Motion Detection and Tracking by Autonomous Mobile robot in Indoor Environment

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1 Jona of Eea Enneen Moon Deeon an Tan by Aonoos Mobe obo n Inoo Enonen Zehahe SAMIR Razbaoene A Mohan Saï DJOUADI Laboaoe oboqe & poqe Eoe ae poyehnqe Bp : 7 Boj E Bah 6 Ae Aée. Absa In hs en wo we ae onene wh he obs eeon of on objes n eos aen fo an obe obo. The an as s o opensae he oon of he obsee by esan he Hooaphy beween wo sesse faes an ee he nepenen oon of he on on ae n he ae. To eene he 3-D poson of he ae sn he seeoson an appe he assa onoe o a he ae (han) fnay we e soe ess of o een aohs n he noo enonen sn he fas fae ffeenn eho. Ths es shows he effeeness of he son syse. Keywos obe obo seeoson son base ono oon eeon an paa fen I. ITRODUCTIO In he een yeas effos hae been ae o e aonoy o a sne obe obo by sn ffeen sensos o oe nfoaon fo he sonns an ea o he hanes of s eae enonen. Cope son s one of he os popa peepon sensos epoye fo aonoos obos. In any as sh seane an aspn sa pah an sa an of a on obje. The appaon of son base an ono esn fo obo appaon has been an ae aea of obo eseah n he wo papes [] [] pesen sy of he sa seon appoahes o an ono of nonhoono obe obos n [3] pesen sy of sa naaon obe obos hs wo sbe no he sa naaon n noo enonen an he sa naaon n ooo enonen. A eho an saon of he exaon he son aa n oe o aow a obo o opeae n a a nown an yna enonen n [4] he ahos hae pesene a sonbase shee fo n a non-hoono obe obo o neep a on ae on he owe ee he pan- pafo whh aes he on-boa aea s onoe so as o eep he ae a he ene of he ae pane. On he hhe ee he obo opeaes ne he asspon ha he aea syse ahees pefe an. In paa he eae poson of he ba s eee fo he pan/ anes hoh spe eoey an se o ope a ono aw n he obo o he ae. Vaos possbe hoes ae ssse fo he hh-ee obo onoe. In [5] he obs sa an onoe s popose fo an ono of a obe obo n ae pan hs wo base on he popose eo-sae oe he sa an ono pobe s ansfoe no he saby pobe. The obs ono aw s hen popose o aanee ha he sa an syse sasfes he neessay saby onon base on LYAPUOV heoy. In [6] esbe he poson ono of aonoos obe obo sn obnaon of aan fe an fzzy o ehnqe. Boh ehnqes hae been se o fse nfoaon fo nena an exena sensos o naae he obe obo n nnown enonen. An obsae aoane aoh sn seeoson ehnqe has been peene fo obsae eeon. In [7] pesene a saey fo a nonhoono obe obo o aonoosy foow a ae base on son nfoaon fo an onboa pan aea n. Hooaphy-base ehnqes ae se o oban eae poson an oenaon nfoaon fo he onoa aea aes. The popose nea onoe base on he Lyapno eho ahees nfo aey bone an. In [8] an [9] he ahos hae popose he sae feeba ono sn he fzzy o onoe o eaze a eae an foowe obe obo base he ase an nfae sensos. Tan a on on objes n aea eo has a aey of ea wo appaons an pesens a ajo nees fo he an an ay ones. These ne aea eonon eoe seane aff onon. Deen oon of exena objes fo a on obo s he sbje of ae eseah [345] Ths s a haenn as as ae szes ae sa an hey s be aqe an ae hoh hann enonen. We popose an effeny enneee syse whh eaby oaes an as obje by sn a oa appoah. The appoah noes fo oes whh ne: - Feaes eeon an an - Eo oon esaon - Feaes seeon. - Robse Inépenan oon éeon - D Tae Loazaon by pae fe - The onoa son base an ono sffes o oban he 3D ae poson. Howee n hs pape he seeoson syse has been se o soe hs pobe we an a eah nsan hae a pa of aes fo wo eoea efne aeas ha aow s o hae fo ae oonaes. The anaon eqaon s se o esae he eae 3D poson (ae-ae). We wan o exane he ae oon eeon an an sn he nonhoono obe obo by easn he eon an he eph of he ae. Fs we w esbe he neaa oe of a obe obo (Seon II) an he aea oe (seon III) seon IV pesen feae eeon an an seon V we pesen he eo oon esaon seon VI

2 Jona of Eea Enneen we pesen he eo oon esaon seon VI pesen he feae seeon seon VII pesen he nepenen oon ee seon VIII pesen he ae an sn he paa fe seon XI pesen he 3D ae oasaon he anaon eqaons an he paaees of he aeas seon X pesens he obe obo s sa ono eeopen. Fnay we ae o he onson of he whoe wo. II. MOBILE ROBOT MODEL In hs wo s onsee he nye obe obo he naaon s onoe by he spee on ehe se of he obo. Ths n of obo has nonhoono onsans whh sho be onsee n pah pannn. The neaa shee of a obe obo an be epe as n F. whee s he eoy of he obo s he eoy of he ef whee s he eoy of he h whee s he as of eah whee s he sane beween he ef an he h whees x an y ae he poson of he obe obo an φ s he oenaon of he obo. Ths ype of obo an be esbe by he foown neas eqaons: x& os θ y& sn θ & θ ω The non-hoono eson fo oe () s () y & os θ x& sn θ () Aon o he oon pnpe of boy neas he oon of a obe obo an be esbe sn eqaons () an () whee ω an ω ae he ana eoes of he ef an h whees espeey an ω s he ana eoy. The ef an a h eoy of obo: ω. ω ω. (3). Cobnn () wh (3) we an oban: ω ( ω ω ) ( ω ω ) + (4) (5) III. CAMERA MODEL Cabaon s a heay woe on aea n son bease s neessay o esae 3D sane nfoaon onane n an ae. I aows o oe aheaay he eaonshp beween he 3D oonaes of an obje n a sene an s D oonaes n he ae [6]. The paaees of he aea ae assfe n wo aeoes nena paaees whh efne he popees of he eoea ops an he exena paaees whh efne poson an oenaon of he aea. Moe spefay he aea abaon onsss of eenn he nns paaees an he exns paaees [78]. The oe of he aea s pesene n f.. Y F F.. Caea oee A. Inns paaees Inns paaees of he aea efne he sae faos an he ae ene. I A Iae fae α α α f K α f K K K epesen he hozona an ea sae fao f epesen he foa enh an epesen he ae ene. B. Exns paaees Caea fae X M I b Z Whh efne he hooenos ansfoaon fo he wo o he aea fae en by he ax A. X Z Wo fae B Y (6) Y y ω A x y R z T (7) X x F.. Geoe espon of he obe obo

3 Jona of Eea Enneen The ax A s a obnaon of oaon ax R an ansaon ax T fo o he wo fae o he aea fae. The ansfoaon fo he wo o he ae fae s en by he ax M. We an we: M I A (8) s s s X Y Z In hs eqaon (XYZ) ae he oonaes of a pon B n he wo fae an () ae he ae oonae of he pojee pon B. IV. FEATURES DETECTIO AD TRACKIG The feaes fon an ae by hs aoh ae he Haas ones [9]. We hae aso peen he ehnqe of he Goo Feaes o Ta eeope by []. These wo eeos ae base on he oeaon ax opaon C w n he wnow w of he whoe ae. The feaes ( x y) I ( x y) (9) I w x w x y C w () I ( x y) I ( x y) w x y w y f fon sn one eeon aoh n he ae I - ae se o esae eo-oon. Howee one hese feaes ae eee hey ae ae sn a pyaa peenaon of he Las Kanae opa fow eho [] o fn he oesponn feaes f oaon ( ) n he ae I. The oa of feae an s o nze he esa fnon ε efne as foows: w w [ ] x y + ε ( ) I ( x + p y + q) I ( x + p + y + q + ) () p wx q wy Ths aoh has wo ajo poan benefs: - Robs o fay ae spaeen e o he pyaa se. - Fase han a sana opa fow bease bens o poess he sa ae han he be. The eeon-an of he feae ae one beween wo sesse aes. V. EGO MOTIO ESTIMATIO We hae se wo ffeen oes affne en by eq () an pespee oes en by eq (3). Fo he fs one he opensaon of hann sae fao was possbe; on he ohe han by sn he seon ansfoaon we wee abe o opensae hs hane. x h h h3 x s y h h h3 y () x h h h3 x s y h h h3 y (3) h3 h3 One he ahn beween feaes (f - f ) s one he paaees h j of he ansfoaon oe s esan by eas sqae o SVD eho. The Leenbe-Maqa an eae Gass-ewon opsaon ae se fo he non-nea ansfoaon []. eeheess ha ehnqe o be base [3] when () he eho an ea nehe wh oes (sahe pons) no wh non senes (senes ha onan boh sa an on objes) an () he eho nzes an aeba sane an hene es poo ess fo bay onone aa. F.3. pesens he wapn ess (be qaane) by appyn he pespee ansfoaon. The ba eane epesens he fs ae befoe wapn an he be one epesen he wape ae. y x (a) (b) () () F.3. The an ae-o-ae hooaphy ansfoaon: (a) hozona nea sae fao hann (b) hozona an ea ansaon () oaon () onsan sae fao hann +oaon. Theefoe o oon esaon shee s be obs enoh o esae he oe oon. Fo he expeens epoe n hs pape he oe of he Hooaphy s epesene by 3x3 ax efne p o a sae fao. Ths Hooaphy H (pana ansfoaon) pefos a feae o feae appn beween he hooeneos oonaes of he ae x x sh ha x H x F.4. shows he aay an eee of feeo of he eooon hann. Ths ansfoaon beween wo aes panes has eh eees of feeo (h 33 ) hene an opensae a oo nbe of a aea oon. Fo feaes pons eeon we hae a syse of nea eqaons: 3

4 Jona of Eea Enneen x y xx x y x x y yx yy y f M h M x y xx x y x x y yx yy y f A ( ) x9 h9x () x ( h h h h h h h h h ) T h (4) Wh (x y ) ae he fs oonae of he feae n he ae I(-) an (x y ) he oonae of ae feae n he ae I() s he oa nbe of feaes. A eas he esaon of H eqes fo bes feaes o soe () n he nex seon we w esbe he anne o see he. Eo-oon aay + eee of feeo Eean Hooaphy of Affne Hooaphy 6 of Pespee Hooaphy 8 of F. 4. Aay neases wh he opexy of he ansfoaon oe. VI. FEATURES SELECTIO The opa ansfoaon onans nheen eo sne soe of he feae oesponenes se o esae he ansfoaon e on on objes wh oon nepenen fo he aea. Those feaes (oes) sho be enae fo he feae se befoe he fna Hoaphy s ope we appy:. Cope he na Hooaphy sn he f feae se S. Appy he foown ea : f S n f ( H ) f ε (5) f S o ohewse Re-ope he new Hooaphy sn ony he se S Fo he paone feaes se we pan he se S n by een an S o by e. TABLE I (a) Theefoe he eo-oon of he ehe an be e-esae aaey an obsy by sn hs seeon eho. Ohe obs seeon ehnqes ae nesae o fe o ahn oes. A aan of eas-ean-sqae (LMeS) [4] an ano sape onsenss (RASAC) [ 3] boh eho ae base on he oe ejeon saey. Moe espon of hese aohs an be fon n [4]. VII. IDEPEDET MOTIO DETECT To ee oon of he on ae sh as as s he syse ses he fas fae ffeenn eho. Iae I(-) s onee sn he Hooaphy befoe ben sbae by he ae I().so fo eah pxe (x y): I op ( x y ) I ( H ( x y )) (6) The ffeene ae beween wo onsee faes s pefoe by: I x y I x y I x y (7) ff ( ) ( ) op ( ) In eay he es ae I ff s nosy by a sa-an-peppe nose n oe o enae aes ae onon wh 3x3 Gassan as. VIII. TARGET TRACKIG USIG THE PARTICLE FILTER The an feae of Pae Fe s Bayesan nfeene whh esey esaes a poseo ensy of he obje s sae: ( X I ) P( I X ) P( X I ) P (8) ff ff Whee P ( I ff X ) s he ehoo an P ( X I ) s he po ff ensy ee fo peos poseo ensy ( ) P X I ff an a ynaa oe P ( X X ) ( X I ) P( X X ) P( X I ) X P ff ff (9) The pae fe eneae a se of wehe paes a e { s π }.. whee s epesens he h obseaon (en by eq. ) of he obje sae a e π s he pobaby (he poane weh) fo s o be he on obje an s he ax nbe of paes. s x y x& y& () [ ] T The oon oe s efne as: x x + T x& s y y + Ts y& x& x& y& y& Whee T s s a e nea. ff () / n/ ( ) I ff x y j n () / j n/ The n as sho be b enoh so ha sa-anpeppe nose s enae. π exp σ (3) As shown n eq () an (3) ony he poson nfoaon of he oon aa s se o eaae paes. A oe of hese fos a esn aabe: σ. he hoe of hese aabes eenes he sensy of he fe o he easeens. The sapes of he paae fe ae 4

5 Jona of Eea Enneen pesene n ab F 5 shows he op of he pae fe n noo enonen. ( z ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [{ w }] Conensaon [{ x w }] x //- Inazaon -//. f (Inazaon) han () ( ). o sape s... s aon o P ( S ) ( an o pose w ) en f //- Popaaon an wehn-// 4. f han 5. fo... o ( ) 6. o popaae he pae s whe aan : ( ) ( ) s P s s ( ) () 7. o pae he weh w aon o he eqaon : ( ) ( ) ( ) w w P Z s 8. en fo ( ) Befoe of he sep ensn he noazaon ( )... w //- Ré-éhanonae -// 9. Ré-éhanonne { } ( ) ( ) w ( ~ ( ) ( ) ( ) P s s ) w s aon o wha eas o he oehe of baane paes ~ ( s ) ( ) ( ) sh as ( ) w δ s s an affee. Fn S ( ) δ ( s ~ s ) appoxae ( s z ) () x e () w ae ~ ( ) x e Tabe paa fe aoh P ;... F 5 Pae fe an: The posons of paes ae epesene by sa een os an he Yeow Coss shows he h poson of he on ae. IX. 3D TARGET LOCALIZATIO Deph aaes fo a pa of seeosop aes s neessay o fn he ahe oesponn pons beween he ef an h aes. A. MATCHED CORRESPODIG The oa s o p n oesponene wo pxes D (h-han se an ef) oesponn o he sae pon 3D. To aanee oo pefoanes he efaon an oeon of he soons ae essena fo a an no aon of he hozona eppoa nes. We pesen n hs pa he ea o be peene o ee ha pa of pes ef/h s oe o no. We w eeop hee ypes of onsans. In he fs onsan hey w be he eppoa onsans. A seon ype of onsans w enabe s o aae opaby beween wo pans sasfyn he fs ype of onsans. They ae he onsans of oe an ny. An he as ype of onsan s he onsan of ax spay. The F 6 saes we he poess aope fo pan. The oesponen of a pxe ( ) L Y L an a pxe ( X Y Y ) X n he efe ef ae R R L ben on he sae ne (eppoa onsan) n he efe h ae. The ae of he oponen X R s fon by aan he aes of oeaon (eq 4) on he sae hozona ne eppoa ( Y ) L Y R ee by X L + DMAX an X L whh ae he pxe of a pon ben on a ax sane fo he seeosop benh an he pxe n he ef ae. ZCC( P P ) wy wy [ I ( x + y + j) I ( x y )] [ I ( x + y + j) I ( x y )] wx j wx wy wy wy wy [ I ( x + y + j) I ( x y )] [ I ( x + y + j) I ( x y )] wx j wx (a) Inoo enonneen wx j wx (4) One he aes of oeaon ae aae by sn (eq 4) we fxes a hesho an we eo he aes of he pxes X R whose oeaon s hhe han he fxe hesho. Fnay he pon oesponn X R s aae by an he aeae. 5

6 Jona of Eea Enneen Y V Refe ef ae U Eppoa ne Refe h ae U L V L x 3 y 3 x 3 y 3 x y x y 3 3 x 33 4 x 34 X y y Y (6) 3 x 33 4 y 34 Z y y 34 The syse of eqaon (6) an be ewen n he fo: X L Coeaon ae X L+ D MAX X R X L Thesho E P W (7) We an soe he eqaon (7) sn he eas sqaes eho: P E E E (8) ( ) W X L+ D MAX F 6 The pnpe of ahe oepenn B. TRIAGULATIO If we paes n he ase of he hee ensona P x y of he ef ae a ebn an f he pon ( ) se p n oesponene wh he pon ( x y ) he h ae sn he eq (9) we hae: X R X + Y + Z x 3 X + 3 Y + 33 Z + 34 X + Y + Z y X + Y + Z X + Y + 3 Z + 4 x 3 X + 3 Y + 33 Z + 34 X + Y + Z y X + Y + Z Iae pane (L) ( x y ) P b Z R X ( ) P X Y Z F.7. eoey of he seeosop aea ( x y ) P X L P of Y Iae pane (R) (5) We an aso eb he pon P n he ef aea fae sn he nns paaees ax of he ef an h aea I I. The oonaes X Y an Z of he pon P ae en by [5]: Wh: b Z y y X x Z Y y Z x y I x y an x y I x y (9) b By an a ansaon aon he Y by he 3D oonae of he ae ene an be aae n he fae oae beween he wo aea ef an h as s shown n f.7. Ths he eqaon (9) beoes: b Z y y X x Z (3) b Y y Z Ths we an aae he sane whh sepaaes he obe obo an he ae whh ae en by he foown eqaon: Y + Z The ane of eaon s en by: (3) y ϕ an (3) Z The oonae XY an Z of he pon P eb n he abaon fae ae aae by son a nea syse of fo eqaons. The eqaon (5) an be wen by: 6

7 Jona of Eea Enneen Lef ae Rh ae wnows XP opean syse. I opeae n ea-e wh a aaon peo of (.8-.9s). Feae eeon Iae(-) Iae() Copensaon Pae fe Cassa popoona onoe The ono aw popose s efne as foows: The fowa eoy s aae by: ( ) (9) Feaes Seeon Feae an Hooaphy esaon H Mahe oesponn 3DTae poson esaon Dsane an oenaon of he ae F 8. Goba Mon han eeon an oazaon aoh. Is he ese sane beween he eae an he foowe obe obo. The ana eoy s popoona o ϕ ane: ω ϕ (3) The esn ose-oop syse s hen esbe by he foown eqaon: x& y& & φ ϕ ( ) ( ) os φ sn φ (3) X. VISUAL COTROL OF THE MOBILE ROBOT In hs seon we esbe he fo ffeen obo onoes ha hae been neae n o an ono he foown fe sae he ase of o appaon X Caea fae R C Iae Pojeon ( X Y Z ) P ϕ Y X C Y C f Z C Z X B R B Z B F Ponee 3AT obe obo se n o Expeenaons. Y B Robo fae F 9. Paeen he faes of he obe obo eqppe wh a seeosop aea A. Copee syse esn an hawae One Ponee wheee obo was se n o expeen we one a Bbebee seeosop aea whh was opeae a a esoon of 3 4 pxes an onans ebee ope wh a CPU of.6 GHZ he syse was peene n C++ wh he openc bay of ae poessn [6] an he ARIA sofwae eeopen enonen [7] nnn n 7

8 Jona of Eea Enneen EXPERIMETAL RESULTS F Mon obje an fo obe obo n noo enonen 3 4 8

9 Jona of Eea Enneen F Snapshos of a ponee3at obo foown a han XI Dssson an onson To sae he effeny of he popose an onoe we noe ha he eae sane beween he ae an he foowe obo s anane onsan wh he ese sane () he ono aons sh as he nea an he ana eoes ae aae by o assa onoe an sen o he foowe obo. The pefoane of he an aoh was eaae by opan wh he posons of anay ae objes. Fo eah seqene of faes he eon of on objes wee ae anay (Yeow oss) he poson of eah pae s ae wh een os an se as on h. F 5 shows hs eaaon poess he poess of an he peson n he noo enonen s shown n f (). The fe shows The snapshos of he obo foown a peson sessfy n he sa an. Bboaphy [] D. Bsha J. Gean an G. Hae Opa ana onfaon fo son-base ono of obe obo Poeens of he 3 IEEE Inenaona Confeene on Rob. an Ao. Tape Tawan 3. []. J. Cowan an D. E. Koshe Pana ae base sa seon as a naaon pobe Poeens of he 999 IEEE Inenaona Confeene. Conf. on Rob. an Ao. Deo Mhan 999. [3] G.. DeSoza an A. C. Ka Vson fo Mobe Robo aaon: A Sey IEEE TRASACTIOS O PATTER AALYSIS AD MACHIE ITELLIGECE VOL. 4 O. FEBRUARY. [4] L. Fea an G.Ooo Vson base neepon of a on ae wh a nonhoono obe obo Sene e on Robos an Aonoos Syses 55 (7) [5] C. Tsa K.Son Robs sa an ono of obe Robo Base an eo oe n Iae Pane Poeens of he 5 IEEE Inenaona Confeene on Mehaons & Aoaon Jy Ap 5. [6] R. Chooan &. Afzpa Hyb Kaan Fe/Fzzy Lo base Poson Cono of Aonoos Mobe Robo Inenaona Jona of Aane Robo Syses Voe be 3 (5) ISS [7] H. Kannan V.Chaaan D. M. Dawson an T. B Vson-base Leae/Foowe an fo onhoono obe obos Poeens of he 7 Aean ono onfeene ew Yo Cy USA Jy -3 7 [8] T. S. L S.J Chan an We Ton Fzzy Tae Tan Cono of Aonoos Mobe Robos by Usn Infae Sensos IEEE TRASACTIOS O FUZZY SYSTEMS VOL. O. 4 AUGUST 4 [9] M. Sso D. G A Fzzy Leae-Foowe Appoah o Foaon Cono of Mpe Mobe Robos Poeens of he 6 IEEE/RSJ Inenaona Confeene on Ineen Robos an Syses Oobe Bejn Chna. 9

10 Jona of Eea Enneen [] Boyoon Jn an Gaa S. Shae Deen Mon Objes sn Sne Caea on a Mobe Robo n an Ooo Eneen n he 5 h Confeene on Ineen Aonoos Syses pp aseathe eheansmash [] Janjan Xao Chanjan Yan Fen Han an H Chen Vehe an Peson Tan n UAV Veos"7. [] Géa Meon Isaa Cohen Fanos Beon Soboon Honen an Raaan eaa Een Deeon an Anayss fo Veo Seas IEEE TRASACTIOS O PATTER AALYSIS AD MACHIE ITELLIGECE VOL. 3 O. 8 AUGUST [3] En-Yon Kan Isaa Cohen an Géa Meon Robs Affne Moon Esaon n Jon Iae Spae sn Tenso Von Inenaona Confeene on Paen Reonon Qebe Cy Canaa As [4]Isaa Cohen an Géa Meon Deen an Tan Mon Objes fo Veo Seane IEEE Po. Cope Vson an Paen Reonon Jn Fo Cons CO. [5]Jnan Kan Isaa Cohen G ea Meon Chan Yan Deeon an Tan of Mon Objes fo a Mon Pafo n Pesene of Son Paaax Poeens of he IEEE Inenaona Confeene on Cope Vson ICCV'5 Bejn Chna. Oobe 7-5. n an Ooo Eneen n he 5 h Confeene on Ineen Aonoos Syses pp aseathe eheansmash [3] Da Dejan an Ra Hoa Moon Eooon Dsnaon an Moon Seenaon fo Iae-Pa Seas Cope Vson an Iae Unesann () aaabe onne a hp:// [4] P. Mee D. Mnz A. Rosenfe an D. Y. K Robs eesson ehos fo ope son: A eew In. J. Cop. Vson 6() [5] R Hoa e Oe Mona Vson Pa Onae Eon Heès exee Eon Fane 995. [6] Use e of he OpenC bay hp://openbay.soefo.ne [7] Ae ea [8] K. M.Passno Fzzy ono Depaeen of Eea Enneen he oho sae nesy 998 [6] TRUCCO E. VERRI A. Inooy ehnqes fo 3-D ope son hape 6 Pene Ha 998. [7] TOSCAI G. Sysèe e Cabaon e peepon oeen en son afee Ph.D. Thess - Unesé Pas S 5 e [8] LEZ R. K. an TSAI R. Y. Tehnqe fo abaon of sae fao an ae ene fo hh aay 3D ahne son eooe. IEEE Tansaons on Paen Anayss an Mahne Ineene 988. [9] C. Has an M. Sephens A obne one an ee eeo n Poeens Aey Confeene Manhese UK As 988 pp [] Janbo Sh an Cao Toas Goo Feaes o Ta IEEE Confeene on Cope Vson an Paen Reonon CVPR94 Seae Jne 994. [] B. D. Las an T. Kanae An eae ae esaon ehnqe wh an appaon o seeo son IJCAI 98. [] Boyoon Jn an Gaa S. Shae Deen Mon Objes sn Sne Caea on a Mobe Robo