immersed bodies depends upon relative location of center of gravity (G) and center of buoyancy(c) 1. G below C: stable 2. G above C: unstable 3. G coincides with C: neutrally stable.
36 Floating Bodies The center of gravity G is above the center of buoyancy C. The buoyant volume changes due to the side motion inclination of the ship Center of buoyancy changes and produces moment that makes the ship stable.
37 The point of intersection of the lines of action of the buoyant force before and after heel is called the metacenter M. The distance GM is called the metacentric height. If GM is positive that is, if M is above G the ship is stable; however, if GM is negative, the ship is unstable.
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