Description of Ornamental Building Stones used on the Ground Foyer of the Geoscience Australia building, Symonston, ACT.

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1 G E O S C I E N C E A U S T R A L I A Description of Ornamental Building Stones used on the Ground Foyer of the Geoscience Australia building, Peter J Butler Record 2008/19 GeoCat # APPLYING GEOSCIENCE TO AUSTRALIA S MOST IMPORTANT CHALLENGES

2 Description of ornamental building stones used in the ground foyer of the Geoscience Australia building, GEOSCIENCE AUSTRALIA RECORD 2008/19 by Peter J Butler 1 1. Peter J Butler, Geoscience Australia 1

3 Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism Minister for Resources and Energy: The Hon. Martin Ferguson, AM MP Secretary: Dr Peter Boxall, AO Geoscience Australia Chief Executive Officer: Dr Neil Williams, PSM Commonwealth of Australia, 2008 This work is copyright. Apart from any fair dealings for the purpose of study, research, criticism, or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Copyright is the responsibility of the Chief Executive Officer, Geoscience Australia. Requests and enquiries should be directed to the Chief Executive Officer, Geoscience Australia, GPO Box 378 Canberra ACT Geoscience Australia has tried to make the information in this product as accurate as possible. However, it does not guarantee that the information is totally accurate or complete. Therefore, you should not solely rely on this information when making a commercial decision. ISSN ISBN GeoCat # Bibliographic reference: Butler, P. J., Description of ornamental building stones used in the ground foyer of the Geoscience Australia building, Record 2008/19 2

4 Front Foyer, Geoscience Australia Building. Photography by Jeremy Russell. 3

5 Contents Executive Summary 6 Introduction 7 About Geoscience Australia 7 Geoscience Australia buildings 7 Ornamental Building Stones Used 8 Details of Ornamental Building Stones Used Flooring and Plinths 8 Building s Fault Line feature and Reception Area desk (polished black pieces) 9 Persian red travertine slabs 10 Acknowledgements 12 Glossary 13 References 15 Appendix 1: Schedule of Internal Materials and Finishes used in the ground foyer 16 Figures 1. Geoscience Australia building. View looking south-east Former premises of Tumut Lime and Marble Pty Ltd, Adelong Road, Tumut, N. S. W Rodney Henrick at his workshop honing (polishing) a basalt floor tile Basalt plinths at the rear entrance to Geoscience Australia Location of the Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W Aerial view of the Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W Flagstones and feature stones. Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W Main working face of the Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W Location of Murrays Crossing Quarry, Tumbarumba, N. S. W Aerial view of Murrays Crossing Quarry, Tumbarumba, N. S. W Murrays Crossing Quarry, Tumbarumba, N. S. W., showing columnar structures Columnar structures at Murrays Crossing Quarry, Tumbarumba, N. S. W Fault line in the paving and widows of main entrance to Geoscience Australia. 24 4

6 14. Fault line running through the basalt tiles and carpet in the foyer of Geoscience Australia Blade walls at Geoscience Australia Blade walls at Geoscience Australia. 25 5

7 Executive Summary This report describes the ornamental stones used in the ground floor foyer of the Geoscience Australia building. There are three ornamental stones used. The flooring tiles are basalt. The fault line through this is a polished norite and the blade walls are covered by a Persian red Travertine. Investigations have established that the basalt and norite are from Australian quarries and the travertine is from an unknown source overseas possibly Italy. 6

8 Introduction This record describes the ornamental building stones used in the ground floor foyer of the Geoscience Australia building. This record is the result of a number of enquires from the general public and employees of Geoscience Australia regarding the identification of the ornamental stones used in the floor and walls of the ground floor foyer area of the GA building. Information on the material used on the foyer floor was obtained from the ornamental stone suppliers and quarry operators. In most cases these suppliers and operators were known to the author. About Geoscience Australia Geoscience Australia is within the portfolio of the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. The organisation plays a critical role by producing first-class geoscientific information and knowledge. This enables the government and the community to make informed decisions about the exploration of resources, the management of the environment, the safety of critical infrastructure and the resultant wellbeing of all Australians. The predecessor to Geoscience Australia was established in 1946 and was then called the Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics (BMR). After the Second World War, the Federal government decided a coordinated approach was needed to determine and evaluate Australia s vast petroleum and mineral resources. BMR s main function during this time was to compile a series of geological maps that covered the entire continent. The BMR became the Australian Geological Survey Organisation (AGSO) in In August 2001 AGSO was renamed AGSO - Geoscience Australia. In November 2001, the new combined agency adopted its current name of Geoscience Australia, recognising the vital geoscientific work it does across many disciplines. The work contributes to land use and resource management including that of Australia s marine jurisdiction. Geoscience Australia also study changes in the natural environment and natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis and landslides. Geoscience Australia buildings The purpose built geoscientific research facility is located on the corner of Jerrabomberra Avenue and Hindmarsh Drive, (Figure 1). Construction commenced in April 1996 and was completed in December Approximately 17,000 cubic metres of concrete and 1,200 tonnes of structural steel were used in the construction of the two buildings that make up the Geoscience Australia building, the main office/laboratory complex and the support building. The total floor area of the two buildings is about 40,000 square metres. 7

9 Ornamental Building Stones Used Australian materials were used wherever practicable in the construction of the Geoscience Australia building, including the external precast wall cladding, tanking and waterproof membranes, structural steel, laboratory benches, cupboards and fitments, sheet vinyl flooring, carpet tiles, ceramic wall tiles, louver and Venetian blinds, painting systems and many others (see Appendix 1 for a list of materials used in the ground foyer). Three different ornamental stones were used in construction of architectural features located within the foyer of the Geoscience Australia building and they are described as: Hard Flooring Fault Line in Internal hard floor Stone facing to Blade Walls Sawn and honed basalt (bluestone) slabs Imperial Black granite slabs Persian Red travertine slabs Details of Ornamental Building Stones Used Basaltic Hard Flooring and Plinths The unpolished hard flooring slabs within the foyer and the plinths located outside the foyer are made from basaltic rock that was obtained from two quarries located in southwest New South Wales. The quarry providing the material for the plinths was unable to provide suitable stone for the interior ground hard flooring slabs and a second quarry was sourced for this feature. In both cases the basalt was trucked from its quarry site near Tumut to the Tumut Lime and Marble Company located on the Snowy Mountains Highway near Tumut, New South Wales, (Figure 2) where it was cut and polished (honed) by the owner Rodney Henrick (now retired), (Figure 3) and Craige Henrick (Rodney Henrick, 2007, per. comm.). The basalt used in both these features is an igneous volcanic rock that comes in a variety of forms; which in this case is an alkali olivine basalt. Plinths The basaltic stone slabs used in the two plinths located outside the southern entrance (staff entrance) of the building (Figure 4) were obtained from a quarry near Wee Jasper, N. S. W. (Figure 5 and 6). The location of the quarry is S, E, with an elevation of 757m. The Wee Jasper quarry is operated by Capital Quarries and supplies stone for rock walls, flagstone and feature stones to the building industry in the A. C. T and N. S. W. (Figure 7) (Craige Henrick, 2007, per. comm.). A considerable amount of rough stone has been quarried from the site. (Figure 8). The mineralogy of this stone is given by Hensel Geosciences, 1997 and is: 8

10 Mineral By volume. fresh olivine 15% plagioclase feldspar 34% calcic pyroxene 30% opaque minerals 6% interstitial minerals 1% iddingsite 3% clay 4% alteration 6% nepheline <1% apatite <1% The basalt within the Wee Jasper Quarry was formed during the Tertiary period and is about 21.5 million years old. Hard Flooring The stone used for the hard flooring was obtained from the Murrays Crossing Quarry, which was named after the road on which it is located. The quarry has since been renamed and is now called the Bald Hill Quarry (Figure 9) and is operated by Bald Hill Quarry Pty Ltd (Figure 10) (John Wilkinson, 2007, per. comm.). This quarry is located near Tumbarumba, N. S. W. and its location is S, E, with an elevation of 602m. The quarry is on Crown Land and controlled by the Tumbarumba Shire Council (Tumbarumba Shire Council, 2007, per. comm.). The Murrays Crossing Quarry commenced operations as Paul Lubke Quarries who originally operated a crushing plant producing road aggregate (Paul Lubke, 2007, per. comm.). The stone was cut from the columnar structures within the basalt. (Figure 11 and Figure 12). The mineralogy of the stone is given by Robin Offler in his report (Offler, 2006) and is: Mineral By volume. olivine 9% plagioclase feldspar 45% clinopyroxene 36% magnetite? 5% glass? 5% The basalt is of similar age to the basalt used in the plinths and is about 21.5 million years old. Building s Fault Line feature and Reception Area desk The Geoscience Australia building has a deliberate fault line that runs through the building from north to south. This fault line is an architectural feature of the building (Figure 13). 9

11 A fault line feature was included in the architectural design as Canberra has a series of old fault lines that run through the area; the most famous fault being the Deakin Fault. The Deakin Fault is a major fault in Canberra running north-west to south-east and passing through State Circle, very close to the suburb of Deakin. It extends from the hills to the east of the suburb of Jerrabomberra and heads northwest via the suburbs of Narrabundah, Griffith, Forest, Yarralumla then across the Molonglo River to Cook, then turns northeast in Macquarie where it turns around to the north-west again via Belconnen, Evatt, Melba, Flynn, Charnwood, Dunlop and out the north-west of the ACT. It continues to the east end of Lake Burrunjuck near Yass. Its total length is approximately 70 kilometers. It is a normal fault with the fault block on the northeast side elevated and the southwest fault block lowered. The ornamental stone used in the fault line feature and the top of the reception area desk is made of a polished norite, an igneous plutonic rock of gabbroic composition (Figure 14). This rock is marketed under a number of trade names including Imperial Black, Austral Black or Adelaide Black Granite. Although technically not granite, it is marketing names reflect variations in the characteristics of the rock including visibility of igneous layering in the final product. It is rich black in colour and usually uniform in texture. There are a number of commercial quarries selling to all parts of Australia, New Zealand, Japan and America. The source of the stone used in the Geoscience Australia building is the Black Hill quarries near Mannum, north-east of Adelaide, South Australia. This quarry has produced ornamental stone that have featured in the John Martins and David Jones building (Adelaide), and Parliament House and the National Library buildings in Canberra. It is estimated the norite was formed million years ago during the Ordovician. The mineralogy of the stone is given by Austral Asian Granite on their web site and is: Mineral By volume. Plagioclase feldspar 50% Potash feldspar 5% Pyroxene 30% Biotite 8% Opaque Oxides 5% Other 2% Persian red travertine slabs Travertine is used in the nine free standing blade walls in the ground foyer (Figure 15 and 16). Travertine is a chemically altered banded limestone sedimentary rock. The source of the stone is uncertain. Literature sources suggests it may have come from Italy. The red colour is caused by iron-bearing minerals that form during precipitation of the limestone. The yellowish material filling the former holes and spaces is an epoxy compound added during polishing to seal the building stone. 10

12 Formation of Travertine Travertine, or calc-tufa, is a rather dense, banded limestone (calcium carbonate) that is sometimes moderately porous. It is formed in several ways including evaporation within hot springs forming tufa sheets, or in caves where it forms stalactites, stalagmites, or dripstone. Travertine is found in greatest abundance where hot and cold springs have been active for tens of thousands of years. When travertine, or tufa (calcareous sinter form), is being deposited in hot springs, any pressure drop causes carbon dioxide to be released from the waters which lowers the solubility of the calcium carbonate and results in the precipitation of the travertine. High rates of evaporation in hot-spring pools can also lead to supersaturation which causes precipitation of calcium carbonate and formation of travertine. Travertine formed in caves is the result of complete evaporation of waters rich in calcium carbonate; similar to the process that forms stalactites and stalagmites. The most famous travertine location is Bagni di Tivoli, 20 kilometres east of Rome. At this locality travertine deposits are over 90 meters thick and have been quarried for over two thousand years. The name Travertine was derived from the name of locality where it was found, Tivoli. Tivoli was also referred to as Tibur. Tibur stone or lapis Tiburtinus in its Latin form, with only a little corruption became Travertine. The most famous uses of Travertine as a building stone is in the white stone facing slabs of the Colosseum. Although obviously weathered by time, the fact that its still in place attests to its great resistance and strength. 11

13 Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following people for help on various aspects of this record; Paul Lubke. Paul Lubke Quarries, Holbrook, N. S. W., Australia for columnar stones and a polished slab of basalt from the Murrays Crossing Quarry. Rodney Henrick, retired, Tumut Lime and Marble Pty Ltd, N. S. W., Australia. for information on quarries and photography of honing (polishing) basalt. Craige Henrick, Quarry Manager, Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W., Australia for permission to visit the Wee Jasper Quarry and technical data on the basalt and travertine blade walls. Tumbarumba Shire Council, N. S. W., Australia for information on the location of the Murrays Crossing Quarry. John Wilkinson, Bald Hill Quarry Pty Ltd, Jugiong, N. S. W., Australia for permission to visit the Murrays Crossing Quarry and technical data on the basalt. Geoff Walters, Quarry Manager, Tumbarumba, N. S. W., Australia for help and information on Murrays Crossing Quarry. Graeme Whatman, Adelong, N. S. W. Australia for aerial photography of Wee Jasper and Murrays Crossing Quarry sites. Stanley and Margaret Bowditch, Muttama, N. S. W. Australia for help in finding the Wee Jasper Quarry. Robyn Butler, Isabella Plains, A. C. T. Australia for photography of the Wee Jasper and Murrays Crossing Quarries. Dean Hoatson, Geoscience Australia for technical advise, reviewing and encouragement to produce this record. Shona Blewett, Geoscience Australia for reviewing this record. Steve Ross, Geoscience Australia for information on the Geoscience Australia building. Jeremy Russell, Geoscience Australia for photography of Geoscience Australia. David Gibson, Geoscience Australia for technical advise and age dates on basalt. Kristy VanPutten, Geoscience Australia for production of location maps. Steve Read, Geoscience Australia for building records. Chris Fitzgerald, Geoscience Australia for photography of the foyer and front and rear entrances of the building. Chris Foudoulis and Stephen Ridgway, Geoscience Australia for polishing of basalt from Murrays Crossing Quarry. Bruce Goleby, Geoscience Australia for reviewing this record. 12

14 Glossary Apatite A common phosphate mineral. Found in most rock types including igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Basalt A common, dark-coloured, fine-grained extrusive igneous volcanic rock. Blade Walls Description used in the building plans to describe the 9 free-standing walls in the ground foyer of Geoscience Australia. Bluestone A commercial term for basalt. Biotite Rock forming mineral belonging to the mica group of silicate minerals. Columnar structures A close packed series of hexagonal prisms forming perpendicular to the upper and lower surfaces of a lava flow and forming as a result of contraction during cooling of the lava. Most often seen in basaltic lava flows. Fault A fracture in the Earth's crust caused from the breaking of rocks over a large distance and to depth. Feldspars Group of rock-forming silicate minerals in most types of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Gabbro A coarse-grained intrusive igneous plutonic rock comprising mainly feldspar and pyroxene varying amounts of olivine. Granite A coarse-grained, silica-rich intrusive igneous rock. Honed A rock surface that has been ground smooth. Iddingsite An alteration product of the mineral olivine. Igneous One of the three main rock types; formed by the cooling and solidifying of molten magma or lava. Nepheline A rock forming silicate. Occurs in intrusive and volcanic rocks. 13

15 Norite Dark variety of gabbro. Contains mainly plagioclase and differs from gabbro by the presence of orthopyroxene. Olivine Common mineral of mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks. Phosphate A mineral compound belonging to the apatite group of minerals. Plutonic Igneous rock that has formed beneath the earth s surface. Pyroxene Group of rock-forming silicate minerals in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks. Sedimentary One of the three main rock types, formed by the deposition of sand, grit and clay fragments eroded from pre-existing rocks. Silicate The most common compound in the earths crust. 14

16 References Bates, R. L. and Jackson, J. A., Glossary of Geology. Penguin Books. Whitten, D. G. A. and Brooks, R. V., Dictionary of Geology. American Geological Institute. Schumann, W., Collins Photo Guide. Rocks Minerals and Gemstones. Foden, J., Elburg, M. A., Dougherry-Page, J. and Burtt, A., The Timing and Duration of the Delamerian Orogeny: Correlation with the Ross Orogen and Implications for Gondwana Assembly. The Journal of Geology, 2006, 114, p Gibson, D. L., Potassium-Argon Ages of Late Mesozoic and Cainozoic Igneous Rocks of Eastern Australia. CRC Leme Open File Report 193. Abell, R. S Geology of the Canberra 1:100,000 sheet area. BMR Bulletin 233. Geoscience Australia Building Plans and Inclusions, Geoscience Australia. GA s New Building Information pack given to officers moving to GA. Offler, R., Petrographic Descriptions of Samples Jugiong and Tumbarumba. Report for John Wilkinson, Bald Hill Quarry Pty Ltd. Boral Construction Materials, Materials Testing and Environmental Services, Petrographic Descriptions of Samples from Wee Jasper Quarry. Web Sites - Norite N_NAME=printer_friendly Persian red travertine Deakin Fault Basalt 15

17 Appendix 1 R5.2 SCHEDULE OF INTERNAL MATERIALS AND FINISHES Note: The colours in this Finishes Schedule take precedence over any colours nominated in mechanical, electrical and hydraulics documents. GROUND FLOOR Foyer, Reception and Display HARD FLOORING FAULT LINE IN HARD FLOORING INTERNALLY CENTRAL CARPET SQUARE SKIRTINGS UNDER DISPLAY WALLS STONE FACING TO BLADE WALLS PERFORATED TIMBER BULKHEAD STEELWORK OVER LIGHTING TO LOBBY/DISPLAY AREA WALLS BESIDE RECEPTION DESK BOTH SIDES AND RETURNS PAINTED WALLS PAINTED NORTH WALLS IN CORRIDORS ADJACENT FOYER G.113 DISPLAY BOARDS ON TRAVERTINE BLADE WALLS DISPLAY BOARDS ON EAST AND WEST WALLS OF FOYER DISPLAY BOARDS IN AIRLOCK AT SOUTHERN ENTRANCE DISPLAY CASE FRAMES Sawn honed bluestone slabs from Tumut Lime and Marble Company NSW Imperial Black granite polished 600mm wide Hand made tufted rug to special design and colour by Customweave Rugs or Rugs by Design with bluestone surrounds to east and west sides Brushed aluminium finish Persian Red travertine slabs Perforated Craftwood panels faced in Clarity laminate to resemble natural Craftwood from Laminex Industries Dulux Master Palette colour Captain s Walk 70BG 51/116 Natural anodised finish Perstorp Laminate colour PP 1866 U Orange butt jointed Dulux Master Palette colour Star Cluster 30GG 72/016 Dulux Master Palette colour Walden s Pond 30GY 58/098 Finesse Fabrics Vision screen cloth colour Terracotta Finesse Fabrics Vision screen cloth colour Mint Finesse Fabrics Jubilee colour Grey with Clarity laminate surrounds Natural anodised aluminium 16

18 Figure 1. Geoscience Australia building. View looking south-east. Photography by Geoscience Australia Figure 2. Former premises of Tumut Lime and Marble Pty Ltd, Adelong Road, Tumut, N. S. W. Photography by Peter Butler. 17

19 Figure 3. Rodney Henrick at his workshop honing (polishing) a basalt floor tile. Photography by Rodney Henrick. 18

20 Figure 4. Basalt plinths at the rear entrance to Geoscience Australia. Photography by Chris Fitzgerald. Figure 5. Location of the Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W. 19

21 Figure 6. Aerial view of the Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W. Photography by Graeme Whatman. Figure 7. Flagstones and feature stones. Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W. Photography by Robyn Butler. 20

22 Figure 8. Main working face of the Wee Jasper Quarry, N. S. W. Photography by Peter Butler. 21

23 Figure 9. Location of Murrays Crossing Quarry, Tumbarumba, N. S. W. Figure 10. Aerial view of Murrays Crossing Quarry, Tumbarumba, N. S. W. Photography by Graeme Whatman. 22

24 Figure 11. Murrays Crossing Quarry, Tumbarumba, N. S. W., showing columnar structures. Photograph by Peter Butler. Figure 12. Columnar structures at Murrays Crossing Quarry, Tumbarumba, N. S. W. Photography by Robyn Butler. 23

25 Figure 13. Fault line in the paving and widows of main entrance to Geoscience Australia. Photography by Chris Fitzgerald. Figure 14. Fault line running through the basalt tiles and carpet in the foyer of Geoscience Australia. Photography by Chris Fitzgerald. 24

26 Figure 15. Blade walls at Geoscience Australia. Photography by Chris Fitzgerald. Figure 16. Blade walls at Geoscience Australia. Photography by Chris Fitzgerald. 25