GEOLOGY 285: INTRO. PETROLOGY

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "GEOLOGY 285: INTRO. PETROLOGY"

Transcription

1 Dr. Helen Lang Dept. of Geology & Geography West Virginia University SPRING 2015 GEOLOGY 285: INTRO. PETROLOGY

2 The Cascade Volcanoes are a good example of the Circum- Pacific ring of fire of subductionrelated andesitic volcanoes

3 Calc-alkaline Magmas Subalkaline Flat trend on AFM diagram (no Feenrichment) Strongly plagioclase porphyritic Andesite-dominated strato-volcanoes Wider variety of rock types (basalt-andesitedacite-rhyolite suite) than in tholeiitic suites Much more likely to have explosive eruptions than Hawaiian volcanoes

4 AFM Galapagos (tholeiitic) vs. Cascades (calc-alkaline) Cascades and Galapagos Molar AFM F Mole Frn. A 0 M

5 Complex Tectonics of Western North America

6 Cascades Tectonic Setting Young Juan de Fuca Plate is being subducted beneath North America

7 Called Strato-volcanoes or Composite Volcanoes Steep-sided (slopes up to 36 o ) Typically explosive, violent eruptions Composed of lava flows interlayered with pyroclastic material ( composite ) Pyroclastic material - any volcanic material that is ejected from volcanic vents as loose or fragmental material Only 1 / th 100 of the volume of a large shield!!

8 Mount Rainier Little Tahoma Peak Prehistoric Osceola mudflow (5,600 years b.p.) from Rainier reached Tacoma WA (45 miles away) 1963 debris avalanche

9 Mount Hood USGS

10 Eroded Cascade Volcanoes - Mt. Washington and Three-fingered Jack

11 Eroded Volcanoes like Three-fingered Jack show the Composite, Stratiform nature of Cascade volcanoes Sherpa Jeffey

12 South Sister (of the Three Sisters) with Obsidian Flow

13 Once upon a time there was a big volcano called Mount Mazama in southern Oregon... Wizard Island Cinder Cone erupted ~700 yrs ago ~7700 years ago it had a HUGE ash eruption, its magma chamber emptied and its top fell in leaving the caldera called Crater Lake

14 Climactic Ash Flows filled valleys surrounding the Volcano Chamber emptied from the top down producing foam-like ash flows, like a ricepot boiling over. Notice lighter, more felsic material from the top of the chamber is on the bottom; darker, more mafic material from the bottom of the chamber is on top.

15 Back to the Cascades Map

16 Mount Shasta Crater Glass Flow - rhyolite obsidian dome Note great variety of volcanic rock types in a single Cascade volcano Black Butte - basaltic cinder cone

17 Mount St. Helens 1980 Eruption Small earthquakes Small steam and phreatic ash eruptions in March and April 1980 USGS monitoring station set up north of the mountain on Coldwater Ridge May North side of mountain began to bulge, many micro-earthquakes, eruption was imminent; red-zone closed See USGS Professional Paper 1250 (1981) for much more information and pictures

18 8:32 AM 5/18/80 Magnitude 5.1 earthquake triggered the Big Eruption The unstable bulge on the North side collapsed and exposed magma in a shallow chamber to air Gas bubbles formed instantaneously in the magma causing expansion, a shock wave and a big ash eruption Most of the force of the eruption was directed horizontally to the North Only 57 people died in the eruption

19 Vancouver! Vancouver! This is it... David Johnston Photo of Dave at Coldwater II, May 17

20 Photos taken from a ridge about 10 miles NE of the summit Gary Rosenquist photos made reconstruction of the eruption sequence possible

21 Rosenquist 4 and 5

22 Rosenquist 6 & 8

23 Rosenquist 10

24 Reconstructed Eruption Sequence

25 After the first few minutes, the ash erupted upward and drifted ENE with the prevailing winds (Plinian eruption)

26 Effects of May 18, 1980 eruption National Geographic, January 1981, special Mt. St. Helens issue

27 Ash flows Aug. 7, 1980 ash flow (USGS) Aug. 7, 1980 deposit on Aug. 8 (HL)

28 Dome growth may eventually fill the crater 1986 The dome October eruptions, first in more than a decade, expanded the dome 2005

29 Dome growth may eventually fill the crater The dome The most recent activity was

30 Before and After May 18, 1980 National Geographic, 1981

31 We think Mount St. Helens 1980 was a big deal 1816 the year without a summer Pinatubo 1991 ~5 cubic km By comparison to other eruptions of subduction-related volcanoes, it was tiny! >1000 km 3 = Supervolcano (Elements, 2008) National Geographic

32 Volcanic Hazards Directed blast Hot ash flows, lava flows Airfall ash (threatens airplanes) Mudflows = lahars Mixture of melted ice, debris, water, and ash Threaten people, cities and towns far away Lahars from Mt. Rainier could threaten Seattle and/or Tacoma

33

34 USGS-USAID - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) Established after volcanic disaster in Columbia (Armero) in 1985 (23,000 killed in mudflow) VDAP is a mobile, well equipped team of experienced volcanologists who can respond whenever a volcano crisis threatens anywhere in the world VDAP monitoring and successful prediction of 1991 eruption at Pinatubo saved thousands of lives

35 Cascades Tectonic Setting

36 Reconstructed Eruption Sequence

Debris Avalanches. Debris avalanche deposits on a volcano in Chile. All of the area in the foreground is buried by a thick debris avalanche.

Debris Avalanches. Debris avalanche deposits on a volcano in Chile. All of the area in the foreground is buried by a thick debris avalanche. Debris Avalanches Volcanoes are not very stable structures. From time to time, they collapse producing large rock and ash avalanches that travel at high speeds down valleys. Collapse maybe caused by an

More information

3/7/17. #16 - Case Studies of Volcanoes II. Announcements Monday 2/27

3/7/17. #16 - Case Studies of Volcanoes II. Announcements Monday 2/27 Announcements Monday 2/27 Exam #1: Monday Feb. 27 th, 7:15-8:15 (see web site) Last Names A - N Loomis 141 Last Names O - Z Loomis 151 Bring your student ID An old exam is posted in Compass If you are

More information

2/25/2013. Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic.

2/25/2013. Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Edward A. Keller Chapter 8 Volcanic Activity Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic. Lecture Presentation

More information

Magma vs. Lava. Molten rock below Earth s surface is called magma. The magma that reaches the surface and erupts out of a volcano is called lava.

Magma vs. Lava. Molten rock below Earth s surface is called magma. The magma that reaches the surface and erupts out of a volcano is called lava. CH. 10.1 Be able to Explain the factors that determine the type of volcanic eruption. List the 3 types of volcanoes Describe the features of a volcano. What is a Volcano? Volcanoes are sites where molten

More information

Overview of Ch. 4. I. The nature of volcanic eruptions 9/19/2011. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5

Overview of Ch. 4. I. The nature of volcanic eruptions 9/19/2011. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 Overview of Ch. 4 Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 I. Nature of Volcanic Eruptions II. Materials Extruded from a Volcano III.Types of Volcanoes IV.Volcanic Landforms V. Plutonic (intrusive)

More information

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up What causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each

More information

Volcanoes. Table of Contents Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcanic Eruptions Volcanic Landforms

Volcanoes. Table of Contents Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcanic Eruptions Volcanic Landforms Volcanoes Table of Contents Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcanic Eruptions Volcanic Landforms What is a volcano? cone Conduit Or Pipe vent Side vent Central vent Crater A volcano is a vent or 'chimney'

More information

Magma is a complex mixture of liquid, solid and gas

Magma is a complex mixture of liquid, solid and gas Magma is a complex mixture of liquid, solid and gas Liquid molten silicate Solid early-formed minerals Gas Generally 0.1% to 5% of the magma by weight, but can be as much as 15% >90% of the gas in magma

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 4 Volcanoes. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 4 Volcanoes. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Magma Magic What is a volcano? A volcano is any place where gas, ash, or melted rock come out of the ground. Many volcanoes are dormant, meaning an eruption has not occurred in a long period of time. What

More information

Part I. Mt. St. Helens

Part I. Mt. St. Helens Name: Date: This contains material adapted from Richard Abbot (Appalachian State University, Department of Geology) and from the USGS Volcanoes! 1997 Teacher packet. Part I. Mt. St. Helens In the illustration

More information

Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa

Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa Fires Within: Igneous Activity Foundations, 6e - Chapter 7 Stan Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College The nature of volcanic eruptions Characteristics

More information

Goal 2.1 Forces in the Lithosphere. Volcanic Activity

Goal 2.1 Forces in the Lithosphere. Volcanic Activity Goal 2.1 Forces in the Lithosphere Volcanic Activity Lesson 3 Volcanoes, Part 1 Think About It What happens when you shake a can of soda and then open it? Focus Question How does the composition of magma

More information

Study guide chapter 9

Study guide chapter 9 Study guide chapter 9 1. What are the three ways solid mantle material can change phase to a liquid? Associate a boundary/hot spot to each way mantle material changes phase. 1. A decrease in pressure which

More information

Pyroclastic Flows. Lesson 6

Pyroclastic Flows. Lesson 6 Pyroclastic Flows Lesson 6 P yroclastic flows are one of the most dangerous natural events that occur on our planet. They can at hurricane speeds down the slopes of a mountain, destroying everything in

More information

A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through

A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through Volcanoes A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt. Also, the landform that develops around this opening. Kinds of Eruptions Geologists classify volcanic

More information

Volcanoes. Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb.

Volcanoes. Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb. Ch. 13 Volcanoes Volcanoes Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb. Many of these eruptions are caused by the movement of tectonic plates. Volcanism Volcanism-any activity

More information

Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted.

Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted. What is a Volcano? Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted. A volcano can either be a classic volcanic cone.. Mt. St. Helens,

More information

ESC1000 Earth Science Summer 2016

ESC1000 Earth Science Summer 2016 ESC1000 Earth Science Summer 2016 As a scientifically literate citizen, what 3 questions would you ask about this volcano if you moved to the city in the foreground (Tacoma, Washington)? Volcanoes (Chapter

More information

Mount St. Helens. Copyright 2010 LessonSnips

Mount St. Helens. Copyright 2010 LessonSnips Mount St. Helens Washington State is home to the Cascade Mountains, a range of mountains that extends from the Canadian province of British Columbia to northern California. Many of these mountains are

More information

Volcanoes. Lesson #10 Volcanoes

Volcanoes. Lesson #10 Volcanoes Volcanoes Lesson #10 Volcanoes Objective: Describe the main features and characteristics of volcanoes. Be explain to name and explain the three separate types. ! Volcano: An opening in the earth's crust

More information

Volcanoes. Environmental Geology, Mr. Paul Lowrey Stacey Singleton, Cassandra Combs, Dwight Stephenson, Matt Smithyman

Volcanoes. Environmental Geology, Mr. Paul Lowrey Stacey Singleton, Cassandra Combs, Dwight Stephenson, Matt Smithyman Volcanoes Environmental Geology, Mr. Paul Lowrey Stacey Singleton, Cassandra Combs, Dwight Stephenson, Matt Smithyman EMPACTS Project, Spring 2017 Northwest Arkansas Community College, Bentonville, AR

More information

Chapter Twelve: Earthquakes

Chapter Twelve: Earthquakes The Changing Earth Chapter Twelve: Earthquakes 12.1 Earthquakes 12.2 Volcanoes Investigation 12B Volcanoes How are volcanoes and plate boundaries related? 12.2 Looking inside a volcano A volcano is where

More information

A bowl shaped depression formed by the collapse of a volcano is called a. Magma that has left the vent of a volcano is known as. Lava.

A bowl shaped depression formed by the collapse of a volcano is called a. Magma that has left the vent of a volcano is known as. Lava. Magma that has left the vent of a volcano is known as Lava A bowl shaped depression formed by the collapse of a volcano is called a Caldera This can form in a caldera when magma starts to come back up

More information

What mainly controls eruptive style?

What mainly controls eruptive style? Introduction to volcanoes, volcanic eruptions, and volcanic landforms Previous: Magmatic differentiation, Bowens Reaction series (mineral melting points), mafic vs. felsic (fluid vs. sticky) Video: Lava

More information

1/31/2013 BASALTIC BASALTIC ANDESITIC RHYOLITIC

1/31/2013 BASALTIC BASALTIC ANDESITIC RHYOLITIC Can you predict the location of volcanoes? What is causing this eruption? What factors influence its character? A volcano is any landform from which lava, gas, or ashes, escape from underground or have

More information

When Mount St. Helens erupted, trapped gases caused the north side of the mountain to explode. Volcanic ash was ejected high into the atmosphere.

When Mount St. Helens erupted, trapped gases caused the north side of the mountain to explode. Volcanic ash was ejected high into the atmosphere. When Mount St. Helens erupted, trapped gases caused the north side of the mountain to explode. Volcanic ash was ejected high into the atmosphere. A volcano is a mountain that forms when magma reaches the

More information

Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity. Aka Volcano Under the City

Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity. Aka Volcano Under the City Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity Aka Volcano Under the City 18.1 Magma Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Temperature and pressure increase

More information

Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8/18/2014. Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) 8 th Grade. Ring of Fire

Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8/18/2014. Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) 8 th Grade. Ring of Fire Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8 th Grade Ring of Fire a major belt of es that rims the Pacific Ocean Volcanic belts form along the boundaries of Earth s plates as they

More information

Critical Thinking 1. Contrast How could you tell the difference between a mafic rock and a felsic rock by looking at them?

Critical Thinking 1. Contrast How could you tell the difference between a mafic rock and a felsic rock by looking at them? CHAPTER 13 2 SECTION Volcanoes Volcanic Eruptions KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How does the composition of magma affect volcanic eruptions and lava flow? What are the

More information

Volcano an opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt and the landform that develops around this opening.

Volcano an opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt and the landform that develops around this opening. Chapter 9 Volcano an opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt and the landform that develops around this opening. 3 Conditions Allow Magma to Form: Decrease in pressure

More information

Bryson Extra Credit Reading

Bryson Extra Credit Reading VOLCANOES New homework due next Tuesday, Nov 23 Extra Credit Chapter 14 The Fire Below due next Tuesday, Nov 23 Bryson Extra Credit Reading A Short History of Nearly Everything Chapter 14: The Fire Below

More information

The Nature of Igneous Rocks

The Nature of Igneous Rocks The Nature of Igneous Rocks Form from Magma Hot, partially molten mixture of solid liquid and gas Mineral crystals form in the magma making a crystal slush Gases - H 2 O, CO 2, etc. - are dissolved in

More information

1 Types of Volcanoes CHAPTER. Chapter 1. Types of Volcanoes

1 Types of Volcanoes CHAPTER.  Chapter 1. Types of Volcanoes CHAPTER 1 Types of Volcanoes Describe the magma compositions and characteristics of different types of volcanoes. What does an active volcano look like? Climbing up Mount St. Helens and looking into the

More information

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary.

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary. Magma Objectives Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary viscosity Magma Magma The ash that spews from some volcanoes can form

More information

Volcanology. The study of volcanoes

Volcanology. The study of volcanoes Volcanology The study of volcanoes Magma forms wherever temperature and pressure are high enough to melt rock. Some magma forms at the aesthenosphere Magma also forms at plate boundaries, where intense

More information

12.2 Volcanoes Looking inside a volcano What is a volcano? volcano magma magma chamber lava

12.2 Volcanoes Looking inside a volcano What is a volcano? volcano magma magma chamber lava 12.2 Volcanoes Early explorers noticed that many volcanoes were located near coastlines, but they didn t know why. One volcano that is near a coastline is Mount St. Helens in Washington state. This famous

More information

The locations of volcanoes are mostly determined by plate tectonics. convergent: tending to move toward one point or to approach each other

The locations of volcanoes are mostly determined by plate tectonics. convergent: tending to move toward one point or to approach each other Ch. 22.6 Volcanoes The locations of volcanoes are mostly determined by plate tectonics. Review Vocabulary convergent: tending to move toward one point or to approach each other IntroVolcanoes348 I. Zones

More information

Volcanoes. I Types of Volcanoes II Plutonic Activity III Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity IV Magma and Lava V Types of Lava Flows

Volcanoes. I Types of Volcanoes II Plutonic Activity III Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity IV Magma and Lava V Types of Lava Flows Volcanoes I Types of Volcanoes II Plutonic Activity III Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity IV Magma and Lava V Types of Lava Flows 1 Some Definitions Igneous refers to processes and rocks involving or

More information

VOLCANOES. Homework due Wed./Thurs. I have a few copies left, or get by moodle or webpage

VOLCANOES. Homework due Wed./Thurs. I have a few copies left, or get by moodle or webpage VOLCANOES Homework due Wed./Thurs. I have a few copies left, or get by moodle or webpage Bowen s Reaction Series Oceanic basin tectonics http://my.execpc.com/~acmelasr/mountains/geogramsnf.html Icelandic

More information

Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED

Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED Volcano Vocabulary VOLCANISM VENT CRATER CALDERA QUIET ERUPTION EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION PYROCLASTIC DEBRIS CINDER CONE SHIELD VOLCANO COMPOSITE VOLCANO STRATO VOLCANO ACTIVE DORMANT EXTINCT INTRUSION DIKE SILL

More information

GEOL 10: Environmental Geology Activity 9: Topographic Maps and Mt. St. Helens. Name: Date:

GEOL 10: Environmental Geology Activity 9: Topographic Maps and Mt. St. Helens. Name: Date: GEOL 10: Environmental Geology Activity 9: Topographic Maps and Mt. St. Helens Name: Date: A topographic map is a two dimensional (flat) representation (model) of a three dimensional land surface (landscape).

More information

Case History: Mt. St. Helens

Case History: Mt. St. Helens Case History: Mt. St. Helens EAS 458 Volcanology Introduction 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens was particularly interesting and violent eruption with an unusual lateral blast. In the 1970 s, the USGS (Crandell(

More information

Lab 3: Igneous Rocks

Lab 3: Igneous Rocks Lab 3: Igneous Rocks The Geology in YOUR life initiative Mount Shinmoedake erupts in Japan (Jan 26, 2010) Volcanic smoke rises from Mount Shinmoedake on 1 February, 2011. Smoke rises from Mount Shinmoedake

More information

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary.

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary. Magma Objectives Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary viscosity Magma Magma The ash that spews from some volcanoes can form

More information

OIKOS > volcano > mechanism >types of volcanoes

OIKOS > volcano > mechanism >types of volcanoes Main Types of Volcanoes Volcanologists have classified volcanoes into groups based on the shape of the volcano, the materials they are built of, and the way the volcano erupts. The main one can be described

More information

UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards

UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards Session 5 Magma and Volcanism Lecturer: Dr. Patrick Asamoah Sakyi Department of Earth Science, UG Contact Information: pasakyi@ug.edu.gh College

More information

Volcano. Magma. Lava. weak spot in crust where magma and gases come up. molten mixture of rockforming

Volcano. Magma. Lava. weak spot in crust where magma and gases come up. molten mixture of rockforming Volcanoes Volcano weak spot in crust where magma and gases come up Magma Lava molten mixture of rockforming substance, gases, water from the mantle Magma that flows onto earth surface forms solid rock

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics 1. Some volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than a(n) a. hand grenade. b. earthquake. c. geyser. d. atomic bomb. 2. The cause

More information

1. minerals - A naturally occurring substance that takes a solid Crystal form and is made of only a single (one) type of compound

1. minerals - A naturally occurring substance that takes a solid Crystal form and is made of only a single (one) type of compound Science Name: Mr. G/Mrs. Kelly KEY Date: Study Guide - Lessons 5 and 6 Test Define the following terms: 1. minerals - A naturally occurring substance that takes a solid Crystal form and is made of only

More information

Tectonics of Magma. From partial melting of mantle Occurs at oceanic ridges and mantle plumes More dense: makes oceanic crust

Tectonics of Magma. From partial melting of mantle Occurs at oceanic ridges and mantle plumes More dense: makes oceanic crust VOLCANOES Tectonics of Magma Basaltic magma From partial melting of mantle Occurs at oceanic ridges and mantle plumes More dense: makes oceanic crust Granitic magma From melting of crust, with water as

More information

Chapter 7 Lecture Outline. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity

Chapter 7 Lecture Outline. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 7 Lecture Outline Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Focus Question 7.1 How were the eruptions of Mount St. Helens and Hawaii s Kilauea volcano different? Mount St. Helens eruption (May 18,1980)

More information

1. Volcanoes. A volcano is a landform (usually a mountain) where molten rock erupts through the surface of the planet.

1. Volcanoes. A volcano is a landform (usually a mountain) where molten rock erupts through the surface of the planet. 1. Volcanoes A volcano is a landform (usually a mountain) where molten rock erupts through the surface of the planet. In simple terms a volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock

More information

Mount St. Helens changed the way we look at things!

Mount St. Helens changed the way we look at things! Mount St. Helens, a turning point in studies of, and perceptions about explosive volcanoes Mount St. Helens changed the way we look at things! Plinian column during the cataclysmic eruption of May 18,

More information

Volcanic Landforms, Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics

Volcanic Landforms, Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Page 1 of 12 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Volcanic Landforms, Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics This page last updated on 26-Aug-2017 Volcanic Landforms Volcanic landforms

More information

CATACLYSMIC ERUPTIONS

CATACLYSMIC ERUPTIONS CATACLYSMIC ERUPTIONS The really big ones! This figure compares the size of some recent, well-known eruptions. Note how small the eruptions of Mount St. Helens and even Vesuvius are compared to Katmai,

More information

UNIT SIX: Earth s Structure. Chapter 18 Earth s History and Rocks Chapter 19 Changing Earth Chapter 20 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

UNIT SIX: Earth s Structure. Chapter 18 Earth s History and Rocks Chapter 19 Changing Earth Chapter 20 Earthquakes and Volcanoes UNIT SIX: Earth s Structure Chapter 18 Earth s History and Rocks Chapter 19 Changing Earth Chapter 20 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Chapter Twenty: Earthquakes and Volcanoes 20.1 Earthquakes 20.2 Volcanoes

More information

Dynamic Planet PUT ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON THE ANSWER SHEET. c) low temperature d) high volatile content

Dynamic Planet PUT ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON THE ANSWER SHEET. c) low temperature d) high volatile content School Name: Team #: Students Names: Dynamic Planet 2016 Science Olympiad Invitational University of Texas at Austin PUT ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON THE ANSWER SHEET 1) Low viscosity magmas have: a) high silica

More information

Unit V Volcanoes. Q-2 Use the scale bar to determine approximately how wide (in miles) Mt. Shasta is at is widest point. miles

Unit V Volcanoes. Q-2 Use the scale bar to determine approximately how wide (in miles) Mt. Shasta is at is widest point. miles Unit V Volcanoes Name: California Geology Questions 1-9 Figure 1 is a shaded relief map from the USGS showing the area surrounding Mt. Shasta. Mt. Shasta itself is in the center of the map. Note that there

More information

Chapter 11 Section 2 VOLCANOES TB 337

Chapter 11 Section 2 VOLCANOES TB 337 Chapter 11 Section 2 VOLCANOES TB 337 http://www.brainpop.com/science/earthsystem/volcanoes/ I. How do volcanoes form? Rising Magma leads to eruptions. Magma (solids and gases) are spewed out to form cone-shape

More information

Chapter 5 Lecture. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Twelfth Edition. Volcanic Hazards. Tarbuck and Lutgens Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5 Lecture. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. Twelfth Edition. Volcanic Hazards. Tarbuck and Lutgens Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5 Lecture Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology Twelfth Edition Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards Tarbuck and Lutgens Chapter 5 Volcanoes The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions All eruptions involve

More information

Igneous Rocks. Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members:

Igneous Rocks. Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members: Igneous Rocks Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members: Types of Magma Basaltic, Basic or Mafic very hot (900-1200 C) very fluid

More information

Week: Dates: 10/13 10/24 Unit: Volcanos

Week: Dates: 10/13 10/24 Unit: Volcanos clementaged.weebly.com Name: Period: 7 Week: 10 11 Dates: 10/13 10/24 Unit: Volcanos Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 13 No School 14 O *Greenhand Conference *Vocabulary *Volcano Movie 15 E *Volcano

More information

Volcanoes Shake and Bake Indoor Activity

Volcanoes Shake and Bake Indoor Activity Mount St Helens National Volcanic Monument Teacher s Corner 2011 Gifford Pinchot National Forest USDA Forest Service Volcanoes Shake and Bake Indoor Activity Time Commitment: Trail: Location: 45 minutes

More information

Volcanoes and Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanoes and Volcanic Eruptions Page 1 of 20 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Volcanoes and Volcanic Eruptions This page last updated on 26-Aug-2017 Magmas and Lava Since volcanic eruptions are caused

More information

Chapter 4. The Earth s Surface: Shaping the crust

Chapter 4. The Earth s Surface: Shaping the crust Chapter 4 The Earth s Surface: Shaping the crust Learning outcomes In this chapter you will learn: That the earth is made up of layers Why the earth is shaped as it is What plates are and how they move

More information

Calc-alkaline Volcanic Rocks. Calc-alkali Volcanics. Fabric. Petrography. Compositional Classification. Petrography. Processes.

Calc-alkaline Volcanic Rocks. Calc-alkali Volcanics. Fabric. Petrography. Compositional Classification. Petrography. Processes. Calc-alkaline Volcanic Rocks Calc-alkali Volcanics Winter Chapters 16 & 17 Petrography Processes Field relations Volcanic arcs Petrogenesis Petrography Fabric Classification Alteration Fabric Aphanitic

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanic Eruptions

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanic Eruptions Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Volcanic Eruptions 1. Lava provides an opportunity for scientists to study a. the nature of Earth s inner core. b. the nature of Earth s tectonic plates. c. temperatures

More information

LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types

LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types GEOL 0820 Ramsey Natural Disasters Spring, 2018 LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types Date: 13 February 2018 I. Exam I grades are posted on the class website (link at the bottom

More information

Imagine the first rock and the cycles that it has been through.

Imagine the first rock and the cycles that it has been through. A rock is a naturally formed, consolidated material usually composed of grains of one or more minerals The rock cycle shows how one type of rocky material gets transformed into another The Rock Cycle Representation

More information

Homework III. Volcanological Exercises

Homework III. Volcanological Exercises Page 1 of 5 EENS 3050 Tulane University Natural Disasters Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Homework III. Volcanological Exercises This page last updated on 16-Feb-2018 1. In your work as an insurance company executive

More information

NC Earth Science Essential Standards

NC Earth Science Essential Standards NC Earth Science Essential Standards EEn. 2.1 Explain how processes and forces affect the Lithosphere. EEn. 2.1.1 Explain how the rock cycle, plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes impact the Lithosphere.

More information

Volcano Unit Pre Assessment. Match the type of volcano to the correct picture by drawing a line to connect the two.

Volcano Unit Pre Assessment. Match the type of volcano to the correct picture by drawing a line to connect the two. Volcano Unit Pre Assessment Name Matching Match the type of volcano to the correct picture by drawing a line to connect the two. Composite Volcano Shield Volcano Cinder Cone Volcano Multiple Choice Select

More information

Errata for Earth Science: God s World, Our Home

Errata for Earth Science: God s World, Our Home Errata for Earth Science: God s World, Our Home Page 1 Updated December 21, 2017 Chapter 1, Learning Check 1.5 2. The answer key on the Resource CD repeats question 1 but gives the correct answer for question

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Quiz 2 ES 117 Natural Disasters Aronson Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The most famous of all volcanoes probably is

More information

VOLCANOES. Reading: Chapter 9 Pages Review Questions 1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12

VOLCANOES. Reading: Chapter 9 Pages Review Questions 1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12 VOLCANOES Reading: Chapter 9 Pages 249-267 Review Questions 1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12 Mt St Helens Before http://www.ncusd203.org/north/depts/science/slack/mt_helens.html Hawaii http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/north_america/hawaii/big_island.html

More information

Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis (why do we live here?) Tectonic plates. Tectonic plates: Juan de Fuca. Volcanism the past 37 million years

Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis (why do we live here?) Tectonic plates. Tectonic plates: Juan de Fuca. Volcanism the past 37 million years Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis (why do we live here?) Tectonic plates Tectonic plates: Juan de Fuca Volcanism the past 37 million years Tectonic plates: Juan de Fuca Volcanism the past 37 million

More information

IGNEOUS ROCKS AND IGNEOUS ACTIVITY

IGNEOUS ROCKS AND IGNEOUS ACTIVITY DATE DUE: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 300 Name: Section: IGNEOUS ROCKS AND IGNEOUS ACTIVITY Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC vocabulary where

More information

Chapter 7. Natural Disasters. Volcano Case Histories: Killer Events. Tenth Edition 7-1

Chapter 7. Natural Disasters. Volcano Case Histories: Killer Events. Tenth Edition 7-1 Natural Disasters Tenth Edition Chapter 7 Volcano Case Histories: Killer Events Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 7-1 Volcanism at Spreading Centers:

More information

Week: Dates: 10/19 10/30 Unit: Volcanos

Week: Dates: 10/19 10/30 Unit: Volcanos clementaged.weebly.com Name: ODD Period: Week: 10 11 Dates: 10/19 10/30 Unit: Volcanos Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 19 E 20 O *Vocabulary *Frayer Vocab *Volcano Notes *Bill Nye Notes 21 E 22

More information

Earth Structures and Processes Teacher Notes

Earth Structures and Processes Teacher Notes Aleutian Islands String of islands resulting from volcanic activity Part of the Pacific Ring of Fire Coast is very jagged and rocky with steep cliffs and mountains Underwater eruptions form new landforms

More information

5. If you plot the location of volcanoes and earthquakes on a world map what do you see?

5. If you plot the location of volcanoes and earthquakes on a world map what do you see? Packet #9 Volcanic Eruptions Name per Reading Guide: Chapter 13.1 (Read & study pages 319-325) 3a Students will know the properties of the 3 types of volcanoes 1. Define Magma: 2. What is volcanism? 3.

More information

Volcanic Eruptions and Hydrovolcanism

Volcanic Eruptions and Hydrovolcanism Find the Face Volcanic Eruptions and Hydrovolcanism Ocean Ridges Continental Rifts Subduction Zones: Continental Oceanic Back Arc Basins Hot Spots Plumes Cinder Cones Composite Volcanoes Shield VolcanoesCinder

More information

Layers of the Earth Date: SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics

Layers of the Earth Date: SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics Layers of the Earth SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics CRUST Composition: Thickness: State of Matter: : Mostly Basalt : Mostly Granite : Crust and Upper Mantle

More information

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By Brett Lucas

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By Brett Lucas PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY By Brett Lucas INTERNAL PROCESSES Internal Processes The Impact of Internal Processes on the Landscape From Rigid Earth to Plate Tectonics Plate Tectonics Vulcanism Diastrophism Folding

More information

Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes

Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Learning objectives Understand and be able to predict where and why magma will be forming at different tectonic settings Understand the factors controlling magma

More information

Volcano Types This Enrichment4You E-guide provides a brief overview of the different types of volcanoes. In this e-guide you will:

Volcano Types This Enrichment4You E-guide provides a brief overview of the different types of volcanoes. In this e-guide you will: Volcano Types This Enrichment4You E-guide provides a brief overview of the different types of volcanoes. In this e-guide you will: *Learn Basic Facts About *Make a Reusable Erupting Volcano ENRICHMENT4YOU

More information

S3 IHE GE 2014/Chan ML

S3 IHE GE 2014/Chan ML S3 IHE GE 2014/Chan ML Formation Types Advantages and Disadvantages of living near/in volcanic areas Introduction Volcano, mountain or hill formed by the accumulation of materials erupted through one or

More information

Augustine Volcano, Calculating Ash Fallout

Augustine Volcano, Calculating Ash Fallout Augustine Volcano, 1986 - Calculating Fallout -What controls the fallout of particles through the atmosphere? -Can we predict when and where an erupted ash cloud will fall out on the Earth? Summit: 1260

More information

Table of Contents. Sample file

Table of Contents. Sample file Table of Contents Lesson 1 How to use this book...1 Introduction...2 Quiz 1 Pretest...4 Looking at Igneous Rocks...5 Lesson 2 Where Igneous Rocks Form...10 Quiz 2...13 Picturing Your Rocks...14 Lesson

More information

Earthquakes & Volcanoes

Earthquakes & Volcanoes Earthquakes & Volcanoes Geology - the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change geo = Earth; ology = study of Earth s Layers Plate Tectonics - the

More information

height <100 m (< 0.1 km) m (0.1 1 km) Colima, 1991; Galeras, 1992 Strombolian/ Vulcanian/ Plinian/ Ultra-Plinian

height <100 m (< 0.1 km) m (0.1 1 km) Colima, 1991; Galeras, 1992 Strombolian/ Vulcanian/ Plinian/ Ultra-Plinian Geology 101 Name(s): Lab 5: Volcanic hazards and sediment The Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI) was developed by volcanogists Chris Newhall and Steve Self in 1982 to gauge the explosiveness of a particular

More information

Hazards in the Seattle Area. Disaster Questions. Where Were You? Where Were You? Volcanoes St. Helens Adams, Rainier, Glacier, Baker

Hazards in the Seattle Area. Disaster Questions. Where Were You? Where Were You? Volcanoes St. Helens Adams, Rainier, Glacier, Baker Hazards in the Seattle Area Volcanoes St. Helens Adams, Rainier, Glacier, Baker Earthquakes Outer coast Puget Sound (Seattle Fault & others) Tsunami Outer coast Puget Sound (Seattle Fault & others) Disaster

More information

Volcanoes. Lesson 4. What are Volcanoes?

Volcanoes. Lesson 4. What are Volcanoes? Chapter 2 OUR DYNAMIC PLANET 4 Lesson 4 Volcanoes Main Idea: Volcanoes and related features are located along plate boundaries where magma and other materials reach the surface Next Generation Science

More information

Chapter: Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Chapter: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Table of Contents Chapter: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 1: Earthquakes Section 2: Volcanoes Section 3: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics 1 Earthquakes What causes earthquakes? Elastic Rebound

More information

Name: Answer Key Date: Period:

Name: Answer Key Date: Period: Name: Answer Key Date: Period: Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide Ch 1: Mapping 1. On the global grid, the equator is at 0 degrees. Is the equator a line of longitude or latitude? Latitude 2. What type

More information

Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers

Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers Weathering and Erosion 1. What is the difference between weathering and erosion? Weathering is the breakdown of earth materials and erosion is the movement of earth

More information

What is plate tectonics?

What is plate tectonics? What is plate tectonics? The Earth is made up of four layers: inner core, outer core, mantle and crust (the outermost layer where we are!). The Earth s crust is made up of oceanic crust and continental

More information