VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLY TO NATURAL HAZARDS IN JAMAICA

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1 VULNERABILITY OF WATER SUPPLY TO NATURAL HAZARDS IN JAMAICA RAFI AHMAD Unit for disaster studies, Department of Geography & Geology, The University of the West Indies, Mona Kingston 7, Jamaica

2 NATURAL HAZARDS POSE GREAT THREATS TO JAMAICA S WATER SUPPLIES AND ITS QUALITY. The Gleaner, Wednesday, November 14, 2001: NWC DAMAGE AT $95M Yallahs pipeline, which serves the Mona Reservoir, represents the single most significant damage sustained by the NWC during this period. About 80 feet of the 36-inch diameter pipeline was dislocated.nwc s facilities were hit by a combination of flooding, damaged plant and pipe networks, landslides, blocked intakes, heavy siltation and high turbidity as a result of the heavy rains. The Gleaner, Wednesday, May 29, 2002: Drinking water quality A victim of flooding ASSESSED DAMAGE 56.6M The Gleaner, Wednesday, May 28, 2003 Most pipelines restored in Portland NON-HURRICANE RAINFALL EVENTS

3 Natural Hazards which frequently affect drinking water in Jamaica include: LANDSLIDES FLOODS EARTHQUAKES WATERBORNE DISEASES COMMON DRINKING WATER CONTAMINENTS Coliform Turbidity Nitrate AMONG THE VARIOUS HAZARDOUS PROCESSES AFFECTING WATER SUPPLY FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES, THE HYDROGEOLOGIC HAZARDS, ARE MOST IMPORTANT BECAUSE OF THEIR FREQUENCY. DEEPLY WEATHERED AND FRACTURED BEDROCK, CHANGES IN VEGETATATION COVER, AND RAINFALL INTENSITY AND DURATION COMBINE TO INCREASE THE DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF THESE HAZARDS.

4 This paper is a continuation of our research on vulnerability of roads and water systems to hydro-geological hazards in Jamaica initiated in 1994 jointly with Barbara Carby and first published in Built Environment, volume 21, p , URBAN WATER SUPPLY ASSUMES A GREAT IMPORTANCE TO JAMAICANS AS MORE AND MORE PEOPLE ARE BUYING HOMES IN SATELLITE TOWNS. TODAY S ISSUES OF WATER-RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ARE MORE CRITICAL THAN EVER. ACCORDING TO WHO : MINIMUM INDIVIDUAL WATER NEEDS ARE AT 100 LITRES PER CAPITA PER DAY A TYPICAL SINGLE-FAMILY HOME IN JAMAICA USES 3,000-5,000 GALLONS OF TREATED WATER/MONTH (NWC) WATER PRODUCTION BY THE NATIONAL WATER COMMISSION, 1999 (Source: STATIN, 2002) In million m 3 SURFACE WATER GROUND WATER NO. OF WELLS Kingston & St. Andrew Total Jamaica

5 WE TAKE YOU THROUGH A TOUR OF SOME OF THE WATER SYSTEMS IN EASTERN JAMAICA THAT SUPPLY DRINKING WATER TO KINGSTON TO DEMONSTRATE THE IMPACT OF NATURAL HAZARDS. 90% OF THE COST IN A WATER SYSTEM IS IN DISTRIBUTION. EFFICIENT WATER MANAGEMENT WILL REMAIN THE KEY TO SOLVING URBAN WATER SUPPLY PROBLEMS. THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS FREE WATER. KINGSTON Hope River Mona Reservoir

6 SOURCE OF WATER TO THE YALLAHS PIPE LINE SW slopes of the Blue Mountain Peak, Negro River watershed, St. Thomas High sediment yield due to slope movements 12mgd average annual

7 THE INTAKE ON NEGRO RIVER Note leaks in the pipeline

8 Across a bridge near Richmond Vale Note the leaning support column and eroded embankment

9 DEFORESTED LANDSLIDE SLOPES NEAR RAMBLE and over another bridge to enter the Yallahs Basin

10 In the flood plain of Yallahs River, under the shadow of the Judgement Cliff landslide at Llandewey

11 Across the Cambridge Hill through Gypsum Quarries at Bull Bay to Dallas Mountains; Pipeline is buried in this section and is impacted by earthquake and rainfall- induced landslides. Wickie Wackie Beach area is in the foreground where another pipeline is exposed to the elements.

12 Across the Hope River into the Long Mountain area. Landslides are common in this section. The pipeline is located above the new housing development.

13 Ultimate destination: The Mona Reservoir ( capacity 810 million gallons/3680 mega litres) Long Mountain Site of 1993 earthquake damage Site of new housing development

14 Rock fall in the quarry on the southwestern side of the Mona reservoir. A ground crack, 3cm wide and 15m long, in the centre of the embankment road on the southwestern side of the Mona reservoir following the M5.4 earthquake of 13/1/93.

15 A breach in the Mona reservoir is likely to cause flooding by a sudden release of some 810 million gallons of water. Affected areas may include: UWI housing, sections of August Town and Harbour View areas in the east and Hope Road gully to the west of the reservoir. RESERVOIR UWI RESIDENTIA L AREA HARBOUR VIEW

16 CAPACITY OF THE HERMITAGE DAM ( 390 MILLION GALLONS) IS REDUCED BY SILTATION DUE TO LANDSLIDES ( PHOTO BY S. KHAN). EARTHQUAKE AND LANDSLIDE HAZARDS MAY RESULT IN A DAM BREACH.

17 IN 1997, debris flows and mud flows choked the water supply intake and aqueduct on the Hope River near Grove.

18 IN 2004 following hurricane Ivan rainfall and also in 2005 landslide debris again covered the intake. Simple solution: cover the aqueduct, to sustain water supply and save money.

19 Housing has encroached the slope where a water supply tank is located, Forsythe Drive.

20 Water pipeline upstream of the bridge on the Bull Bay River.

21 EARTHQUAKE LOADING Peak Ground Acceleration in %g (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years) for Kingston and St. Andrew (CDMP) allows for retrofitting and engineering design of reservoirs and tanks. Mona Reservoir45%g; Hermitage Dam 35%g.

22 RAINFALL INTENSITY-DURATION THRESHOLD FOR SHALLOW LANDSLIDES IN EASTERN JAMAICA: Using data for 19 storms, , a threshold relation between rainfall intensity-duration and landsliding is established. Threshold for rainfall-induced shallow landslides in Eastern Jamaica ( ) 100 Rainfall Intensity (mm/hour) Rainfall Duration (hours) Rainfall events producing landslides ( ) Storms that did not cause landslides ( ) Rainfalls that caused landslides ( )

23 CONCLUSIONS VULNERABILITY OF WATER SYSTEMS IS DUE IN PART TO PHYSICAL CONDITIONS ARISING FROM GEOLOGICAL, TECTONIC, AND GEOMORPHIC FEATURES. THESE FACTORS ARE WELL KNOWN AND THE RESULTING VULNERABILITY CAN BE FORECAST AND MITIGATION MEASURES INITIATED.

24 CONCLUSIONS CONTD. IT APPEARS THAT THERE IS A STRONG NEED FOR A SUSTAINED PROGRAMME OF RETROFITTING VULNERABLE SYSTEMS. NWC OPERATIONS WILL BENEFIT BY BUILDING DATABASES THAT PROVIDE CLINICAL INFORMATION WHICH CAN BE USED TO INFORM AND INFLUENCE RISK ASSESSMENT, COST BENEFIT ANALYSES, AND DEVELOPMENT OF MITIGATION STRATEGIES. PUBLIC MUST BE KEPT INFORMED ON THE INSPECTION REPORTS ON THE RESERVOIR SAFETY. END.

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